Introduction of Rosemary:Polar plant or Compass weed.
✵The article gives records of the herb Rosemary, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Rosmarinus officinalis L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Rosemary, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Rosemary.
Latin Name: Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Common Names: Rosemarine, Polar plant, Compass weed, Compass plant
Property and flavor: the herb has a refreshing aroma, it tastes pungent hot and slightly bitter.
Brief introduction: Rosemary is a precious natural spice plant. It emits a fragrant smell during the growing season, which has a refreshing effect. Its stems, leaves, and flowers have a pleasant fragrance, and the aromatic oils from flowers and twigs can be used to formulate cosmetic raw materials such as air cleaners, perfumes, soaps, beverages, skin care oils, pilatory, and laundry creams.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Rosemary as the leaves of the species (1).Rosmarinus officinalis L. It is a plant species of the Rosmarinus genus, the Lamiaceae family (Labiatae, mint family). The leaves are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Botanical description: Rosmarinus officinalis is a shrub, it grows up to 2 meters tall. Stems and old branches are cylindrical, the cortex is dark gray, irregular longitudinally fissured, exfoliating massively, and young branches are quadrangular, densely covered with white stellate fine hairs. Leaves are often clustered on branches, with extremely short stalks or sessile, the blade is linear, 1~2.5 cm long, 1~2 mm wide, the apex is blunt, the base is tapering, entire-edge, curly to the back, leathery, the upper surface is slightly glossy, subglabrous, the back surface is densely covered with white star-shaped hairs.
Flowers are nearly sessile, opposite, a few gathered at the top of short branches to form racemes; bracts are small, stalked. The calyx is ovate-bell-shaped, about 4 mm long, the outer surface is densely covered with white stellate villi and glands, the inner surface is glabrous, 11-veined, two-lipped, the upper lip is nearly rounded, entire-edge, or with very short 3-tooth, the lower lip has 2 teeth, teeth are oval-triangular. Corolla is blue-purple, less than 1 cm long, sparsely pubescent on the outside, glabrous on the inside, slightly protruding crown tube, two-lipped crown, the upper lip is straight, 2-lobed, oval lobes, the lower lip is wide, 3-lobed, the middle lobe is the largest, concave, downslope, the edge is toothed, the base is constricted into a stalk, and the lateral lobes are oblong. The stamens are developed in two, inserted below the lower lip of the corolla, with a downward denticle in the middle of the filament, the chambers are parallel, and only one chamber is fertile. Style is slender, much longer than stamens, apex is unequally 2-lobed, lobes are subulate, posterior lobes are short. The disk is flat-topped, with equal lobes. Ovary lobes alternate with disc lobes. Flowering in November.
Ecological environment: Rosmarinus officinalis is native to Europe and the Mediterranean coast of north Africa, it is mainly cultivated as an economic crop in Southern Europe. The plant has been introduced to many other regions of the world.
Growth characteristics: Rosmarinus officinalis prefers a warm climate but grows slowly in the flat land in Taiwan during high-temperature periods, the temperature without cold currents in winter is more suitable for its growth. In terms of water supply, as the leaves of rosemary are leathery and more resistant to drought, planted in sandy soil with good drainage is more conducive to growth and development. It is worth noting that rosemary grows slowly, so its regeneration ability is not strong.
History story of Rosemary: In history, rosemary held a special position among herbs for the symbolism connected with it. Rosmarinus has a meaning of "dew of the sea", which reason is that the plant grew around the Mediterranean, and at the epoch of ancient Rome it was associated with Venus (ancient Italian goddess associated with cultivated fields and gardens and later identified by the Romans with the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite.), the goddess of love who emerged from the sea, because of the legend it became a symbol of fidelity in love. Rosemary was used at both weddings and funerals, for decking churches and banqueting halls at festivals, as incense in religious ceremonies, and magic spells; The name Rosemary might be related to Christians, Christians called Rosemary the "Holy Herb" and associated it with Mary (also called St. Mary or the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus), according to legend, Mary draped her cloak over a rosemary bush on the Holy Family's flight to Egypt, turning the color of the blossoms from white to blue, so according to some folk saying this is the source of the name, the "Rose of Mary".
Rosemary is a frequently used spice, especially in steaks, potatoes, and other dishes, as well as grilled products. Sweet and pine-like smell and flavor, rich aroma, sweet with bitterness. Italians will throw sprigs of rosemary into the graves of the deceased at funerals, representing admiration and remembrance for the deceased. In Victorian England, the flower language of rosemary has the meaning of commemoration, symbolizing long-term love, loyal friendship, and eternal remembrance.
Characters of herbs: Rosemary leaves are the fresh or dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis collected after flowering, as well as their preparations. The leaves are harvested after flowering on sunny, warm days and then dried.
Pharmacological actions: ①.antimicrobial and antiviral; ②.carminative; ③.spasm-reducing; ④.increase blood supply to the skin; ⑤.antioxidants; ⑥.antitumor; ⑦.liver protective.
Rosemary oil fights certain bacteria as well as fungi, explaining its reputation as an infection-fighter. But its antimicrobial and antiviral activity is mild.
Rosemary leaf volatile oil has some carminative properties, valuable for relieving gas in the stomach and intestines, calming indigestion, stimulating the appetite, and reducing bloating sensations.
Rosemary extracts show a spasm-reducing property in the small intestine and bile duct, and a stomach-soothing property.
Rosemary oil or ointment contains camphor, a skin irritant that increases blood supply to the skin, it is used in a bath to reduce pain in rheumatic muscles and joints. But normally it is used in external formulations for rheumatism of the muscles and joints, not used as an internal stimulant.
Rosemary has antioxidant activity, it can control the formation of free radicals in the body, free radicals damage cells through the oxidation process, and some may contribute to cancer cell formation. Its preparations are used as an alternative to food preservatives, it was ever used for centuries as a preservative to protect packaged foods from rotting. Its components protect tissue and cells against oxidative stress which is linked to disorders such as diabetes, aging, and coronary arteriosclerosis.
Rosemary extract was reported in related studies to significantly inhibit laboratory-induced mammary tumors in mice, related studies identified the herb has anti-mutagenic, and tumor-inhibiting effects.
From studies, rosemary was found with other properties, including choleretic, liver-protective, anticonvulsive, and spasmolytic effects.
Medicinal efficacy: The herb rosemary was used by Europeans as a flavoring and healing agent, to preserve meat centuries ago, used to ward off evil spirits, cure paralysis, and sharpen and preserve memory. As early as the first century, the Greek physician Dioscorides (Pedanius Dioscorides, Greek physician and pharmacologist,author of work De materia medica, a classical source of modern botanical terminology and the leading pharmacological text for 16 centuries.) recommended it for its "warming faculty." Today it is still recommended to stimulate the digestive, circulatory, and nervous systems. Rosemary and its oil are used for calming indigestion and stomach upset, relieving gas, promoting menstrual flow, externally encouraging hair growth, repelling insects, treating headaches including migraines, head colds, muscle pain, joint inflammation, bad breath, nervous tension, mental fatigue, depression, poorly healing wounds, eczema, cancers. Rosemary baths are popular in parts of Europe for relaxing the body as well as stimulating blood circulation to the skin.
Rosemary extracts are used in foods as flavorings and in cosmetics, the oil is a popular fragrance component in soaps, perfumes, and other commercial products. Rosemary baths of infusion or oil as tonics to improve chronic circulatory weakness such as low blood pressure, varicose veins, rheumatic pain, bruises, and sprains.
In Europe, rosemary is approved for blood pressure problems, dyspeptic complaints, loss of appetite, and rheumatism. The herb is used for gastrointestinal disorders in homeopathic applications.
TCM works recorded the herb rosemary functions to benefit the stomach, induce perspiration, soothe the nerves (calm the nerves, relieve uneasiness of mind and body tranquilization), and relieve pain. It is indicated for common syndromes various headaches (cephalea, encephalalgia), prevent early alopecia, etc.
Administration of Rosemary (Polar plant):
Administration Guide of Rosemary (Polar plant)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books:
Dosage: Internally recommended dosage is 4~6 grams. An infusion is prepared using 1 teaspoon of chopped leaves per cup of water, about 2 grams. Rosemary tea is prepared with 2 grams of finely cut herb, add boiling water, and strain after 15 minutes (1 teaspoon is approximately 2 grams of herb). The essential oil is used externally in combined preparations and also in aromatherapy. For a bath additive, an aqueous extract is made using 50 grams of leaves per liter of hot water and added to a full or hip-depth bath. TCM works recommended the herb internally use as water decoction, 4.5~9 grams. External: wash with water decoction. Rosemary should be protected from light and moisture for storage.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Rosemary is safe to use as a spice or kitchen herb. The oil does not usually cause irritation or allergic reactions when applied to the skin, but skin redness and dermatitis were reported in individuals whose skin is sensitive to it or allergic to camphor. The essential oil should not be ingested as it irritates the stomach and intestines and even causes kidney damage or triggers convulsions. Pregnant women better not take medicinal rosemary preparations because of potential adverse effects from the essential oil. But the herb has reportedly never been shown to induce abortion. Large quantities of rosemary leaves can cause serious side effects, vomiting, spasms, coma, and pulmonary edema.
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1.Introduction of Rosemary:Polar plant or Compass weed.