Introduction of Rose Hip:Dog-berry and its botanical sources.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Rose Hip, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source three plant species, ①.Rosa canina L., ②.Rosa gallica L., ③.Rosa rugosa Thunb., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Rose Hip, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rose Hip(Dog-berry).

red rose hip fruits grow on branches of Rosa canina English Name: Rose Hip.
 Latin Name: Rosa canina L.,Rosa gallica L., Rosa rugosa Thunb.,Rosa villosa L., and other Rosa species.
 Common Names: Brier Hip, Brier Rose, Dog-berry, Eglantine Gall, Hipberries, Hogseed, Rose Hip, Sweet Brier, Sweet Briar, Wild Brier, Witches' Brier.
 Property and flavor: cool in nature, bitter and puckery.

 Brief introduction: Rosebush is native to Europe and Asia, it is extensively cultivated around the world, and the plant has graceful, fragrant flowers. Rose hip is a marble-sized, brilliantly red fruit that forms on the prickly branch after the petals of the blossom fall away. The major commercial source of the rose hip is Rosa canina or dog rose.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Rose Hip as the fruit of the species (1). Rosa canina L., and several other species, such as (2). Rosa gallica L., (3). Rosa rugosa Thunb. They are plant species of the Rose L genus, the Rosaceae family (rose family). The dried fruit is used medicinally. These commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Rosa canina L.


 flowering plant of Rosa canina Botanical description: Rosa canina is also known as Dog Rose, its synonym is Rosa canina var. myrtilloides. The plant is a perennial shrub, it grows up to about 1~3 meters high, with hanging branches and upright root shoots that are covered in tough, sickle-shaped prickles that are appressed below. The leaves are pinnatifid, and have 5~7 leaflets. They are markedly petiolate, obovate, smooth-margined, glabrous, glossy, dark green above, lighter, and simple-serrate beneath.

 The flowers are usually solitary or in clusters of 2~3, pink, the receptacle deepens to form a cup, the upper edge of which house the 5 pinnatifid sepals, 5 petals, and numerous stamens. There are long white silky hairs in the receptacles and numerous ovaries, the ovaries grow into stiff-haired nuts surrounded by the receptacle and become the scarlet rosehip.

 Ecological environment: Rosa canina grows in Europe and North Africa and is extensively cultivated.

(2).Rosa gallica L.


 flowering shrub of Rosa gallica with pink flowers grow in a cluster Botanical description: Rosa gallica is the common latin name of Rosa × gallica L. It is also known as Rosa rubra or French Rose. Rosa gallica is an upright shrub, it grows up to about 1.5 meters high; branchlets usually have thorns of varying sizes and mixed bristles; leaflets 3~5; leaflets are coriaceous, ovate, or broadly elliptic, 2~6 cm long, the apex is rounded blunt or short tapering, the base is rounded or nearly cordate, with double serrations, rarely single serrations, tooth tips are often glandular, dark green on the upper surface, folded, light green at the back surface, pubescent; petioles and rachis have prickly and glandular hairs; stipules mostly adnate to petioles, the free part is ovate, margins with glandular hairs.

 Flowers are solitary, sparsely 3~4, without bracts; pedicels are upright and stout, glandular-hairy; flowers are 4~7 cm in diameter; flower tube and sepal outside have glands, sepal often with many lobes; petals are pink or dark red. Fruit is subsphaeroidal (torulose) or pear-shaped, bright red, sepals shed.

 flowering plant of Rosa gallica with pink flowers grow in field Ecological environment: Rosa gallica is native to central to Southern Europe, east to West Asia, Turkey, and the Caucasus. It is cultivated all over China. The cultivation of the French rose has a long history and there are many horticultural varieties. There are varieties of double and semi-double valves. The plant likes to grow in the bushes on roadsides, fields, or hills and can endure the winter in the open field in an environment with the lowest temperature of -25 °C (Celsius, or -13 degrees Fahrenheit).

 French rose is generally used as a flower sauce, it was also used in ancient Europe to exorcise evil spirits. There are only a few species of the Rosa genus that can really be said to be gorgeous. The species of deep color are Rosa gallica and Rosa rugosa. The Rosa gallica or red rose has a high status in European literature and is often associated with myths and legends. It is also the family emblem of the Lancaster family in the War of the Red and White Roses.

(3).Rosa rugosa Thunb.


 flowering plant of Rosa rugosa with pink flowers grow in yard Botanical description: Rosa rugosa Thunb is the latin name of rugosa rose, its synonym is Rosa ferox. Rosa rugosa is a shrub, it grows up to 2 meters; stems are stout, clumps or grow in a cluster; branchlets are densely piliferous, glandular hairs, with prickles, prickles are straight and curved, pale yellow, tomentose; leaflets 5 cm, with petioles 5~13 cm long, oval or elliptic-obovate, 15~45 cm long, with sharp pot teeth, glabrous on the upper surface, veins are sagging, with folds, densely tomentose and glandular hairs: petioles and rachis are densely tomentose and glandular hairs, stipules are mostly adnate to petioles, the free part is ovate, with glandular serrations, the back surface is tomentose;

 Flowers are solitary in leaf axils or in clusters, 4~5 cm in diameter; bracts are ovate, with glandular hairs on the edges, outer is tomentose; pedicels are 5~25 cm long, densely tomentose and glandular hairs: sepals are ovate-lanceolate, often pinnately lobed into leaf-like, the upper surface is sparsely pubescent, the back surface is densely pubescent and glandular; petals are purple or white, fragrant, semi-double to double, obovate; style is free, piliferous, slightly protruding out of calyx, shorter than stamens;

 Rose hips is oblate, 2~2.5 cm in diameter, brick red when ripe, pulpose, smooth, with persistent sepals; The flowering period of the plant is from May to June, fruiting from August to September;

 pink red flower and green flower buds of Rosa rugosa Ecological environment: It is native to North China and is cultivated all over the country.

 Flowers can be steamed to prepare aromatic oil. It is used for food and cosmetics. The petals can be used to make cake fillings, rosé wine, and rose syrup. Flower buds are used as a herb to treat liver, stomach gas pain, the fullness of chest and abdomen, and irregular menstruation; fruits are rich in vitamin C, glucose, fructose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, and carotene; seeds contain about 14% oil.

 Characters of herbs: The petals, the rose hips with and without seed, and the seeds are used. Dog rose shells are the ripe, fresh or dried, opened seed receptacle (whole or cut and freed from hairs) of Rosa canina, Rosa pendulina, rosa rugosa, Rosa moschata, and other Rosa species. The ripe receptacles are harvested by hand and dried in the air, sun, or in drying plants. The dry dog roses are broken up and the fruit and skins are separated by sieving.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.a natural vitamin C source; ②.mild laxative; ③.diuretic.

 Rose hips contain about 0.24~1.25 percent of vitamin, but the actual concentration of the vitamin varies widely, the good quality fresh rose hips contain about 1,250 mg of vitamin C per 100 grams. Other good natural vitamin C sources are, for example, citrus fruits contain about 50 mg, kiwi fruit and uncooked broccoli contain about 100 mg, Barbados cherry contains about 1,000~2,300 mg, and lemon juice is the best source of vitamin C.

 Except for vitamin C, rose hips contains malic acid and citric acid, which explains its traditional use as a mild laxative and diuretic.

 Medicinal efficacy: Rose hips was found to contain large amounts of vitamin C or ascorbic acid, it was used as a laxative, diuretic, and skin astringent and recommended for headache, mouth sores, and other ailments. It was added in natural vitamin supplements as a natural source of vitamin C, and was used to prevent and treat the common cold and flu, the herb also has other properties such as quenching, laxative, and diuretic. In folk medicine, rose hip fruits are used for disorders of the urinary tract and the kidneys, kidney stones, and rheumatic conditions such as rheumatism, gout, colds, scurvy, and febrile conditions. Rose hip shells are used for cold and flu, intestinal conditions, digestive complaints, vitamin C deficiency, gallstones, subacidic stomach, infectious diseases, edema, rheumatism and gout, bleeding, leukorrhea, etc.

 Administration of Rose Hip (Dog-berry): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rose Hip (Dog-berry)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: An infusion is prepared of a scant 3/4 teaspoon of dried, chopped hips per cup of water and is taken as needed. The tea is drunk cold for fever. A tea can also be prepared with 2 to 5 grams of herb to 1 cup of hot water, steeped for 10 to 15 minutes. The single dose is about 2 grams of the herb. The rose hips should be stored in a dry and dark place.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Rose hips has no risk of serious adverse reactions. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin and the body generally flushes out any excess amount, and high doses of vitamin C are hard to get from rose hips anyway. The dust from the hips can cause severe respiratory allergies in people repeatedly exposed to the fruits, such as production workers.

 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Rose Hip:Dog-berry and its botanical sources.

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