✵The article gives records of the herb Borneol, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Blumea balsamifera DC, and another usable plant species, ②.Cinnamomum camphora (L.) presl., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Borneol, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Pin Yin Name: Bīnɡ Piàn.
English Name: Borneol.
Latin Name: Borneolum.
Property and flavor: slightly cold, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The Herb Borneolum is a crystalline organic compound obtained synthetically or from Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f., used (1).as an aromatic stimulant for treating loss of consciousness and convulsion due to high fever, and (2).topically to clear heat and alleviate pain for treating pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, and stomatitis. The herb is commonly known as Borneolum, Borneol, Bīnɡ Piàn. The synthetically obtained borneolum is normally known as Borneolum Syntheticum, the borneolum obtained from Cinnamomum camphora is normally known as Natural Borneolum.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Borneolum(Borneol) as Borneolum Syntheticum or Blumea camphor. The Borneolum Syntheticum was synthesized from turpentine and camphor by chemical method. Blumea camphor is the crystallization of fresh leaves of the species (1). Blumea balsamifera DC, which is distilled and cooled by steam. It is a plant of the Blumea genus, the Asteraceae family of the Campanulales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Borneolum(Borneol) as the processed products from the resins of the species (2). Cinnamomum camphora (L.) presl. It is a plant of the Cinnamomum genus, the Lauraceae family of the Laurales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Blumea balsamifera DC.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Dà Fēng ài. Large herbs or shrubs annual or perennial, sometimes arboreal, densely yellow-white tomentose, up to 3 m, aromatic. Stem erect, lignified, much-branched, bluish-white. Leaves alternate, short or sessile. Leaf-blade elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 12~24 cm long, 4~10 cm wide, apex acute, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin irregularly serrate, often at base transverse spreading pinnate, above green pubescent, below densely silver-white tomentose. Flowering in April to May, capitate small, about 1 cm in diameter, arranged into a corymbose; Involucral bracts lanceolate, several rounds, imbricate, outer wheel short, inner wheel longer; Flower yellow, edge flower is female, majority, filamentous, tip has fine tooth; Bisexual flowers in the center, corolla tubular, margin 5-lobed; 5 stamens, protruding from tube orifice; Stigma 2-lobed, ovary inferior. Achene 10 arrowed, tomentose, apex with pale white-crested 1 whorl.
Ecological Environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild field. The plant often grows on the edge of the garden, roadside, or hillside bushes. It mainly distributes in the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: It prefers to tropical and subtropical climate, drought tolerance and not tolerant cold. The soil should be fertile and sunny; No matter clay loam, sandy loam or calcareous soil it can grow well.
Characters of herbs: The herb is a processed product of borneol resin. It is a semitransparent block, flake, or granular crystal, with a diameter of 1~7 mm and a thickness of about 1 mm, which is off-white to grayish brown. The fragrance is faint and cool, but it slowly melts when chewed. After sublimation, the crystals are rod-shaped or polygonal when observed under a microscope. There is no or slight black smoke when burning. The herb of better grade is a large and thin piece, white, the texture is loose and pure fragrance.
(2).Cinnamomum camphora (L.) presl.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Zhāng or Zhāng Shù. Large evergreen trees, up to 30 meters high, up to 3 meters in diameter, wide ovate crown; Camphor smell in branches, leaves, and wood; Bark yellowish-brown with irregular longitudinal cracks. Apex buds broadly ovate or orbicular, scales broadly ovate or suborbicular, outside slightly sericulate.
Branches cylindrical, pale brown, glabrous. Leaves alternate, elliptic oval, 6~12 cm long, 2.5~5.5 cm wide, apex acute, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, margin entire, RuanGuZhi, it is sometimes microwaved, the green or yellow-green, luster, yellow-green or under the sage green, dark, glabrous or slightly pilose on was slightly below, with from basal veins 3, sometimes the transition to the base doesn't have five veins, midrib on both sides, each side has an upper lateral veins (7) of article 1~5. There are a few branches on the side of basal lateral veins toward the leaf margin. There are obvious glandular fossae on the upper part of lateral veins and branch vein axils, and the fossae are often pilose. Petiole slender, 2~3 cm long, abaxially concave and convex, glabrous.
Flowers: panicles axillary, 3.5~7 cm long, pedicellate, total pedicels 2.5~4.5 cm long, glabrous with every order axis or whitish to russet puberulent, often especially at nodes when hairy. Flowers greenish-white or yellowish, ca. 3 mm long; Pedicels 1~2 mm long, glabrous. Perianth glabrous or puberulent, inner surface densely pubescent, perianth tube obconical, ca. 1 mm long, perianth lobes elliptic, ca. 2 mm long. 9 stamens fertile, ca. 2 mm, filaments pubescent. 3 stamens, located in the innermost wheel, arrowhead-shaped, ca. 1 mm long, pubescent. Ovary globose, ca. 1 mm long, glabrous, style ca. 1 mm long.
Fruit: fruit ovoid or subglobose, 6~8 mm in diameter, purplish-black; Fruit hypanthium, ca. 5 mm long, apex truncated, up to 4 mm wide, base ca. 1 mm wide, longitudinally furrowed.
Fruiting period: the plant is flowering from April to May, fruiting from August to November.
Ecological Environment: The plant often grows in mountain slopes or gullies. It likes slightly moisten the soil, rich humus black soil, or slightly acidic to neutral sandy loam. To reproduce naturally or by transplanting seeds. It mainly distributes in the south and southwest provinces of China. The plant is also introduced and cultivated in other countries.
Characters of herbs: The herb is a translucent block, flake, or granular crystal, 1~7 mm in diameter, about 1 mm in thickness, white to light grayish brown. The fragrance is faint and cool, but it slowly melts when chewed. After sublimation, the crystals are rod-shaped or polygonal when observed under a microscope. There is no or slight black smoke when burning.
Medicinal efficacy: Free all the orifice, open orifice and inducing resuscitation, detumescence and analgesic(reduce swelling and relieve pain), clear heat and analgesic, dissipate stagnated fire, eliminate nebula and improving eyesight. It is indicated for coma of pyrexia(unconsciousness of fever), convulsion, convulsive epilepsy and phlegm phlegmatic coma, apoplexia and phlegm syncope(coma due to blocking of the respiratory system), apoplexia and lockjaw, Qi depression and sudden syncope(obstruction of the circulation of vital energy), attacked by pestilent factors and coma, chest pain and heartache, red eyes, sores of the mouth, sore throat(swelling and pain in throat), pharyngitis(throat obstruction), purulent discharge of the ear canal, deafness with Qi stagnation, tympanitis(otitis media), carbuncle, hemorrhoids, nebula(slight corneal opacity), oxyuriasis(oxyuria, or enterobiasis), etc.
Administration of Borneolum(Bīnɡ Piàn):
Administration Guide of Borneolum(Bīnɡ Piàn)
①.Natural Borneolum: Internally:0.3~0.9 grams, prepare to pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, point application and stick at affected area; Borneolum Syntheticum:internally:0.15~0.3 grams, prepare to pill, powder. Externally: prepare to finely ground herb powder, point application and stick at the affected area;②.Internally:prepare to pill, powder,0.5~1 fen(about 0.15~0.3 grams). Externally: prepare to ground herb powder, sprinkle or apply stick.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Borneolum should be used cautiously during pregnancy, should avoid using in condition deficiency of Qi and blood. The herb Borneolum should not be prepared to drops in conditions dim eyesight and blurred vision due to deficiency of liver and kidney.
Aromatic Stimulants Herbs.
Introduction: Aromatic Stimulants Herbs:also known as aromatic orifice-opening herbs, an agent or substance, fragrant in flavor, with a resuscitating effect, used for emergency treatment of impairment or loss of consciousness, also known as stimulant or orifice-opening herbs.