Introduction of Bing Pian:Borneol or Borneolum.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Borneol, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., and another usable plant species, ②.Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Borneol, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.


several shrubs of Borneolum grow in arid field Pin Yin Name: Bīnɡ Piàn.
 English Name: Borneol.
 Latin Name: Borneolum.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Borneolum is a crystalline organic compound obtained synthetically or from Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f., used (1).as an aromatic stimulant for treating loss of consciousness and convulsion due to high fever, and (2).topically to clear heat and alleviate pain for treating pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, and stomatitis. The herb is commonly known as Borneolum, Borneol, Bīnɡ Piàn. The synthetically obtained borneolum is normally known as Borneolum Syntheticum, the borneolum obtained from Cinnamomum camphora is normally known as Natural Borneolum.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Borneolum (Borneol) as Borneolum Syntheticum or Blumea camphor. The Borneolum Syntheticum was synthesized from turpentine and camphor by chemical method. Blumea camphor is the crystallization of fresh leaves of the species (1). Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., which is distilled and cooled by steam. It is a plant of the Blumea genus, the Asteraceae family of the Campanulales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Borneolum (Borneol) as the processed products from the resins of the species (2). Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl.. It is a plant of the Cinnamomum genus, the Lauraceae family (laurel family) of the Laurales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Blumea balsamifera DC.

 a colorful drawing of Blumea balsamifera DC. flowering plant with yellow flowers Botanical description: The plant, Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC is also known as Conyza balsamifera L. or Pluchea balsamifera (L.) Less., is commonly known as Dà Fēng ài or ài Nà Xiāng. A perennial herb or semishrub, the plant grows up to 1~3 meter high, aromatic. The stem is upright, sout, lignified, and many-branched; the stem bark is taupe (dust color), has longitudinal ridges; the xylem is loose and soft, white, and has a pith part; the internode length is 2~6 cm long; and the internode is covered with tawny (yellow-brown) dense pubescence. Leaves are alternate, with short stipitate, or sessile. Leaves on the lower part are broadly elliptical or oblong-lanceolate, 22-25 cm long, 8-10 cm wide, the apex is mucronate or pointed, the base is attenuated, stipitate, both sides of petiole have 3~5 pairs of narrowly linear appendage, the margin is serrulate, the upper surface is pubescent, the under surface is covered with pale brown or yellowish-white dense silky woolly hairs; the mid-vein is raised on the under surface, lateral veins are in 10–15 pairs; Leaves on the upper part are oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 7-12 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is slightly pointed, sessile or shortly stipitate, both sides of petiole often have 1~3 pairs of narrowly linear appendage, entire or serrulate and pinnately lobed.

 Many capitula (flower heads) are arranged into explanate leaved large panicles; peduncles are covered with yellow dense pubescence; general involucre is campaniform (bell-shaped); involucral bracts are in about 6 layers; bracts on the outer layer are oblong; its back surface is densely covered with pubescence; bracts on the middle layer are linear; bracts on the inner layer are 4 times longer than the length of bracts on the out layer; receptacle is faviform (alveolate). Flowers are yellow; many female flowers, the limb of the corolla is 2-4 dentate lobed; the corolla limb of the hermaphroditic flower is 5 dentate lobed, pubescent.

 Achenes are cylindrical, have five ridges, and are densely pubescent; the pappus is reddish brown and strigous. Its flowering period is almost a whole year.

 shrub of Blumea balsamifera DC. grow in arid field Ecological Environment: The plant, Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC is cultivated or grows in the wild field. The plant often grows on the edge of the garden, forest edges, roadsides, grassland, valley land, or hillside bushes. It is mainly distributed in the Zhujiang River area, the southwest area, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers tropical and subtropical climates, has drought tolerance, and is not tolerant of coldness. The soil should be fertile and sunny; No matter if it is clay loam, sandy loam, or calcareous soil, the plant can grow well.

 flowering plant of Blumea balsamifera DC with small yellow flowers Characters of herbs: The herb is a processed product of borneol resin. It is a semitransparent block, flake, or granular crystal, with a diameter of 1~7 mm, and a thickness of about 1 mm, which is off-white to taupe brown (grayish brown). The fragrance is faint and cool, but it slowly melts when chewed. After sublimation, the crystals are rod-shaped or polygonal when observed under a microscope. There is no or slight black smoke when burning. The herb of a better grade is a large and thin flake, white; the texture is loose; and it has a pure fragrance.

(2).Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl.

 tree of Cinnamomum camphora L.presl. with dark green leaves Botanical description: The plant, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl is also known as Laurus camphora L., is commonly known as Zhāng or Zhāng Shù. Large evergreen trees, the tree grows up to 30 meters high, up to 3 meters in diameter, and has a wide ovate tree crown. The bark is sallow (grayish yellow-brown), and has irregular longitudinal cracks. Apical buds are broadly ovate or orbicular, scales are broadly ovate or suborbicular, outside is slightly sericulate.

 Branches, leaves, and wood all have a camphor smell. Branches are cylindrical, pale brown, and glabrous. Leaves are alternate; petioles are thin, 2~3 cm long, glabrous; leaf blades are thinly coriaceous, oval (egg-shaped) or ovate-elliptic, 6~12 cm long, 2.5~5.5 cm wide, the apex is sharp pointed, the base is broadly cuneate to orbicular, entire, sometimes margin is slightly undulate, the upper surface is green, glossy, the under surface is celadon (sage green or grayish green), slightly has white powder, both surfaces are glabrous, or the under surface is slightly puberulent (puberulose) when it is young leaf, triplicostate, the lateral veins and axillaris of branch vein on the leaf undersurface have conspicuous crypt, the upper surface of leaves is obviously protuberant, the crypt is usually pubescent inside.

 several trees of Cinnamomum camphora L.presl grow along roadside Flowers: panicles are axillary, 3.5–7 cm long, glabrous, sometimes nodes are white or brownish puberulent. Flowers are hermaphroditic, about 3 mm long, green-white or yellowish green; pedicels (flower stalks) are 1~2 mm long, glabrous; perianth tube is obconic (obconical), about 1 mm long, tapels (perianth lobes) are elliptic, about 2 mm long; the perianth is glabrous outside, or puberulose, inner surface is densely pubescent; 9 fertile stamens, about 2 mm long, filaments are pubescent; 3 staminodes, arrow-shaped, grow in the inner whorl, about 1 mm long, the stalk is pubescent; the ovary is globular (spheric shape), about 1 mm in diameter, glabrous, style is about 1 mm long.

 Fruits are subsphaeroidal (near-spherical) or ovoid, 6~8 mm in diameter, atropurpureus (purple-black); the fruit receptacle is cyathiform (cuplike), about 5 mm long, front end is truncated, up to 4 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from April to May, and the fruiting period is from August to November.

 green leaves and fruits of Cinnamomum camphora L.presl. Ecological Environment: The plant often grows on hillsides or mountain slopes, or in gullies and gulches, it is usually cultivated in plain areas and lower mountains. It likes slightly moist soil, humus-rich black soil, or slightly acidic to neutral sandy loam. To reproduce naturally or by transplanting seeds. It is mainly distributed in the southern and southwest areas of China. The plant is also introduced and cultivated in other countries.

 Growth characteristics: The plant likes warm and moist climates, and the young twigs of young trees and big trees are sensitive to low temperatures and frost. Its roots are deep, it has strong germination, plantlets need sufficient sunshine, and it grows quickly. The tree is not tolerant of barren soil but is tolerant of short waterflooding, and avoids waterlogging. Its suitable annual average temperature is 16–23 °C (Celsius, or 60.8–73.4 degrees Fahrenheit). It is appropriate to choose a field with deep soil layers, fertile, lower parts of hillsides or mountain slopes with good water and dampness conditions, a valley, or an alluvial area for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is a translucent block, flake, or granular crystal, 1~7 mm in diameter, about 1 mm in thickness, and white to pale taupe brown. The fragrance is faint and cool, but it slowly melts when chewed. After sublimation, the crystals are rod-shaped or polygonal when observed under a microscope. There is no smoke or a slight black smoke when it is burning.

 Medicinal efficacy: Free all the orifice, open orifice and inducing resuscitation, detumescence and analgesic (reduce swelling and relieve pain), clear heat and analgesic, dissipate stagnated fire, eliminate nebula and improving eyesight. It is indicated for coma of pyrexia (unconsciousness of fever), convulsion, convulsive epilepsy and phlegm phlegmatic coma, apoplexia and phlegm syncope (coma due to blocking of the respiratory system), apoplexia and lockjaw, Qi depression and sudden syncope (obstruction of the circulation of vital energy), attacked by pestilent factors and coma, chest pain and heartache, red eyes, sores of the mouth, sore throat (swelling and pain in throat), pharyngitis (throat obstruction), purulent discharge of the ear canal, deafness with Qi stagnation, tympanitis (otitis media), carbuncle, hemorrhoids, nebula (slight corneal opacity), oxyuriasis (oxyuria, or enterobiasis), etc.

 Administration of Borneolum (Bīnɡ Piàn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Borneolum (Bīnɡ Piàn)
TCM Books: ①.Natural Borneolum: Internally: 0.3~0.9 grams, prepare to pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, point application and stick at affected area; Borneolum Syntheticum:internally: 0.15~0.3 grams, prepare to pill, powder. Externally: prepare to finely ground herb powder, point application and stick at the affected area; ②.Internally:prepare to pill, powder, 0.5~1 fen (about 0.15~0.3 grams). Externally: prepare to ground herb powder, sprinkle or apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Borneolum should be used cautiously during pregnancy, should avoid using in condition deficiency of Qi and blood. The herb Borneolum should not be prepared to drops in conditions dim eyesight and blurred vision due to deficiency of liver and kidney.




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  • 1.Introduction of Bing Pian:Borneol or Borneolum.

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