Introduction of Wu Wei Zi:Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit or Fructus Schisandrae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., and another usable plant species, ②.Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Fructus Schisandrae(Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit).
Pin Yin Name: Wǔ Wèi Zǐ.
English Name: Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, Schisandra Berry, Schisandra Fruit, etc.
Latin Name: Fructus Schisandrae.
Property and flavor: warm nature, tastes sour, sweet.
Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Schisandrae is the dried ripe fruit of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill. Or Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils., used as an astringent for the treatment of dry cough, asthma, night sweats, seminal emission, and chronic diarrhea, also used as a tranquilizer for palpitation and insomnia. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Schisandrae, Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, Wǔ Wèi Zǐ.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Schisandra Berry(Wu Wei Zi) as the fruit of the Schisandraceae family plant species (1). Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.(Wu Wei Zi), or (2). Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. (Hua Zhong Wu Wei Zi). They are plant species of the Schisandra Michx genus, the Schisandraceae family of the Illiciales order. The latest official herbal classics(2020 Edition) defined the herb as the dried ripe berry from botanical source (1).Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.
Botanical description: The Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. is a plant of the Schisandraceae family and Schisandra genus, it is also known as "Wǔ Wèi Zǐ" (literally it means Five-Tastes Seeds), or "Běi Wǔ Wèi Zǐ" (literally means North Schisandra), or "North Schisandra", deciduous woody vine. Young branches are red-brown, old branches are gray-brown, slightly angular. Petiole is 2~4.5 cm long; leaves are alternate, membranous; leaf blade is obovate or ovate-elliptic, 5~10 cm long, 3~5 cm wide, apex is pointed or gradually decurrent, base is cuneate, margin is glandular-serrulate, smooth on top glabrous, pubescent below veins when young. Flowers are mostly unisexual, dioecious, dilute the same strain, flowers are solitary or clustered leaf axils, milky white or pink, 6~7 perianths; 5 stamens, anther polygamy at the top of the cylindrical receptacle, outer lateral is cracking; gynoecium ellipsoid, perennial carpel 17~40, after anthesis elongation to spike, long 3~10 cm. Small berries are spherical, red when mature. 1~2 Seeds, kidney-shaped, light brown shiny. Flowering from May to June, fruiting from August to September.
Ecological environment: The Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. grows in the area at an altitude of 1,500 meters above sea level, in sunny hillsides, forest edge, and creek shrubs, in sunnyside thickets and entwined with other plants, in mixed forests, forest margins, and streamside shrubs on sunny slopes at an altitude of below 1,500 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the north, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: The Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. is a deciduous woody vine, it prefers a cool and humid climate, cold resistance, not bear water immersion, need moderate shade, especially avoid hot sun exposure in the seedling period. Loose, fertile, rich in humus loam is appropriate for cultivation.
Characters of herbs: The dried berry is an irregular sphere or oblate sphere, 5~8 mm in diameter. The surface is red, purplish-red or dark red, shriveled, oily, and moist, and some surfaces are black red or appear "white frost". The pulp is soft, 1~2 seeds, the seed is kidney-shaped, the surface of the seed is brownish yellow and glossy, and the seed coat is thin and brittle. The pulp has a slight odor, it tastes sour; After the seeds are broken, it has a fragrant odor, spicy and slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has big grains, red, thick pulp, oily and glossy.
Pharmacological actions: The herb Fructus Schisandrae has the function of relieving cough and removing phlegm, adjusting blood pressure, regulating gastric juice secretion and promoting bile secretion, exciting the central nervous system, exciting the spinal cord, and improving the cerebral cortex. Other main effects of Fructus Schisandrae are: ①. Liver protection or hepatoprotective effect; ②. Cardiovascular system function; ③.good health care effect on the central nervous system; ④.Effects of the digestive system; ⑤. Respiratory system effect; ⑥. Immune system effect; ⑦. Anti-aging effect; ⑧. Anti-allergic effect, etc. ⑨. Besides, the herb Fructus schisandrae has strong anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, it can inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, and Bacillus typhi, and enhancing non-specific resistance in the body, and so on.
Medicinal efficacy: Constringency and inducing astringency, astringe the lung, benefiting Qi for promoting the production of fluid (supplementing Qi and promoting the production of body fluid), nourishing kidney, collecting perspiration, stopping seminal emission, tonifying the kidney and calming the heart, calm the heart and soothe the nerves (relieve uneasiness of mind and body tranquilization). It is indicated for chronic cough and dyspnea due to deficiency, cough and dyspnea of deficiency type, dyspnea with cough of lung deficiency, nocturnal emission (wet dream), night emission, anischuria (enuresis, bedwetting), unstoppable chronic diarrhea, protracted dysentery, spontaneous perspiration (spontaneous sweating), perspire during sleep (night sweeting), dry mouth and thirst, impairment of fluid and thirst, endogenous heat and wasting thirst (internal heat and consumptive thirst), internal lesion caused by overexertion and emaciation weak, palpitation and insomnia (paipitation, lose sleep), etc.
Administration of Fructus Schisandrae (Wǔ Wèi Zǐ):
Administration Guide of Fructus Schisandrae (Wǔ Wèi Zǐ)
①.Internally:2~6 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~2 qian (about 1.5~6 grams);or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: prepare to finely ground herb powder to mix, or wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~6 grams; prepare to finely ground herb powder, 1~3 grams each time; prepare an ointment; or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: prepare to finely ground herb powder to mix, or wash with water decoction.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Fructus Schisandrae should avoid using or forbidden in conditions onset of cough syndrome, onset of measles. The herb should not be combined with Solomon's seal.
(2).Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils.
Botanical description: The Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. is a plant of the Schisandraceae family and Schisandra genus, it is also known as "HuáZhōng Wǔ Wèi Zǐ" (literally it means Central-China Schisandra), or "Nán Wǔ Wèi Zǐ" (literally it means South Schisandra), or "South Schisandra", deciduous vine. Old branch is gray-brown, lenticel is obvious, branchlets are purplish red. Leaves are alternate, papery; petiole is 1~3 cm, reddish; leaf blade is obovate, broadly ovate or obovate-long oval, usually the widest at the middle of the leaf, 4~10 cm long, 3~6 cm wide, apex is short or tapering, base is cuneate or rounded, margin sparsely undulate sperm, the upper surface is green, the backsurface is light green, lateral veins are 4-6 pairs, reticulation more obvious. Flowers are unisexual, dioecious, orange-yellow, 1.2 cm in diameter, solitary or 1~3 tufted in leaf axils, pedicel is fine, 2~4 cm long, perianth is 5~8, arranged in 2~3 rounds; 10~19 stamens, grow on the obovoid receptacle, filaments are short, anther apex truncates; gynoecium subglobose, 30~50 carpels. Fruit sequence length is 3.5~10 cm, small berries are spherical, bright red after ripening. 2 seeds, kidney-shaped, about 3 mm, the seed coat in the spine has a few tumor-like points. It is flowering from April to June, fruiting from August to September.
Ecological environment: The Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. grows in areas at an altitude of 600~2,400 meters above sea level, in the jungle or brook edge. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, northwest, southwest, and other areas of China.
Characters of herbs: The dried fruit grain is smaller. The surface is brownish-red to dark brown, wizened and shriveled, and the pulp often clings to the seeds. The herb of better grade has big grains, red, thick pulp, oily and glossy.
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1.Introduction of Wu Wei Zi:Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit or Fructus Schisandrae.