Introduction of Long Yan:Longan Aril or Arillus Longan.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Longan Aril, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Dimocarpus longan Lour., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Longan Aril, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Arillus Longan(Longan Aril).

brownish dried fruit of Arillus Longan are piled together Pin Yin Name: Lónɡ Yǎn Ròu.
 English Name: Longan Aril.
 Latin Name: Arillus Longan.
 Property and flavor: warm in nature, tastes sweet.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Arillus Longan is the dried aril of dimocarpus longan Lour., used to nourish the blood and induce tranquilization for the treatment of palpitation, dizziness and insomnia. The herb is commonly known as Arillus Longan, Longan Aril, Lónɡ Yǎn Ròu.

 fruiting tree of Dimocarpus longan Lour with green leaves and many light brown fruits hanging on branches Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Arillus Longan (Longan Aril) as the dried aril of the plant species (1).dimocarpus longan Lour. It is a plant of the Dimocarpus genus, the Sapindaceae Juss family (soapberry family) of the Sapindales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Dimocarpus longan Lour.

 Botanical description: The tree, Dimocarpus longan Lour is also known as Euphoria longan (Lour.) Steud., commonly known as Lónɡ Yǎn. The fruit Longan is normally named GuiYuan, and is a subtropical luxury specialty, the history of the southern longan and northern Ginseng,. Longan fruit is rich in nutrients, loved by people since ancient times, but as a valuable tonic, its nourishing function is obvious.

 fruiting tree of Dimocarpus longan Lour with many small brownish fruits grow in a field An evergreen tree, usually grows up to about 10 meters tall, and has buttress roots, branchlets (twigs) are thickset (thick and strong), puberulent (puberulose), and pale lenticels scattered on the surface. Paripinnate compound leaves, alternate; leaves and petioles are 15-30 cm long, or longer; 4–5 pairs of lobules (leaflets), rarely 3 or 6 pairs, petiolule is usually not over 5 mm long; leaf blades are thinly coriaceous, oblong-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, both sides are often unsymmetrical, 6-15 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, apex is acuminate, sometimes tip is slightly blunt, the upper surface is dark green, glossy, the under surface is pink green, both surfaces are glabrous.

 Inflorescences are big type, many-branched, apical, and axillary and grow near to branch, densely covered with stellate hairs; pedicels are short; sepals (calyx lobes) are more or less coriaceous, triangular-ovate, about 2.5 mm long, both surfaces are covered with yellowish brown fluff and bundles of stellate hairs; 5 sepals and 5 flower petals, flower petals are cream white (milky white), lanceolate, nearly equal length as sepals, only the outside is puberulent; 8 stamens, filaments are covered with short hirsute.

 Fruits are subsphaeroidal, drupe fruit, indehiscent, 1.2-2.5 cm in diameter, usually tawny (yellow-brown) or sometimes sallow (grayish yellow), out surface is slightly coarse, or rarely has subconvex small tubercules; seeds are tea brown (dark brown), luminous, completely wrapped by pulpose aril. Its flowering period is from March to April, the fruiting period is from July to September.

 fruiting branche of Dimocarpus longan Lour with many brownish fruits hanging on branch grow in sunny field Longan fruit is a specialty of southern China, with a cultivation history of over 2,000 years. Fruit shape is spheric shape (globular), spherical shell with pulp. Pulp is white when fresh, full of water, and tastes as sweet as honey. Once dried it turns dark brown, and flexible, called longan.

 Dried longan is welcomed by consumers as a nutritional supplement, in various parts of China it has a big market. Longan fruit contains water, which is an indispensable condition for microbial growth and reproduction. In the absence of moisture conditions, microbial growth and reproduction are inhibited. Longan fruit contains 50% to 70% water but also contains nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, vitamins, etc., which is high quality natural microbial culture. Longan dry roasted, the use of thermal effects will reduce the moisture in the fruit to a certain level, so the concentration of soluble substances increased to the level of microbial difficult to use. The thermal effect of the dry longan reduces the moisture content, the enzyme activity is also inhibited.

 Dried longan particles' appearance is globular, and uniform in size, the shell is yellow, and the outer surface is slightly powdery. Shell is hard and crisp, friable pinching, and biting with teeth the kernel is fragile and there is a noise, thick, succulent, and brown spots are transparent, the pulp surface has a layer of fine wrinkles, and a circle of red stalk. The moisture content of pulp is 15 to 19%; dried longan in the south, but more for water to drink, or with jujube, lotus, and other soup.

 brownish fresh Logan fruits are piled together Ecological Environment: The tree prefers warm and humid. It is widely cultivated from the southwest to the southeast areas of China, most abundant in Taiwan, followed by Guangdong, south of Guangxi, and Yunnan, mostly planted on the river banks and gardens. In some area, the tree is wild or semi-wild and grows in open forest.

 Environment is critical to the production of longan, longan can grow only in limited space in the world, usually in subtropical, temperate climates without severe frost partial areas. Therefore, longan has always been known as a southern good fruit, but also for its medicinal either eaten fresh on the market demand.

 a longan aril and logan kernel Growth characteristics: Dimocarpus longan Lour. is a subtropical fruit tree, it prefers high temperatures and rich dampness, temperature is the main factor that affects its growth and fruiting. Generally, it can grow well in places where the average annual temperature exceeds 20 °C (Celsius, or 68 degrees Fahrenheit). It is resistant to drought, acid, and poor soil, avoids waterlogging, grows well in red soil hilly land, dry flat land, is easy to cultivate, long life, and could get a high yield.

 dried brownish longan aril are piled togetherCharacters of herbs: The aril is an irregular lumpy flaky piece, often sticked together and agglomerated (lumping), the length is 1~1.5 cm, the width is 1~3.5 cm, and the thickness is about 1 mm. Yellowish-brown to brown, translucent. The outer surface (the surface near to pericarp) is wizened and uneven; The inner surface (the surface stick to seed) is lustrous and has fine vertical wrinkles. The texture of the herb is soft and moistening, sticky (glutinous). The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes very sweet. The herb of a better grade has large and thick slices, yellow-brown, translucent, and a strong sweet taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on Microsporum Odouin in test tube; ②.sedative and stomach-strengthening effect; ③.inhibitory effect on Shigella dysenteriae (Bacillus dysenteriae).

 Medicinal efficacy: Invigorating heart and spleen, nourish Qi and blood, nourishing blood and calm the nerves (nourishing the blood and tranquilization). It is indicated for deficiency of Qi and blood, palpitate with fear, palpitate with fear due to deficiency of Qi and blood, palpitation and severe palpitation, insufficiency of heart and spleen (deficiency of both heart and spleen), consumptive disease and emaciation weakness, amnesia(poor memory), insomnia (lose sleep), blood deficiency and sallow complexion (deficiency of blood, looks yellowing), menoxenia (irregular menstruation), metrorrhagia and metrostaxis (uterine bleeding), etc.

 Administration of Arillus Longan (Lónɡ Yǎn Ròu): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Arillus Longan (Lónɡ Yǎn Ròu)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~5 qian (about 6~15 grams); prepare ointment, infusing in wine, or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams, big dosage could be 30~60 grams;prepare ointment, infusing in wine, or prepare to pill, powder.




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