Introduction of Shu Di Huang:Prepared Rehmannia Root or Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Prepared Rehmannia Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., ②.Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.f.hueichingensis Hsiao., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Prepared Rehmannia Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata(Prepared Rehmannia Root).

Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Shú Dì Huánɡ.
 English Name: Prepared Rehmannia Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata.
 Property and flavor: slightly warm in nature, tastes sweet.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata is the steamed and dried tuberous root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., used as (1).the main blood tonic for treating blood deficiency with pallor, dizziness, palpitation, menstrual disorders, and (2).an important kidney-Yin tonic for the treatment of chronic tidal fever, night sweats, lumbago, nocturnal emission, and diabetes. The herb is commonly known as Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata, Prepared Rehmannia Root, Prepared rhizome of Adhesive Rehmannia, Shú Dì Huánɡ.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:flowering plant Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Rehmanniae Radix(Di Huang) as the fresh or dry tuberous root of the Scrpophulariaceae family plant species (1). Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Other common herbal classics defined the herb Prepared Rehmannia Root(Shu Di Huang) as the rhizome of the Scrpophulariaceae family plant species (1). Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., or (2). Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao., defined the herb Rehmannia Root(Xian Di Huang) as a fresh tuberous root from the Scrpophulariaceae family (Scrophulariaceae Juss family) plant species (1). Rehmannia glutinosa(Gaertn.) Mey. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:flowering plant and tuberous root Botanical description: The Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., is a plant of the Scrpophulariaceae family (Scrophulariaceae Juss family) and Rehmannia genus, it is also known as Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) Libosch.ex Mey., or Digitalis glutinosa Gaertn., it is commonly known as Rehmannia glutinosa, Di Huang, or Dì Suǐ, etc. A perennial plant, the plant grows up to 10~40 cm high. The whole plant is densely covered with grayish-white pilose and glandular hairs. The root is hypertrophic, fleshy, tuberous, cylindrical, or fusiform (spindle-shaped). The stem is upright, with single or several branches growing at the base.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:flowering plants Basal leaves grow in a cluster, the leaf blade is obovate-lanceolate, 3~10 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, the apex is obtuse, the base is gradually narrowing, extending downward to a long petiole, the leaf surface is mostly wrinkled, leaf edge is irregularly serrated; cauline leaves are smaller.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:flowers The scape (flower stalk) is upright, and pilous, and the upper stem is raceme; the flower bract is leafy, developed or degraded; Calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), the apex is 5-lobed, lobes are triangular, covered with multicellular long soft hairs and while pilose, with 10 veins; corolla is wide tube-shape, slightly curved, 3~4 cm long, out surface is dark purple, the inner surface is mixed with yellow, with obvious purple striae, the apex is 5-lobed, slightly bilabiate; 4 stamens, didynamous, anther base is divaricated; the ovary is superior, oval (egg-shaped), 2-loculed, turns to 1-loculed after flowering, style 1, stigma is enlarged.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:flowering plants Capsularfruit is oval (egg-shaped) or ovate-oblong, the apex is pointed, with a persistent style, and out surface is wrapped by a persistent calyx. Many seeds. Its flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is from May to June.

 Ecological Environment: Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch is mainly cultivated, it also grows in the wild, on hillsides, roadsides, and wastelands, in areas at an altitude of 50~1,000 meters above sea level. The plant is mainly distributed in the north, the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, and the reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. It is planted throughout China.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:growing plant Growth characteristics: Rehmannia glutinosa prefers a warm climate, cold-resistant, cultivation is appropriate with sufficient sunlight, deep soil layers, and loose, fertile, neutral, or slightly alkaline sandy loam, it can also be planted in mixed soil or fertile clay. Avoid continuous cropping. It is advisable to choose gramineous crops as the preceding crop, and better not to choose land that has been planted with cotton, sesame, legume, melons, etc., otherwise, diseases will be serious.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:flowering plants The Rehmannia genus, belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family and has 6~8 species, distributed in eastern Asia, there are 6 species distributed in China, which grow in the northwest, southwest, central to the north, some are planted for garden viewing. Perennial herbs, with rhizomes. Globose and multicellular glandular hairs; leaves are alternate, obovate to oblong, coarsely toothed; flowers are large, short-stalked, grow in leaf axils or arranged in terminal racemes; Calyx is clochee, 5-lobed apically, lobes are unequal in length, usually, the longest rear one, entire or re-split; corolla is bilabiate, slightly curved, tube side is swollen, lobes are deflexed; 4 stamens, sometimes 5, but one is smaller and contained; the base of the ovary rests with a ring or shallow cup-shaped disk, 2-loculed, or 2-loculed when young, 1-loculed in old age, 2-lobed at the top of the style; ovules are numerous; capsularfruit is with lodgings, room cracking; seeds are small, with meshes.[updated]

 Rehmannia Root:wild rootPrepared Rehmannia Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is irregular block pieces and fragments, with different sizes and thicknesses. Both inside and outside are lacquered black, glossy, the surface is uneven and wrinkled. The texture of the herb is soft and flexible, not easy to break, sticky, the fracture surface is bright and moist, blackish and glossy, there are bright grease-like blocks in the center. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes sweet. The herb of better grade has a big tuber root, soft and moist, inside and outside are blackish and glossy.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.prompt marrow hematopoietic system, its blood tonic effect is related with the hematopoietic stem cell promotes the blood cell production; ②.regulate immunity; ③.anti-oxidation; ④.lowering blood pressure; ⑤.delaying aging effect; ⑥.inhibit hyperlipidemia caused by high-fat food, fatty liver and hepatic venous bleeding caused by endotoxin in rats; ⑦.hemostatic effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Nourishing blood and Yin, invigorate the essence and fill the marrow. It is indicated for blood deficiency and sallow complexion (deficiency of blood, looks yellowing), palpitation and severe palpitation, dizziness and palpitation, Yin deficiency of liver and kidney, Yin deficiency and blood insufficiency, soreness and weakness of waist and knees, flaccidity of waist and knees, kidney deficiency and dyspnea (dyspnea due to kidney deficiency), over-strained cough and osteopyrexia (consumptive cough, bone steaming), osteopyrexia and hectic fever (bone steaming and tidal fever or hot flash), endogenous heat and wasting thirst (internal heat and consumptive thirst), wasting thirst (consumptive thirst), frequent urination, constipation, hectic fever and night sweat, night sweat and spermatorrhea, nocturnal emission, spermatorrhea and impotentia (asynodia, sexual impotence, nocturnal emission), menoxenia (irregular menstruation), metrorrhagia and metrostaxis (uterine bleeding), infertility, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), epicophosis (deaf, deafness), dizziness, vertigo and dim eyesight, cloudy vision (blurred vision), premature graying hair, etc.

 Administration of Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata (Shú Dì Huánɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata (Shú Dì Huánɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.4~1 liang (about 12~30 grams);prepare to pill, powder, prepare ointment or infusing in wine; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams;prepare to pill, powder, prepare ointment or infusing in wine.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The herb Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata should not be prepared with ironware. The herb Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata should not be combined with Radish, Fistular Onion Stalk, Longstamen Onion Bulb, Leek Bulb.

(2).Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao.:growing plants in field Botanical description: The Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.f.hueichingensis Hsiao., is a plant of the Scrpophulariaceae family (Scrophulariaceae Juss family) and Rehmannia genus, also known as Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch f.huechingensis (Chao et Schih) Hsiao., it is commonly known as "Rehmannia glutinosa hueichingensis", or Huái Dì Huánɡ, its shrubs grow similarly or the same as the Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao.:fresh roots They are varietas of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., a perennial herb, the plant grows up to 25~40 cm high, and the whole plant is densely covered with gray villous hairs and glandular hairs. Rootstock is hypertrophic, lump, cylindrical or fusiform (spindle-shaped), 2.5~5 cm in diameter, single stem is upright, or a few branches grow from the base. Basal leaves are clustered, the leaf blade is obovate or oblong, the apex is obtuse, the base attenuates and extended to the petiole; the edge has irregularly blunt teeth, the leaf is wrinkled; the undersurface of some leaves is purple. Cauline leaves are not common. Inflorescences are sparsely racemose; terminal corolla is broadly tubular slightly curved, about 4 cm, purple-red or light-purple, sometimes 5-lobed, pale yellow, with distinct purple lines, 2-lipped; 4 stamens, didynamous, grow near the base of the corolla tube; 1 pistil, upper ovary. The pods are ovate or ovoid, wrapped by a persistent calyx, and many seeds. Its flowering period is from May to June.[updated]

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao.:fresh roots in field Ecological Environment: The Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.f.hueichingensis Hsiao is planted by farmers in the Huaiqing area of Henan province, China. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the Huaiqing area, Henan province of China. The Huaiqing area is an ancient name and it was known to cover the area of today's Jiaozuo city, Jiyuan city, Xinxiang city.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao.:fresh roots in field The history of planting and application of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.f.hueichingensis Hsiao. is over 3,000 years. The species Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.f.hueichingensis Hsiao., was wild and grow in the Taihang Mountains in ancient times. It was cultivated from the wild ever since the Zhou dynasty. It began to breed from seeds during years of the Wei and Jin of the Southern and Northern dynasties. As early as 1783 A.D., Xu Xide, the ancestor of the Rehmannia hybrid, grew a new hybrid through crossbreeding of wild species. A new breed, named Xu Xide, has been used until now. After the generation of purification and rejuvenation to form a new fine variety. For centuries, farmers have used the species Jin Zhuangyuan and Zo Heiying as parents used natural hybrids, seeds have been propagated, they have repeatedly selected roots and cultivated excellent varieties from the altered roots, forming 9 species of existing Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.f.hueichingensis Hsiao., and namely they are known as: Jin Zhuangyuan, Xing Geda, Zihei Ying, Bai Zhuangyuan, Si Cimao, Guo Heimao, Qian Cengye, Daqingye, et al. In the year 1985, the farmers at Jiaozuo area successfully transplanted the young crops and the reproduction has entered a new era.
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