Introduction of Di Huang:Rehmannia Root or Radix Rehmanniae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Rehmannia Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., ②.Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.f.hueichingensis Hsiao., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this two plant species, the features of the herb Rehmannia Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Rehmanniae(Rehmannia Root).

Rehmannia Root:herb photo. Pin Yin Name: Dì Huánɡ,Xiān Dì Huánɡ.
 English Name: Rehmannia Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Rehmanniae.
 Property and flavor: cold, sweet, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Rehmanniae is the fresh or dried tuberous root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch(family Scrophulariaceae), used to clear heat, cool blood, nourish Yin and promote fluid production for the treatment of febrile diseases at the nutrient and blood stages, bleeding due to blood heat, and thirst in cases of diabetes. The herb is commonly known as Radix Rehmanniae, Rehmannia Root, Dì Huánɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Rehmanniae(Rehmannia Root) is the fresh or dried tuberous root of (1). Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., or (2). Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao., they are plants of the Rehmannia genus, the Scrophulariaceae family of the Tubiflorae order.

 Rehmannia genus:rehmannia grows in wild field The Rehmannia genus, belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family and has 6-8 species, distributed in eastern Asia, there are 6 species distributed in China, grows in the northwest, southwest, central to the north, some are planted for garden viewing. Perennial herbs, with rhizomes. Globose and glandular hairs multicellular; leaves alternate, obovate to oblong, coarsely toothed; flowers large, short-stalked, born in leaf axils or arranged in terminal racemes; Calyx clochee, 5-lobed apically, lobes unequal in length, usually the longest rear one, entire or re-split; corolla 2-lipped, slightly curved, tube side swollen, lobes deflexed; 4 stamens, sometimes 5, But one is smaller and contained; the base of the ovary rests with a ring or shallow cup-shaped disk, 2 chambers, or 2 chambers when young, 1 chamber in old age, 2 shallow at the top of the style; ovules numerous; capsules with lodgings, Room cracking; seeds small, with mesh.

(1).Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., is a plant of the Scrpophulariaceae family and Rehmannia genus, it is commonly known as "Rehmannia glutinosa", or "Di Huang", perennial plant, height 10~30 cm, densely gray-white multicellular villous and glandular hairs. The rhizome meat is hypertrophic, fresh yellow, under the cultivation conditions, the diameter of up to 5.5 cm, purple stem. The leaves usually integrate into a rosette at the base of the stem, narrowing strongly upwards into bracts, or gradually narrowing to alternate at stems; leaves ovate to oblong, green above, purplish or purple below, long 2~13 cm, width 1~6 cm, margins irregularly crenate or bluntly serrate to teeth; base gradually narrowed into stalks, veins indented above, bulges underneath. The flowers have a 0.5~3 cm pedicel, the stems are thin, curved and then ascending, arranged slightly in racemes at the top of the stem, or almost entirely solitary and scattered on the stem; calyx campanulate, 1~1.5 cm. Closely covered with multicellular villous and white long hairs, with 10 uplifted veins; 5 carious teeth, oblate-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate or ± triangular, 0.5~0.6 cm long, 0.2~0.3 cm wide, two in front of the dilute and each cracking again, the total number of caries is as many as seven; the corolla is 3~4.5 cm long; the corolla is tubular and curved, and the outside is purple-red (there is another variant, the flower is yellow, the back of the foliage is Green) is multicellular villous; corolla lobes, 5, apex obtuse or dimpled, inside yellow-purple, purple outside, both sides are multicellular villous, length 5~7 mm, width 4 mm; 4 stamens; the capsule is oblong, 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, and the base is divergent, so that the two medicine chambers are often in a straight line. The ovary is 2 years old when young. Hairless; the top of the style expands into 2 sheet stigmas. Capsules fruit shape ovate to long ovate, 1~1.5 cm long. The flowering and fruiting period is from April to July.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.:flowering plant Growth characteristics: The Rehmannia glutinosa prefers a warm climate, cold-resistant, cultivation is appropriate with sufficient sunlight, deep soil, loose, fertile neutral or slightly alkaline sandy loam, it can also be planted in mixed soil, fertile clay. Avoid continuous cropping. It is advisable to select gramineous crops before planting, and not to select land that has been planted with cotton, sesame, beans, melons, etc., otherwise, diseases will be serious.

 Rehmannia Root:herb photo. Characters of herbs: Fresh Rehmannia Root: spindle-shaped or strip-shaped, 8 ~ 24 cm long and 2 ~ 9 cm in diameter. The cortex is thin, the surface is light red and yellow, with curved longitudinal wrinkles, bud marks, transverse lenticels and irregular scars. The herb is fleshy, easy to break, the cortex of the fracture surface is light yellowish white, orange oil spots can be seen, the wood is yellowish white, and the vessels are arranged radially. The herb has a slight smell, it tastes slightly sweet and slightly bitter.

 Dried Rehmannia Root: Most of them are irregular lumps or oblong, the middle part is enlarged, the two ends are slightly thin, some are small, long, slightly flat and twisted, with a length of 6 ~ 12 cm and a diameter of 3 ~ 6 cm. The surface is brownish black or brownish gray, extremely shriveled, with irregular transverse curved lines. The herb is heavy, the texture of the herb is soft and tough, not easy to break, the fracture surface is brownish black or corvinus, shiny and sticky. The herb is odorless, it tastes slightly sweet.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.counteract the decrease of plasma corticosterone concentration after continuous dexamethasone administration; ②.antihypertensive effect on acute experimental hypertension; ③.increase the number of T lymphocytes; ④.anti-inflammatory; ⑤.sedative; ⑥.diuretic; ⑦.hypoglycemia; ⑧.liver protection; ⑨.Ethanol extract can also shorten the clotting time.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and cool blood, promote the secretion of saliva or body fluid and moistening dryness, indicated for acute fever, impairment of fluid and polydipsia, high fever and faintness, dizziness due to high heat, vomiting blood due to blood heat, hemafecia, epistaxis(bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), sores of mouth and tongue, sore throat, consumptive fever and cough, macula, traumatic injury, carbuncle swelling.

 Administration of Radix Rehmanniae(Dì Huánɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Rehmanniae(Dì Huánɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:fresh rehmannia root,12~30 grams, dry rehmannia root,9~15 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 0.4~1 liang(about 12~30 grams), extract juice or prepare to paste. Externally:mashed and apply stick;③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams, extract juice or prepare to paste. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick, or extract juice and smear.

(2).Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao.

 Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao.:growing plants in field Botanical description: The Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.f.hueichingensis Hsiao., is a plant of the Scrpophulariaceae family and Rehmannia genus, it is commonly known as "Rehmannia glutinosa hueichingensis", or "Huai Di Huang", its shrubs grows similarly or the same as the Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Actually, they are varietas of the Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., perennial, plant height 25~40 cm, the whole plant densely gray villous and glandular hairs. Rootstock hypertrophy, blocky, cylindrical or spindle-shaped, 2.5~5 cm in diameter, single stem erected or a few branches from the base. Basal leaves clustered, leaf blade obovate or oblong, apex obtuse, base attenuates and prolonged growth petiole; edge irregularly blunt teeth, the page wrinkled; some leaves below the purple. Stem leaves are not common. Inflorescences sparsely inflorescences racemose; terminal corolla broadly tubular slightly curved, ca. 4 cm, purple-red or light-purple, sometimes 5-lobed, pale yellow, with distinct purple lines, 2-lipped; 4 stamens, 2 Strong, born near the base of the corolla tube; 1 pistil, upper ovary. The pods are ovate or ovoid, wrapped by persistent calyx, and the seeds are mostly. Its flowering period is from May to June.
Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood.

 Introduction:Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood: an agent or substance herbs that has the effect of eliminating pathological heat from the nutrient and blood systems in cases of warm diseases marked by fever accompanied by delirium, eruptions and bleeding symptoms, and also in other diseases with bleeding due to heat in the blood.
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