Introduction of Xuan Shen:Figwort Root or Radix Scrophulariae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction:Herbs Clearing Heat and Cooling the Blood: an agent or substance herbs that has the effect of eliminating pathological heat from the nutrient and blood systems in cases of warm diseases marked by fever accompanied by delirium, eruptions and bleeding symptoms, and also in other diseases with bleeding due to heat in the blood.

 
Radix Scrophulariae(Figwort Root).

Figwort Root:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Xuán Shēn.
 English Name: Figwort Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Scrophulariae.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, sweet, bitter, salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Scrophulariae is the dried root of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.(family Scrophulariaceae), used to clear heat, cool the blood, replenish Yin and counteract toxins for the treatment of warm diseases at the nutrient level with high fever and delirium or skin eruption, also for treating inflammation of the throat, boils and sores. The herb is commonly known as Radix Scrophulariae, Figwort Root, Xuán Shēn.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Scrophulariae(Figwort Root) is the dried root of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl., or Scrophularia buergeriana Miq., they are plants of the Scrophularia genus, the Scrophulariaceae(figwort family) family of the Tubiflorae order.

(1).Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.


 Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.:growing plant Botanical description: The Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl., is a plant of the Scrophulariaceae(figwort family) family and Scrophularia genus, it is commonly known as "Scrophularia ningpoensis", or "Scrophularia", or "Xuan Shen", or "Ningpo figwort", or "Chinese figwort", perennial herb, high 60~120 cm. Root hypertrophy, nearly cylindrical, often branched lower, grayish yellow or gray-brown skin. Stems erect, 4-angled, grooved, smooth or glandular-like pilose. Lower leaves opposite, upper leaves sometimes alternate, each with stipitate; leaf blade ovate or ovate-elliptic, 7~20 cm long, 3.5~12 cm wide, apex acuminate, base rounded to form nearly truncated, margin serrulate, absent Hair on the back of the hairy hair.

 Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.:growing shrubs Characters of herbs: Cymes evacuation-shaped, conical; pedicels 1~3 cm long, inflorescence axis and pedicel glandular hairs; indica 5-lobate, lobes ovoid, apex obtuse, margin membranous; corolla dark purple, tube oblique pot, about 8 mm, apex 5-cleft, not equal; 4 stamens, 2nd, and a staminode, scaly, adnate to the corolla tube; ovary about 8 mm, dark green or dark green, persistent. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from August to September.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a mild and humid climate, resistant to cold, drought, afraid of waterlogging. The stems and leaves can withstand light frost. With strong adaptability, it can be cultivated in the plain, hill, and low mountain slope, without strict requirements on soil, but it is advisable to cultivate in sandy loam with deep, loose, fertile and well-drained soil. Avoid continuous cropping. It can be rotated with gramineous plants.

 Figwort Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is cylindrical, slightly thick in the middle or thick on the bottom fine, some slightly curved, the length is 6~20 cm, the diameter is 1~3 cm. The surface is grayish-yellow or grayish brown, with irregular longitudinal furrows, transverse lenticels, and sparse transverse cracks, and fibrous root marks. The quality and texture are solid, not easy to break, the fracture surface is black, slightly shiny. Smells specific like caramel, sweet taste, slightly bitter.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, Typhoid bacillus, and other bacteria; ②.lower the blood pressure; ③.slightly reduce blood sugar; ④.obviously increase coronary blood flow.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and cool blood, nourish Yin and eliminate internal heat, detoxify and dissipate stagnation. It is indicated for febrile heat and warm heat entering into Ying blood, body heat or fever, polydipsia(excessive thirst), dark red tongue, macula, bone steaming(hectic fever due to yin deficiency) and over-strained cough; dysphoria and insomnia(vexation or irritable, restlessness, could not sleep), impairment of body fluid and constipation, dry eyes and dim sighted, swelling and pain in the throat, scrofula and subcutaneous nodule, carbuncle ulcer and sores poison.

 Administration of Radix Scrophulariae(Xuán Shēn): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Scrophulariae(Xuán Shēn)
TCM Books: Internally:9~15 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:mashed and apply or grinded into powder and apply(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 9~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount, mashed apply or grinded into fine powder and apply stick(CHMM).
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Radix Scrophulariae should not be combined with black false hellebore.

(2).Scrophularia buergeriana Miq.


 Scrophularia buergeriana Miq.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. var. buergeriana., is a plant of the Scrophulariaceae(figwort family) family and Scrophularia genus, it is commonly known as "Scrophularia buergeriana Miq", or "Northern Scrophularia", or "Bei Xuan Shen", Tall herb, up to 1.5 meters high, has a short underground stem, nodular root nodules, spindle-shaped swollen roots. Stems 4-angled, with white pith, slightly narrowed wings spreading from petiole, glabrous or only slightly hairy. Leaf blade ovate to elliptic-ovate, ± deltoid, base broadly cuneate to truncate, 5~12 cm long, margin serrate, glabrous or only slightly hairy below; petiole up to 5.5 cm, glabrous or only Micro hairs.

 Inflorescences spikelike, up to 50 cm in width and not more than 2 cm wide. Except for the terminal inflorescences, lateral inflorescences often appear from the upper leaf axils. The cymules are alternately or closely below each other and seem to be opposite. The total pedicels and pedicels are Not more than 5 mm, ± glandular-hairy; calyx ca. 2 mm, lobes ovate to elliptic to broadly ovate, obtuse to rounded at top; corolla yellowish green, 5-6 mm long, upper lip longer than lower lip 1.5 mm, The lobes of both lips are obtuse, the upper lip 2 lobes overlap each other, and the lower lobe is slightly smaller; the stamens are as long as the lower lip, the staminodes are obovate-orbicular; style is ca. 3 mm, and is approximately ovary long. 2 times.

 Capsule fruit oval, 4~6 mm long. It is flowering in July, fruiting in August-September.

 Characters of herbs: This species Scrophularia buergeriana Miq is very similar to the Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl., the main difference: the root is cylindrical, longitudinal wrinkles, surface grayish brown, with fine roots and fine root marks. The leaves are smaller, the leaves are ovate to long ovate, 5~12 cm long and 2~5 cm wide. Jurassic inflorescence crunches into a spicule, small cymules inflorescence sequence without total pedicels, or up to 5 mm. The cymules shrink into spicates, and the cymules lack ovate slivers and corollas are yellow-green. Capsule oval, about 6 mm long.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xuan Shen:Figwort Root or Radix Scrophulariae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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