Introduction of Tu Niu Xi:Native Achyranthes Root or Radix Achyranthis Asperae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins:an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.

Radix Achyranthis Asperae(Native Achyranthes Root).

Radix Achyranthis Asperae:dried herb Pin Yin Name: Tǔ Niú Xī.
 English Name: Native Achyranthes Root, Twotooth Achyranthes Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Achyranthis Asperae.
 Property and flavor: cold, sweet, slight bitter, slight sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Achyranthis Asperae is the dried root of Achyranthes aspera L. and other related species(family Amaranthaceae), used for treating sore throat and diphtheria. The herb is commonly known as Radix Achyranthis Asperae, Native Achyranthes Root, Tǔ Niú Xī.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Radix Achyranthis Asperae(Native Achyranthes Root) as the dried root of (1).Achyranthes bidentata Blume.,(2).Achyranthes longifolia.,(3).Achyranthes aspera L.(4).Achyranthes aspera var. indica. They are plants of the Achyranthes L. genus, Amaranthaceae family, Centrospermae order. These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Achyranthes bidentata Blume.

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume:flowering plants Botanical description: It is commonly known as Ye Niú Xī. The overground part of the wild plant is similar to the cultivated plant in form as perennial herbs, with a height of 70~120 cm. Root cylindrical, 5~10 mm in diameter, khaki. Stems angular or square, green or purplish, white appressed or spreading pilose, or subglabrous, branches opposite, nodes are swollen. Leaves opposite; Petiole 5~30 mm; Leaf blade membranous, elliptic or elliptic lanceolate, 5~12 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, apex acuminate, base broadly cuneate, entire, pilose on both surfaces. Spikes nape and axillary, 3-5 cm long, reflexed after flowering; Pedicels 1~2 cm long, white pilose; Flowers numerous, dense, 5 mm long; Bracts broadly ovate, 2~3 mm long, apex long acuminate; Bracteoles spiny, 2.5~3 mm long, apex curved, base with 1 ovoid membranous lobule on each side, ca. 1 mm long. Tepals lanceolate, 3~5 mm long, glossy, apex acute, 1 midrib; Stamen length 2~2.5 mm; Stamen apex flat round, slightly truncated serrate. Utricles oblong, 2~2.5 mm long, tawny, smooth. Seeds oblong, 1 mm long, tawny. It is flowering from July to September, fruiting from September to October. The subsurface part has no obvious taproots, conus root or cluster fibrous root.

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume:growing plantsEcological environment: The plant grows under the forest of the hillside at an altitude of 200~1,750 meters above the sea level, beside the plain, hill, roadside, ridge, and house. Except for the northeast, it widely distributes in other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: the rhizome is terete, 1~3 cm long, 5~10 mm in diameter, grayish brown, with basal residue at the upper end, surrounded by most roots of varying thickness. Roots long cylindrical, slightly curved, about 15 cm below, up to 4 mm in diameter; The surface is grayish brown with fine longitudinal wrinkles. Soft, easily broken after penetration, cross-section yellow-brown, visible as a ring-shaped hash of vascular bundles. Slightly smell, taste slightly sweet.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antifertility effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activate blood circulation and dissipate blood stasis, activate blood circulation and dispels blood stasis, clearing dampness and diuretic, purge fire and detoxify, clear heat and detoxify, diuretic and treating stranguria. It is indicated for gonorrhea, hematuria, female amenorrhea, abdominal mass, rheumatic joint pain, beriberi, edema, dysentery, malaria, diphtheria, sore throat, stranguria, carbuncle, edema, injury from a fall, etc.

 Administration of Radix Achyranthis Asperae(Tǔ Niú Xī): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Achyranthis Asperae(Tǔ Niú Xī)
TCM Books: NA(CP),Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams),fresh herb 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams),Externally:mashed and apply stick,extract juice and drip to ear, or grinded into fine powder and blow to the throat.(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 9~15 grams,fresh herb 30~60 grams.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick,extract juice and drip to ear, or grinded into fine powder and blow to the throat.(CHMM).
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should avoid using the herb Radix Achyranthis Asperae during pregnancy.

(2).Achyranthes longifolia.

 Achyranthes longifolia Makino.:growing plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Liu Ye Niú Xī, Achyranthes longifolia Makino, or Willow-Leaf Achyranthes. Herbs perennial, 1 meter high. Six meters. Stem erect, square, nodes enlarged; Leaves opposite, leaf blade lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, ca. 4.5~15 cm, about 0.5 to 3.6 cm, apex and base acuminate, entire, green above, often purplish-red below. Inflorescence axillary or terminal; Most; 1 bracts, apex dentate; Bracteoles 2, spiny, purplish red, base with 1 ovoid lobule on each side, ca. 0.6 mm; 5 perianth, green, linear, 3-veined; 5 stamens, lower filaments connate, staminodes square, apex with inconspicuous teeth; Style ca. 2 mm. The utricles are long and ovate. The flowering period is from July to October, fruiting period is from October to November.

 Achyranthes longifolia Makino.:growing plant This species is similar to oxiculus, distinguished by leaf blade lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 10~20 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, tip; Bracteoles acicular, 3.5 mm long, base with 2-auricular flakes, only ciliate; Staminodes square, apically toothless. Its flower period is from September to November.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on the hillside, ditch edge, roadside. The plant distributes in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Achyranthes longifolia Makino.:growing plant Characters of herbs: the rhizome is short and thick, 2~6 cm long, 1~1.5 cm in diameter. Roots 4~9, twisted, length 10~20 cm, diameter 0.4~1.2 cm, tapering down. Surface grayish yellow-brown, with fine longitudinal wrinkles and fibrous root after removal of traces. Hard and slightly elastic, easily broken, cross-section skin pale grayish brown, slightly bright, most of the dotted vascular bundles. Slight smell, taste light sweet after astringent.

(3).Achyranthes aspera L.

 Achyranthes aspera L:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Cu Mao Niú Xī, or Crude-Hair Achyranthes. Herbs perennial, 20~120 cm tall. Root slender, diameter 3~5 mm, khaki. Stem four-prismatic, pilose, nodes slightly enlarged, branches opposite. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 5~15 mm; Leaf blade papery, broadly obovate or elliptic-oblong, 1.5~7 cm long, 0.4~4 cm wide, vermilleate obtuse, acute, base cuneate or rounded, entire or undulate, densely hirsute on both sides. Inflorescences terminal, erect, 10-30 cm long, reflexed after flowering; Pedicels angular, stout, hard, densely white or spreading pilose; Flowers 3~4 mm long, sparsely growing; Bracts lanceolate, 3~4 mm long, apex long acuminate; Bracteoles spiny, 2.5~4.5 mm long, hard, shiny, often purplish, 1 membranous wing on each side of base, 1.5~2 mm long, entire, all attached to spines, but easily detachable. Perianth lanceolate, 3.5~5 mm long, acuminate, stiffened and acute after flowering, with 1 vein; Stamen length 2.5~3.5 mm; Staminodes apex truncate or finely crenate, with branched fringelike long margin hairs. Follicular fruit ovate, 2.5~3 mm long. Seeds ovate, not compressed, ca. 2 mm long, brown. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from October.

 Achyranthes aspera L:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant prefers a warm climate, not resistant to cold. The plant grows well on sandy soil and is not suitable for clay. The plant distributes in south, southwest, the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: is the same as Achyranthes longifolia.

(4).Achyranthes aspera var. indica.

 Achyranthes aspera var. indica.:growing plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Dun Ye Tu Niú Xī, or Round-Leaf Achyranthes. Stems densely white or yellow villous. Leaf blade obovate, 1.5~6.5 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, apex rounded and obtuse, often convex, base broadly cuneate, margin undulate, both surfaces densely pilose.

 Achyranthes aspera var. indica.:growing plant Ecological environment: The plant distributes on Taiwan island, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong, and other areas of China. The plant also distributes in Sri Lanka.
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  • 1.Introduction of Tu Niu Xi:Native Achyranthes Root or Radix Achyranthis Asperae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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