Introduction of Huang Lu:Smoketree Twig or Folium et Ramulus Cotini.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Smoketree Twig, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cotinus coggygria Scop.var.cinerea Engl., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Smoketree Twig, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Folium et Ramulus Cotini(Smoketree Twig).

small shrubs of Cotinus coggygria growing in a field,with many green fresh leaves Pin Yin Name: Huánɡ Lú, or Huánɡ Lú Zhī Yè.
 English Name: Smoketree Twig, Twig and leaf of Common Smoketree.
 Latin Name: Folium et Ramulus Cotini.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Folium et Ramulus Cotini is the dried leaf and branch of Cotinus coggygria Scop.var.cinerea Engl., used for treating hepatitis with jaundice, dysentery, and eczema with pruritus. The herb is commonly known as Folium et Ramulus Cotini, Smoketree Twig, Huánɡ Lú.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book and official herbal classics defined the herb Folium et Ramulus Cotini (Smoketree Twig) as the dried leaf and branch of (1). Cotinus coggygria Scop.var.cinerea Engl. It is a plant of the Cotinus Genus, Anacardiaceae family (Julianiaceae, mango, sumac family), Sapindales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cotinus coggygria Scop.var.cinerea Engl.

 a small tree of Cotinus coggygria grows in a field,with many leaves and a globular tree crown Botanical description: Cotinus coggygria Scop.var.cinerea Engl is commonly known as Huánɡ Lú, or Guāng Yè Huánɡ Lú. A deciduous shrub or tree, the tree grows up to 2~4 meters tall. The bark is dark gray and scaly; twigs (branchlets) are gray and covered with pubescence. Simple leaves are alternate, petioles are short and slender, 1.5 cm long; leaf blades are obovate or oval (egg-shaped), 3~8 cm long, 2.5~6 cm wide, apex is round or slightly concave, base is circular or broadly cuneate, entire, both surfaces or especially the back surface of leaves are obviously covered with gray pilose; lateral veins are in 6~11 pairs, the apex is often bifurcated.

 Panicles grow apically, are covered with pubescence; flowers are hermaphroditic, about 3 mm in diameter; pedicels are about 7~10 mm long; the calyx is glabrous, lobes are ovate-triangular, about 1.2 mm long, 0.8 mm wide; flower petals are oval (egg-shaped) or ovate-lanceolate, 2~2.5 mm long, about 1 mm wide, glabrous; 5 stamens, about 1.5 mm long, anther is oval (egg-shaped), equal length as filaments; the floral disc is 5-lobed, puce (purple brown); ovary is subsphaeroidal, about 0.5 mm in diameter, has 2~3 short lateral styles, free, unequal in length, fruit is reniform, about 4.5 mm long, about 2.5 mm wide, glabrous.

 Nutlet, oblate reniform, has residual sterile pedicel, purple thin long plumelike.

 many reddish autumn leaves of Cotinus coggygria grow on branches in autumn Ecological environment: The shrub often grows in a sunny forest on hillsides or mountain slopes, in areas at altitudes of 700~1,620 meters above sea level. It is native to the southwest and northern area of China, and the tree is mainly distributed in the northern, southwest, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is also distributed in Southern Europe.

 Growth characteristics: The shrub prefers sunlight, tolerant to half shade, drought, cold, saline and alkaline, and aridity, but not tolerant to water and dampness. The shrub should be planted in deep soil, fertile and good drainage sandy loam. Fast growth, developed root system, sprout strong. It has a strong resistance to sulfur dioxide. In autumn, when the temperature difference between day and night is greater than 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit), the leaves turn red.

 Characters of herbs: The leaves are chartaceous (papery) and mostly wrinkled and wizzled, broken, and the intact leaves are ovoid to obovate when flattened, 3~8 cm long, and 2.5~10 cm wide. The herb is celadon (sage green), and both surfaces are white pubescent, and dense along the leaf veins on the undersurface; petioles are 1~4 cm or 7.5 cm long. The herb has a slightly fragrant aroma, and it tastes puckery and slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade has many leaves (leafy), green, and no branches.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-inflammatory effect, has the effect of inhibiting cell proliferation effect on the rat and mouse formaldehyde paw edema, and increase the resistance of capillaries, ineffective on egg white edema; ②.effect of convergence and antibacterial and can be used externally to treat wounds; ③.treat gastroenteritis.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and dampness, clear heat and detoxify, activate blood, and relieve pain. It is indicated for the treatment of jaundice, icteric hepatitis, water and fire scalds, dermatitis rhus, erysipelas, conjunctivitis, the fall and bruise hurt.

 Administration of Folium et Ramulus Cotini (Huánɡ Lú): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Folium et Ramulus Cotini (Huánɡ Lú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), for hepatitis treatment, adult dosage 1 liang daily (about 30 grams),half dosage for infant, decoct twice and combined,take in the morning and at night.Externally:use twig,leaves, wash with water decoction, or mashed the leaves and apply stick at the affected area.




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