Introduction of Tu Fu Ling:Glabrous Greenbrier Rhizome or Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Glabrous Greenbrier Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Smilax glabra roxb., ②.Smilax lanceaefolia Roxb.var.opaca A.DC., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Glabrous Greenbrier Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae(Glabrous Greenbrier Rhizome).

Smilax glabra roxb.:drawing of plant and herb Pin Yin Name: Tǔ Fú Línɡ.
 English Name: Glabrous Greenbrier Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, sweet, tasteless.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae is the dried rhizome of Smilax glabra roxb.(family Libiaceae), used to counteract toxins and eliminate dampness for the treatment of syphilis, morbid leukorrhea, and heat stranguria. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Glabrous Greenbrier Rhizome, Tǔ Fú Línɡ.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae(Glabrous Greenbrier Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of (1). Smilax glabra roxb., or (2). Smilax lanceaefolia Roxb.var.opaca A.DC. They are plants of the Smilax L. Genus, Liliaceae family, Liliflorae order. This 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Smilax glabra roxb.

 Smilax glabra roxb.:growing plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Glabrous Greenbrier, or Tǔ Fú Línɡ. The climbing irrigation was long, 1~4 mm long. Stem smooth, spiny. Rhizomes thick, massive, often connected by stolons, 2~5 cm thick. Leaves alternate; Petiole 5~15~20 mm long, about 3/5~1/4 of the length, with a narrow sheath, often with 2 slender tendrils, exfoliating point near tip; Leaf blade thinly leathery, narrowly elliptic-lanceolate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 6~12~15 cm long, 1~4~7 cm wide, apex acuminate, base rounded or obtuse, usually pale green below. Inflorescences umbels solitary in leaf axils, usually with more than 10 flowers; Male inflorescence the total pedicel is 2~5 mm long, usually significantly shorter than petiole, rarely as long as petiole, 1 bud between the total pedicel and petiole. Inflorescence receptacle is swollen, somewhat rosette with most persistent bracteoles, 2~5 mm wide, flowered greenish-white, 6-ribbed, ca. 3 mm in diameter; Outer perianth slice of male flower is nearly oblate, about 2 mm wide, pocket shape, abaxially central with longitudinal groove, inner perianth slice is nearly round, about 1 mm wide, margin has irregular tooth; Male flowers close, with inner tepals nearly equal length, filaments very short; The total peduncle of the female inflorescence is about 1 cm long. The female flower looks like the male flower, but the inner tepals are toothless, with 3 stamens. Berries 6~8 mm in diameter, black when ripe, powdered. Its flowering period is from May to November, fruiting period is from November to April.

 Smilax glabra roxb.:drawing of plant and herbEcological environment: The plant grows in forests, shrubs, riverbanks, or valleys at an elevation below 1,800 meters above sea level. It also grows in forest margins and sparse forests. It distributes in the south of Gansu, the Yangtze river basin south, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Smilax glabra prefers a warm and humid climate, drought and shade tolerance. It can be grown in either sandy or clayey loam.

 Glabrous Greenbrier Rhizome. Characters of herbs: The rhizome of Smilax glabra roxb is nearly cylindrical, or irregularly strip-shaped, with nodular bulge and short branches; 5~22 cm in length and 2~5 cm in diameter. The surface is yellow-brown, uneven, with hard fibrous root residues at the tips of protrusions, round bud marks at the tips of branches, sometimes irregular cracks and residual scales. The texture of the herb is hard and not easy to break. The fracture surface is white to reddish brown, powdery, with vascular bundle points in the middle and small bright spots like gravel (still existing after boiling). The texture of the herb is slightly tough, powder and dust comes out when it is broken, and it is sticky when it is wet with water. The herb has slight smell, it tastes mild and puckery. The herb which fracture surface is light brown and sufficient powder is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antipyretic effect to fever due to all sorts of reasons; ②.increase the excretion of chloride in urine; ③.reduce the uric acid concentration in blood; ④.inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus dysenteriae, and so on; ⑤.diuretic; ⑥.analgesic; ⑦.anti-tumor; ⑧.anti-gossypol toxicity effect, and so on.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear dampness, clear heat and eliminate dampness, detoxification, discharge turbid and detoxification, benefit joint. It is indicated for stranguria with a turbid discharge of dampness and heat, morbid leukorrhea, diarrhea, carbuncles, scrofula, scabies, syphilis, limb twitches and spasm of syphilis and mercury poisoning, galls and mercury poisoning, arthralgia and myalgia, beriberi, malignant boil, carbuncle swelling, sores and tinea, scrofula.

 Administration of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae(Tǔ Fú Línɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae(Tǔ Fú Línɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:15~60 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1 liang(about 15~30 grams),Externally:grinded into powder and apply stick;③.Internally:water decoction, 10~60 grams.Externally:proper amount, grinded into powder and apply stick.

(2).Smilax lanceaefolia Roxb.var.opaca A.DC.

 Smilax lanceaefolia Roxb.var.opaca A.DC.:growing plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as An Se Ba Qi. Leaves usually leathery, shiny surface; Pedicels generally longer than petiole, slightly shorter; Anthers nearly circular; Berries are black when ripe. Its flowering period is from September to November, fruiting the following November.

 Smilax lanceaefolia Roxb.var.opaca A.DC.:growing plantEcological environment: The plant grows in woods or shade of slopes, at the area with an altitude of 600~2,000 meters above sea level, a few in western Yunnan grow in the area along canyons at altitude up to 2,800 meters. Distribution range: The plant distributes to Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hubei, and Guangxi of China. It also distributes in Sikkim, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand.
Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.
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