Introduction of Chun Pi:Tree-of-heaven Bark or Cortex Ailanthi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Tree-of-heaven Bark, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Ailanthus altissima (Mill) Swingle., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Tree-of-heaven Bark, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Cortex Ailanthi(Tree-of-heaven Bark).

dried herb pieces of Tree-of-heaven Bark Pin Yin Name: Chūn Pí.
 English Name: Tree-of-heaven Bark, Tree-of-heaven Ailanthus Bark.
 Latin Name: Cortex Ailanthi.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter, puckery.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Cortex Ailanthi is the dried root bark or stem bark of Ailanthus altissima (Mill) Swingle., used for treating diarrhea, chronic dysentery, abnormal uterine bleeding, and leukorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Ailanthi, Tree-of-heaven Bark, Chūn Pí.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book and official herbal classics defined the herb Cortex Ailanthi (Tree-of-heaven Bark) as dried root bark or stem bark of (1).Ailanthus altissima (Mill) Swingle., it is a plant of the Ailanthus Desf. Genus, Simaroubaceae family (Simaroubaceae DC. family), Sapindales order plant. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Ailanthus altissima (Mill) Swingle.

 growing tree of Ailanthus altissima with fresh leaves and sprouts Botanical description: Ailanthus altissima (Mill) Swingle is also known as Taxicodendron altissima Mill., commonly known as Chūn Shù, Chòu Chūn, Bái Chūn, or Chū Shù. Deciduous trees, the tree grows up to 20 meters tall, the bark is smooth and has straight grinding cracks, and young shoots are auburn, covered with sparse pubescence. The imparipinnate leaves are alternate, 45~90 cm long; 13~25 leaflets, leaflets are opposite or subopposite, chartaceous (papery), ovate-lanceolate, 7~12 cm long, 2.5~4 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is oblique truncate, entire, 1~2 pairs of coarse teeth on each side, 1 gland on the apex back of the tooth.

 a flowering tree of Ailanthus altissima Mill Swingle. with yellow flower spikes Panicles are terminal; flowers are hermaphroditic, white with green (or pale green), pedicels are 1~2.5 mm long; 5 sepals, imbricate, lobes are 0.5-1 mm long; 5 petals, 2~2.5 mm long, base flanks have hirsute; the male flower has 10 stamens, filaments base is densely covered with hirsute, filaments in male flowers are longer than petals, filaments in female flowers are shorter than petals; Anthers are oblong, about 1 mm long; 5 carpels, style is adherent, stigma is 5-lobed.

 Samara is oblong-elliptic, 3~5 cm long, 1~1.2 cm wide; seeds are in the middle of the wings, oblate. Its flowering period is from April to May, and the fruiting period is from August to September.

 fruiting branches of Ailanthus altissima Mill Swingle.with pendulous pods on branches Ecological environment: Ailanthus altissima (Mill) Swingle is mainly distributed in the northern, eastern, and southwest areas of China, southeast to Taiwan, and the Yellow River Basin is the distribution center. It is widely cultivated all over the world. The tree is often cultivated near the house and the village, roadsides, in areas at altitudes of below 2,700 meters above sea level.

 Growth characteristics: The tree prefers a warm and humid climate, tolerant to high temperatures, coldness, drought, saline and alkaline, not tolerant to shade or dampness. Better to choose a sufficient sunshine field with deep soil layers, loose and fertile, sandy loam, or loam with good drainage for cultivation.

 fresh sprouts and leaves of Ailanthus altissima Mill Swingle. Characters of herbs: Root bark: the root bark is irregular blocks or irregular reels (rolled tubes), of different sizes, and thicknesses is 2~5 mm or up to 10 mm, the outer surface is sallow (grayish yellow) or yellowish brown, coarse and rough, lenticels are conspicuous, extending vertically, slightly protuberant, sometimes out cork bark falls off, yellowish white when the rough cortex is removed; the inner surface is primrose yellow (pale yellow), flat and densely covered with fine and small prismatic (spindle-shaped) holes or dots. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle (crisp), the outer layer of the fracture surface is granular, and the inner layer is strong fibrous, easily peel off from the out bark. The herb has a slight oily fishy smell, and the smell turns strong when it is broken, and it tastes bitter.

 Dry bark: the dry barks are mostly irregular oblate plates, of different sizes, 3~5 mm thickness, or up to 2.0 cm thickness. The outer surface is dull gray (dark gray) to grayish black, with irregular vertical and transverse crackings, lenticels are big, pale brown yellow when cork bark is removed; the fracture surface is granular.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effects on Shigeila flexneri, Bacterium sonnei and Escherichia coli in vitro, and also on amoebic dysentery; ②.strong anticancer activity; ③.curative effect on ascariasis and cervical cancer.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and drying dampness, clear heat and dampness, inducing astringency and stop belt, stop diarrhea and stop leukorrhea, relieve diarrhea, stanch bleeding. It is indicated for leukorrhea with reddish discharge, damp heat diarrhea and dysentery, protracted diarrhea and dysentery, hematochezia, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis.

 Administration of Cortex Ailanthi (Chūn Pí): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Cortex Ailanthi (Chūn Pí)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~4 qian (about 6~12 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:wash with water decoction or prepare to paste and smear; ③.Internally:water decoction, 6~15 grams, prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction, or prepare to paste and smear, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick.




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