Introduction of Zhi Mu:Common Anemarrhena Rhizome or Rhizoma Anemarrhenae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common Anemarrhena Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Common Anemarrhena Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Anemarrhenae(Common Anemarrhena Rhizome).

a drawing of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge,rhizome,stem and leaves,flower spikes,petals and seeds Pin Yin Name: Zhī Mǔ.
 English Name: Common Anemarrhena Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Anemarrhenae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Anemarrhenae is the dried rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., used (1).to clear heat and purge fire for relieving high fever with dire thirst in cases of warm diseases, and cough due to heat in the lung, and (2).to nourish Yin and moisten the intestines for treating low fever in cases of Yin deficiency, diabetes, and constipation. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Common Anemarrhena Rhizome, Zhī Mǔ.

 Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Anemarrhenae is the dried rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., it is a plant of the Anemarrhena genus, the Asparagaceae family (asparagus family) of the Asparagales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge.

 a plant of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge,with fresh rhizome and root Botanical description: Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge is a plant of the Asparagaceae family (asparagus family) and Anemarrhena genus, a perennial herb. The whole plant is glabrous. The horizontal rhizome is stout and thick, densely covered with many yellow-brown fibrous leaf base remains, and many succulent fibrous roots grow on the lower part. Leaves are basal, tufty, linear, 20~70 cm long, and 3~7 mm wide, the upper surface is green, the undersurface is dark green, glabrous, and slightly harder, leaf base is enlarged and encircled the rhizome.

 Scapes are upright, unbranched, 50~120 cm tall, the lower part has lanceolate degenerate leaves, scaly bracteoles sparsely grow on the upper part; 2~6 flowers in clusters, scatter on the upper part of the scape and form a long raceme, 20~40 cm long; flowers are yellowish white, purple-tinged when it is dried, bloom at night, with short pedicels; 6 tepals, bases slightly connate, and are arranged in 2 whorls, oblong, 5~8 mm long, 1~1.5 mm wide, the apex is slightly inflexed, the margin is thin, has 3 pale green vertical veins; 3 developed stamens, insert in the near middle part of the inner tepal, anthers are yellow, 3 staminodes, inserted in the near base of the outer tepal, has no anthers; 1 pistil, the ovary is long ovate, 3-loculed, style is short, 1 stigma.

 Capsularfruits are ovoid, 10~15 mm long, and 5~7 mm in diameter, when mature, it cracks into 3 lobes along the ventral suture, each lobe usually has 1 seed. Seeds are ovate-oblong, with 3 edges, one end is pointed, 8~12 mm long, and black. Its flowering period is from May to August, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 fresh rhizomes and roots of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. Ecological environment: The plant grows on a sunny dry hillside, hill grass, or grassland, and often grows in groups. The plant is mainly distributed in the northern, northeast, northwest, lower reaches of the Yellow River, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and moist climate, tolerant to coldness and drought, it has very strong adaptability and no strict requirement in soil, it is appropriate to choose a field with loose, fertile, humus soil, and sandy loam with good drainage for cultivation, the plant grows not good in shady hillside land, clay soil, and low-lying land, and rhizome easily rot.

 dried herb slices of Common Anemarrhena Rhizome. Characters of herbs: Mao Zhi Mu: the herb is also known as piliferous anemarrhenae rhizome. The rhizome is in long strip-shape, slightly curved, slightly flat, occasionally branched, 3~15 cm long, and 0.8~1.5 cm in diameter. There is pale yellow remaining stem and leaf marks on one end, which is commonly known as the "Gold Wrapped Head". The surface is yellow-brown to brown, and there is a concave groove on it, with closely arranged ring nodes, and the nodes are densely covered with remaining yellow-brown leaf bases, grow from both sides to the top of the rhizome; the lower part is slightly convex, with vertical wrinkles and concave spotted root marks or fibrous root marks and residual stems. The texture of the herb is hard and firm, easily broken. The fracture surface is yellow-white and granular. The herb has a slight smell, and it tastes slight sweet and slight bitter, and it is sticky when chewed. The herb of a better grade has thick strips, hard, and the fracture surface is whitish yellow.

 Zhi Mu Rou: the herb is also known as anemarrhenae rhizome flesh. Most of the cortex is removed, its surface is yellowish-white, and some have a few remaining fibrous leaf stems and convex spotted root marks.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antipyretic effect; ②.inhibition of platelet aggregation; ③.lower blood sugar; ④.anti-inflammatory; ⑤.diuretic; ⑥.expectorant; ⑦.anti-cancer effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and discharge fire, promote the secretion of saliva or body fluid, moisten dryness, indicated for exogenous febrile disease, hyperpyrexia and polydipsia, lung heat and dryness cough, bone steam and hot flash, internal heat and consumptive thirst, bowel dryness and constipation.

 Administration of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (Zhī Mǔ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (Zhī Mǔ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~5 qian (about 6~15 grams), or prepare to pill,powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 6~12 grams, prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.To clear heat or moistening dryness and nourish Yin,better use raw herb, to downbear fire and nourish Yin,better use salt water fried herb.




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