Introduction of Zhi Mu:Common Anemarrhena Rhizome or Rhizoma Anemarrhenae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Purging Fire.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Purging Fire: an agent or substance that has the effect of clearing heat from the Qi system, with high fever, dire thirst, dry yellow tongue coating and rapid surging pulse, or purging fire from the internal viscera, such as heart fire, liver fire, etc.

 
Rhizoma Anemarrhenae(Common Anemarrhena Rhizome).

Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge Pin Yin Name: Zhī Mǔ.
 English Name: Common Anemarrhena Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Anemarrhenae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Anemarrhenae is the dried rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge.(family Liliaceae), used (1).to clear heat and purge fire for relieving high fever with dire thirst in cases of warm diseases, and cough due to heat in the lung, and (2).to nourish Yin and moisten the intestines for treating low fever in cases of Yin deficiency, diabetes, and constipation. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Common Anemarrhena Rhizome, Zhī Mǔ.

 Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Anemarrhenae is the dried rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., it is a plant of the Anemarrhena genus, the Asparagaceae family of the Asparagales order.

 Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge. (1).Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge.:
 Botanical description: The Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Anemarrhena genus, perennial herb. The whole plant is hairless. The rhizome grows thick, densely covered by many yellow-brown fibrous leaves, and the majority of fleshy fibrous roots appear below. Leaves basal, clumping, linear, 20~70 cm long, 3~7 mm wide, green above, dark green below, glabrous, slightly harder, leaf base expanded encircled with rhizomes. Calyx erect, unbranched, 50~120 cm tall, lower lanceolate leaves decumbent, upper sparsely scalelike bracteoles; 2~6 flowers in clusters, scattered in upper part of calyx racemes, long 20~40 cm; flowers yellowish white, slightly coloured after drying, more open than at night, with short stems; 6 tepals, basally slightly conjoined, arranged in 2 turns, oblong, 5~8 mm long, wide 1~1.5 mm, apex slightly inflexed, margin thin, with 3 pale green veins; 3 developing stamens, inserted in inner tepal near middle, anthers yellow, 3 staminodes, inserted in outer tepals near base, without anthers; 1 pistil, ovary long ovate, 3-loculed, style short, 1 stigma. Oval ovate, 10~15 mm long, 5~7 mm in diameter. When mature, it is divided into 3 lobes above the abdominal suture. Each lobe can often have 1 seed. Seeds long ovate, 3-angled, one-tip, 8~12 mm long, black. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting period is from July to September.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows on the sunny dry hillside, hill grass, or grassland, often grow in groups. It prefers a warm and humid climate, cold, drought resistance. Strong adaptability, its requirements on the soil is not strict, cultivation with loose soil, fertile, good drainage of humus loam and sandy loam is appropriate, poor growth at the shady slope, clay and low-lying areas, and root are easy to rot.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is oblate, long striate, slightly curved, occasionally branched, 3~15 cm long, 0.8~1.5 cm in diameter. One end has a pale yellow stem and leaf residue, commonly known as "golden wrapped head". The surface is yellowish-brown to brown, with a concave groove above, with tightly arranged annular nodes densely covered with yellowish-brown residual leaf bases, slightly raised at the lower part, with longitudinal wrinkles and concave punctate or fibrous root marks and residual stems. The texture is hard and easily broken. The fracture surface is yellowish-white, granular. Smells slightly, slightly sweet taste, slightly bitter, chewing with sticky sensations.

 Pharmacological actions: The Rhizoma Anemarrhenae saps have an antipyretic effect, can prevent and cure rabbit high fever caused by Escherichia coli and the effect is lasting. Inhibition of platelet aggregation, lower blood sugar, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant, anti-cancer effects. The saponins it contains can significantly reduce the oxygen consumption caused by thyroxine and inhibit the activity of sodium, potassium, and enzymatic activity of ATP. It can also adjust the relationship between the beta-adrenergic receptor and the M-cholinergic receptor.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and discharge fire, promote the secretion of saliva or body fluid, moisten dryness, indicated for exogenous febrile disease, hyperpyrexia and polydipsia, lung heat and dryness cough, bone steam and hot flash, internal heat and consumptive thirst, bowel dryness and constipation.

 Administration of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae(Zhī Mǔ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae(Zhī Mǔ)
TCM Books: Internally:6~12 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 2~5 qian(about 6~15 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 6~12 grams, grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder.To clear heat or moistening dryness and nourish Yin,better use raw herb, to downbear fire and nourish Yin,better use salt water fried herb(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Zhi Mu:Common Anemarrhena Rhizome or Rhizoma Anemarrhenae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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