Introduction of Jue Ming Zi:Cassia Seed or Semen Cassiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Cassia Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Cassia obtusifolia L., ②.Cassia tora L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Cassia Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Semen Cassiae(Cassia Seed).

Cassia Seed:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Jué Mínɡ Zǐ.
 English Name: Cassia Seed.
 Latin Name: Semen Cassiae.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, sweet, salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Cassiae is the dried ripe seed of Cassia obtusifolia L., or Cassia tora L.(family Leguminosae), used (1).to clear the liver and brighten the eyes for treating acute inflammation of the eye, (2).to moisten the intestines for relieving constipation, and (3).nowadays for reducing high blood pressure and blood cholesterol. The herb is commonly known as Semen Cassiae, Cassia Seed, Jué Mínɡ Zǐ.

 Botanical source: The herb Semen Cassiae(Cassia Seed) is the dried ripe seed of Cassia obtusifolia L. or Cassia tora L., they are plants of the Senna genus, the Fabaceae(Leguminosae) family of the Fabales order.

(1).Cassia obtusifolia L.


 Cassia obtusifolia L.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Cassia obtusifolia L., is a plant of the Fabaceae(Leguminosae) family and Senna genus, it is commonly known as "Jue Ming", annual shrubs herbaceous, erect, stout, 1~2 meters high. Leaf length 4~8 cm; petiole without glands; 1 leaf blade on each leaflet between the rod-shaped glands; 3 pairs of leaflets, membranous, obovate or obovate-oblong, 2~6 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, apically rounded and pointed, base attenuate, obliquely sparsely pilose above, below pilose; pedicel 1.5~2 mm long; stipules linear, pilose, Early fall. Flowers axillary, usually 2 polygamy; total pedicel 6~10 mm long; pedicel 1~1.5 cm long, filamentous; sepals slightly unequal, ovate or ovate-oblong, membranous, outside pilose, about 8 mm long; petals yellow, the following two slightly longer, 12~15 mm long, 5~7 mm wide; 7 fertile stamens, anther tetragonal, apical hole cracking, ca. 4 mm, filaments shorter than anthers; Ovary sessile, white pilose. Pods slender, nearly four prismatic, acuminate at both ends, up to 15 cm, 3~4 mm wide, membranous; about 25 seeds, diamond-shaped, bright. It is flowering and fruiting from August to November.

 Growth characteristics: The cassia obtusifolia grows in the wild field on hillsides, rivers, or cultivated, it distributes in most parts of China. Cassia prefers a high temperature and humid climate, need sufficient sunlight, it grows fastest in summer high temperature and rainy season. The suitable soil is loose fertile sandy loam, but the low-lying, shady slope is not suitable for planting. Avoid continuous cropping.

 Cassia Seed:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is slightly rhombic or short cylindrical, with two parallel inclined ends, 3~7 mm long and 2~4 mm wide. The surface is green-brown or dark-brown, smooth and shiny. One end is flat or blunt, and the other end is inclined and pointed. There is a raised ridge line on the dorsal and ventral surfaces, and there is a light color linear concave line with oblique symmetry on both sides of the ridge line. The texture of the herb is hard and not easily broken. The seed coat is thin, the endosperm is grayish white, translucent; The embryo is yellow, and the two cotyledons overlap and bend in S shape. The whole seeds are slightly odorous, with faint bean fishy smell after crushing, it tastes slightly bitter and slightly sticky. The herb which has full seed and green brown is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Hypotensive effect:cassia seed aqueous extract, alcohol-aqueous extract and alcohol extract have a hypotensive effect on anesthetized dogs, cats and rabbits; ②.Antibacterial effect:The alcohol extract of cassia seed has an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus, Bacillus diphtheriae, Bacillus typhi, Bacterium paratyphosum, Escherichia coli, etc., while the water extract has no effect. The water infusing solution has a different degree of inhibitory effect on some dermatophytes in the test tube.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear the liver and brighten the eyes, alleviate water retention and relax the bowels, indicated for wind-heat red eye, glaucoma(blue blindness, optic atrophy), night blindness, hypertension(high blood pressure), hepatitis, cirrhosis ascites(ascites due to cirrhosis), habitual constipation.

 Administration of Semen Cassiae(Jué Mínɡ Zǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Cassiae(Jué Mínɡ Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder,and apply stick;③.Internally:water decoction, 9~15 grams.
 Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Semen Cassiae should be used cautiously in conditions diarrhea and low blood pressure.

(2).Cassia tora L.


 Cassia tora L.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Cassia tora L., is a plant of the Fabaceae(Leguminosae) family and Senna genus, it is commonly known as "Xiao Jue Ming", annual shrub herb, high 1~2 meters. Leaves alternate, pinnate; petiole glands, there are 1 rod-shaped glands between the two leaflets on the leaf shaft; 3 pairs of leaflets, membranous; petiole 1.5~2 mm; stipules linear, pubescent. Early fall; leaf blade obovate or obovate-long oblong, 2~6 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, apex obtuse and slightly pointed, base attenuate, oblique, sparsely pubescent above, below soft hair. Flowers usually 2 grows in leaf axils; total pedicels 6~10 mm long; pedicels long 1~1.5 cm; 5 sepals, slightly unequal, ovate or ovate-oblong, membranous, outer pilose, about 8 mm Flowers yellow, 5 petals, the following two slightly longer, 12~15 mm long, 5-7 mm wide; 10 stamens, 7 fertile stamens; ovary linear, sessile, white hairs, style curved. Fruit slender, nearly flat, curved arch, length 15~24 cm, diameter 4~6 mm, was thin pubescent. Most seeds, rhombus, gray-green, shiny. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from September to October.

 Growth characteristics: The Cassia tora grows in the wild field on hillsides, rivers, it distributes in most parts of China. Cassia prefers a high temperature and humid climate, need sufficient sunlight, it grows fastest in summer high temperature and rainy season. The suitable soil is loose fertile sandy loam.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is short cylindrical, small, 3 ~ 5 mm long and 2 ~ 3 mm wide. There is a broad light yellow-brown band on both sides of the surface ridge. The herb which has full seed and green brown is better.
 
Herbs Clearing Heat and Purging Fire.

 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Purging Fire: an agent or substance that has the effect of clearing heat from the Qi system, with high fever, dire thirst, dry yellow tongue coating and rapid surging pulse, or purging fire from the internal viscera, such as heart fire, liver fire, etc.
 
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  • 1.Introduction of Jue Ming Zi:Cassia Seed or Semen Cassiae.

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