Introduction of Gan Jiang:Dried Ginger or Rhizoma Zingiberis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Dried Ginger, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Zingiber officinale (Willd.) Rosc., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Dried Ginger, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Zingiberis(Dried Ginger).

dried herb slices and pieces of dried ginger Pin Yin Name: Gàn Jiānɡ.
 English Name: Dried Ginger.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Zingiberis.
 Property and flavor: hot, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Zingiberis is the dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Willd.) Rosc., used (1).to warm the spleen and stomach for the relief of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea due to deficiency-cold of the spleen and stomach, and (2).to warm the lung for treating chronic cough with thin, white and foamy expectoration. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Zingiberis, Dried Ginger, Gàn Jiānɡ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Rhizoma Zingiberis (Dried Ginger) as the dried rhizome of (1). Zingiber officinale (Willd.) Rosc. It is a plant of the Zingiber genus, the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family), Zingiberales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Zingiber officinale (Willd.) Rosc.

 plants and rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc.,many harvested fresh ginger with leaves are piled in field Botanical description: Zingiber officinale Rosc is a perennial herb, it grows up to 50~80 cm high. The rhizomes are thick and hypertrophic, the fracture surface is yellow-white, and it has a strong spicy odor. Leaves are alternate, arranged in 2 rows, sessile, amplexicaular (stem-clasping); the paraphyll is 2~4 mm long; leaves are lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 15~30 cm long, 1.5~2.2 cm wide, the apex is acuminate (gradually tapering), the base is narrow, leaf base is sheath-shaped and amplexicaular (stem-clasping), glabrous.

 Scapes grow out from rhizome, 15~25 cm long; spikes are elliptic, 4~5 cm long; Bracts are egg-shaped or oval, about 2.5 cm long, pale green, pale yellow at the edge, with a small tip at the apex; hypanthium (calyx tube) is about 1 cm long, with 3 mucronate teeth; Corolla is yellow-green, the tube is 2~2.5 cm long, 3 lobes, lanceolate, less than 2 cm long, the middle labellum is oblong and obovate, shorter than the corolla lobes, with purple stripes and pale yellow spots, and oval, yellow-green lobes on both sides with purple edges; 1 stamen, dark purple, anthers are about 9 mm long, and connective appendages wrap the style; ovary is 3-loculed, glabrous, 1 style, stigma is subglobose.

 plants of Zingiber officinale Rosc grow in field Capsular fruit, many seeds, black. Its flowering period is in August.

 Ecological environment: Zingiber is a creeping perennial plant native to tropical Southeast Asia and cultivated in China, it is widely cultivated in the middle area, southeast areas to southwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: Zingiber officinale Rosc prefers a warm and moist climate, is not resistant to low temperature and frost, afraid of dampness, and is afraid of strong direct light. It is appropriate to choose sloping land and slightly shady plots for cultivation, better choose a field with deep soil layer, loose, fertile, and well-drained sandy loam to heavy loam.

 The fresh ginger rhizome is a versatile ingredient of far eastern cuisine and is now commonly used in most areas of the world. Its flavor is lemony-balsamic, and its taste is medium spicy.

 dried herb slices and pieces of ginger Characters of herbs: Dried Ginger: The rhizome is an irregular lump, slightly flat, has dactyline (fingerlike) branches, is 3~7 cm long, and 1~2 cm thick. The surface is taupe brown (grayish brown) or light yellowish-brown, coarse and rough, and has longitudinal wrinkles and obvious annular nodes. Scale leaves often remain on branches, and there are stem marks or buds at the top of branches. The texture of the herb is firm and solid, the fracture surface is yellow-white or ash gray (grayish-white), mealy (powdery) and granular, has an obvious ring (the endodermis), there are vascular bundles, and there are scattered yellow oil spots. The herb has a fragrant odor, is special, and tastes spicy and pungent. The herb of a better grade has a solid and firm texture, and the fracture surface is yellow and white, mealy (powdery), with a strong aromatic fragrance.

 Dried Ginger slices: the herb is irregularly sliced vertically or obliquely, with finger-like branches, 1~6 cm long, 1~2 cm wide, and 0.2~0.4 cm thick. The outer skin is sallow (grayish-yellow) or light yellow-brown, coarse and rough, and has longitudinal wrinkles and obvious nodes. The surface of the cross-section is sallow (grayish-yellow) or ash gray (grayish-white), slightly mealy (powdery), and there are many longitudinal fibers, some of which are piliferous. The texture of the herb is solid and firm, and the fracture surface is fibrous. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, is special, and tastes spicy and pungent.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.protective effect on gastric mucosa cells of rats; ②.protective effect on liver damage; ③.temporary blood pressure raising effect; ④.inhibit the spontaneous activity of rats; ⑤.resist the central stimulant-induced convulsion effect; ⑥.cholagogic action, analgesia, anti-platelet agglutination, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-protozoa effect, and so on.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dried Ginger warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold, reviving yang and free channels, eliminating dampness and reduce phlegm, warming lung to reduce watery phlegm. It is indicated for epigastric cold pain, cold pain in heart and abdomen, vomiting and diarrhea, cold limbs and weak pulse, yang depletion and cold limbs, phlegm and retained fluid and asthma cough, wind-cold-dampness arthralgia, cold dampness numbness pain, or vomiting, epistaxis and bleeding due to Yang deficiency.

 Administration of Rhizoma Zingiberis (Gàn Jiānɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Zingiberis (Gàn Jiānɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1.5 qian (about 1.5~4.5 grams); ③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams,or prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,wash with water decoction,or prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should avoid using the herb Rhizoma Zingiberis in conditions hemopyretic bleeding, should be used cautiously during pregnancy. Should not combine with rhizoma coptidis, Radix Scutellariae, Faeces Togopteri.



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