Introduction of Mu Gua:Common Flowering-quince Fruit or Fructus Chaenomelis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common Flowering-quince Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Common Flowering-quince Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Chaenomelis(Common Flowering-quince Fruit).

Fructus Chaenomelis Pin Yin Name: Mù Guā.
 English Name: Common Flowering-quince Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Chaenomelis.
 Property and flavor: warm, sour.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Chaenomelis is the dried ripe fruit of Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai., used (1).to soothe the tendons and unblock collateral meridians for treating wind-damp (rheumatoid) arthralgia with contracture, and (2).to dispel damp and harmonize the stomach for treating vomiting and diarrhea with systremma. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Chaenomelis, Common Flowering-quince Fruit, Mù Guā.

 Chaenomeles speciosa Sweet Nakai.:flower Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Chaenomelis (Common Flowering-quince Fruit) as the dried ripe fruit of (1). Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai. It is a plant of the Chaenomeles genus, Rosaceae family (rose family), Rosales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai.

 Chaenomeles speciosa Sweet Nakai.:flowering tree Botanical description: Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai., is also known as Chaenomeles lagenaria (Loisel.) Koidz., it is commonly known as Tiē Gěng Hǎi Táng, or Tiē Gěng Mù Guā. Deciduous shrub, grows up to about 2 meters high. Branches are upright and unfold, spinose, branchlets (twigs) are cylindrical, slightly flexed, glabrous, puce (purple brown) or black-brown, has sparse sandy beige lenticels. The leaf blade is oval (egg-shaped) to elliptic, rarely oblong oval, 3~9 cm long, 1.5~5 cm wide, the base is cuneate to broadly cuneate, the margin is sharply serrate, sharp teeth unfold, glabrous or pubescent along the vein on the under surface; Petiole is about 1 cm long; Stipules (peraphyllum) are large, herbaceous, reniform or semicircle (semicircular), the margin is sharply biserrate (double serrate), glabrous.

 Flowers bloom before leaf, 3~5 flowers cluster on the biennial old branch; Pedicels are short and thick, about 3 mm long or subsessile; Flowers are 3~5 cm in diameter; Calyx tube is campanulate (bell-shaped), outside is glabrous; Sepals (calyx lobes) are upright, the apex is blunt, entire or corrugated; Petals are obovate or orbicular, base extend into short claws, 10~15 mm long, 8~13 mm wide, scarlet red, rarely faint red or white; 40~50 stamens, about half-length of petals; 5 styles, base connate, glabrous or hirsutiusculus (slightly hairy), stigma is capitate, has inconspicuous split, about the same length as stamens.

 Fruit is spheric shape or ovoid, 4~6 cm in diameter, yellow or green-yellowish, has sparse inconspicuous spots, aromatic; Sepals shed off, fruit pedicel is short or subsessile. Its flowering period is from March to May, the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Chaenomeles speciosa Sweet Nakai.:fruits on branch Ecological environment: The tree grows in wild fields or is cultivated. It is distributed in the east, central, and southwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The tree Chaenomeles speciosa prefers a warm and humid climate, the soil requirements are not strict, and it can be planted in the southern warmer areas.

 Common Flowering-quince Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The fruit is oblong, often divided into two halves, 4~9 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, and 1~2.5 cm thick. The outer surface is prunus (violet red) or reddish brown, and has irregular deep wrinkles (deeply furrowed); The edge of the cross-section involutes (rolls inward), the pulp is reddish brown, and the central part is sunken, and brown. The seeds are flat long-triangle, mostly shed off, and the texture of the seed is firm and hard. The herb has a slightly fragrant odor and a sour taste. The herb of better grade has a solid and firm texture, and a sour taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.obvious swelling effect; ②.effect of alleviating gastrointestinal muscle spasm and limb muscle spasm; ③.protecting the liver; ④.antibacterial; ⑤.inhibiting the phagocytosis of macrophages.

 Medicinal efficacy: Smooth the liver and relax tendons, eliminate dampness and free tendons, harmonize the stomach and eliminate dampness. It is indicated for dampness numbness and spasm, heavy pain in limbs, vomiting and diarrhea, spasm, muscular constricture, arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness, beriberi and edema, dysentery, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Chaenomelis (Mù Guā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Chaenomelis (Mù Guā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:fumigation wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams,prepared to pill, powder.Externally:fumigation wash with water decoction.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:should not take much, or hurt the teeth and bones.

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