Introduction of Xi Xian Cao:Siegesbeckia Herb or Herba Siegesbeckiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Siegesbeckia Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source three plant species, ①.Siegesbeckia orientalis L., ②.Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino., ③.Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Siegesbeckia Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Siegesbeckiae(Siegesbeckia Herb).

Siegesbeckia Herb Pin Yin Name: Xī Xiān Cǎo.
 English Name: Siegesbeckia Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Siegesbeckiae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Herba Siegesbeckiae is the dried aerial part of Siegesbeckia orientalis L., Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino or Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino(family Compositae), used (1).to dispel wind-damp and unblock collateral meridians for treating wind-damp(rheumatic or rheumatoid) arthralgia, and (2).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores, abscesses, and ulcers. The herb is commonly known as Herba Siegesbeckiae, Siegesbeckia Herb, Xī Xiān Cǎo.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Siegesbeckiae(Siegesbeckia Herb) as the dried aerial part of (1). Siegesbeckia orientalis L., (2). Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino., (3). Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino. They are plants of the Siegesbeckia L genus, Asteraceae family, Campanulales order. These commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Siegesbeckia orientalis L.


 Siegesbeckia orientalis L.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem erect, ca. 30~100 cm tall, branches obtuse, upper branches often dizygotic; All branches pale pubescent. Basal leaf flowering withered; Central leaf triangular-ovoid or ovate-lanceolate, 4~10 cm long, 1.8~6.5 cm wide, base broadly cuneate, descending into a winged stalk, apex acuminate, margin regularly lobed or coarsely toothed, papery, green above, pale green below, glandular, both surfaces hairy, basal veins triply, lateral veins and reticulate veins conspicuous; Upper leaves becoming smaller, ovate-oblong, margin shallowly undulate or entire, subsessile.

 Inflorescences 15~20 mm in diameter, mostly clustered at branchlets, arranged into leafy panicles; Pedicels 1.5~4 cm long, densely pubescent; Involucre broadly bell-shaped; Involucral bracts 2-layered, leafy, abaxially covered with purplish-brown capitate stipitate-glandular hairs; 5~6 outer bracts, spatulate or spatulate, spreading, 8~11 mm long, ca. 1.2 mm wide; Inner bracts ovoid oblong or ovoid, ca.5 mm long, ca. 1.5~2.2 mm wide. Outer bracket oblong, inwardly curved, inner bracket obovate-oblong. Flowers yellow; Tube length of female corolla 0.7 mm; Hermaphroditic tubular flowers upper campanulate, upper with 4~5 ovoid lobes. Achene obovate-ovoid, 4-ribbed, tip with grayish-brown annular projections, 3~3.5 mm long, 1~1.5 mm wide. Its flowering period is from April to September, fruiting from June to November.

 Siegesbeckia orientalis L.:flowering plant Ecological environment: the plant widely distributes in China, Southeast Asia, and North America tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, Europe, Armenia(Caucasus); It distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, the Hanjiang river area, and other regions in China. It grows in mountains, grasslands, thickets, forest margins, and undergrowth at an elevation of 110~2,700 meters. It is also commonly found in cultivated land. The plant is adaptable, but it grows well in a warm and humid environment. Its growth is better in soil rich in humus, fertile, loose sandy soil.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Siegesbeckia orientalis grows wild on the hillside, roadside, wasteland, strong adaptability. It prefers a warm and humid environment, grows well in rich humus fertile clay and noisy loam soil, and has a high yield. Soil moisture should not be high, otherwise easy to cause root rot. A low-lying, waterlogging area is not suitable for cultivation.

 Siegesbeckia Herb:herb photo Characters of herbs: The stem is cylindrical, the surface is gray-green, yellow-brown or purple-brown, longitudinal grooves and fine longitudinal stripes, opposite branches, slightly enlarged nodes, densely covered with white pubescence; The texture of the herb is hard and crisp, easily broken and there are obvious white pith visible on the fracture surface. Leaves are opposite, mostly shedding or broken; The complete leaf is triangular-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 4~10 cm long and 1.8~6.5 cm wide, the apex is blunt and pointed, the base is broad and cuneiform, and the edge is irregularly lobed or coarsely toothed; Both surfaces are coated with hairs, there are glandular spots on the lower surface. Sometimes yellow sand-like inflorescences can be seen at the top of stem or axils of leaves. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb, which has tender ranches, many leaves and dark green color, is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-inflammatory effect; ②.antihypertensive effect; ③.vasodilation effect; ④.inhibitory effect on cellular immunity and humoral immunity; ⑤.inhibitory effect on non-specific immunity; ⑥.inhibitory effect on thrombosis; ⑦.antibacterial and antimalarial effect; ⑧.antioxidant effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dampness, strengthen muscles and bones, free meridians and channels, lower blood pressure, clear heat and detoxify. It is indicated for the treatment of quadriplegia, rheumatic arthralgia, aching muscles and bones, weakness in waist and knees, malaria, acute hepatitis, jaundice, hypertension, malignant boils, carbuncle, sore, urticaria wet sores, traumatic bleeding, insect and beast bites.

 Administration of Herba Siegesbeckiae(Xī Xiān Cǎo): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Siegesbeckiae(Xī Xiān Cǎo)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~12 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 3~4 qian(about 9~12 grams),big dosage 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams),extract juice or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply,or fumigation wash with water decoction;③.Internally:water decoction, 9~12 grams, big dosage could be 30~60 grams, extract juice or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick,or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply,or fumigation wash with water decoction.

(2).Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino.


 Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xiàn Gěng Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem erect, stout, 30~110 cm tall, upper much-branched, spreading grayish villous and hispid. Basal leaves ovate-lanceolate, flowering withered; Middle leaf ovoid or ovate, spreading, 3.5~12 cm long, 1.8~6 cm wide, base broadly cuneate, descending into a winged stalk 1~3 cm long, apex acuminate, margin with pointed regular or irregular coarse teeth; Upper leaves becoming smaller, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; All leaves dark green above, pale green below, 3-veined basal, lateral veins and reticulate veins conspicuous, both surfaces flattened pubescent, villous along veins.

 Inflorescences ca. 18~22 mm in diameter, mostly branched, arranged in loose panicles; Pedicels longer, dense purple-brown head with stipitate-glandular hair and villous; Involucre campanulate; Involucral bracts 2 layers, leaflike, abaxially densely purplish-brown head with stipitate-glandular hairs, outer layer linear spatulate or broadly linear, 7~14 mm long, inner layer ovoid oblong, 3.5 mm long. Ligulate flower corolla tube 1~1.2 mm long, ligulate apex 2-3 lobed, sometimes 5 lobed; Bisexual tubular flowers ca. 2.5 mm long, coronal campanulate, apex 4~5 lobed. Achene obovate-ovoid, 4-ribbed, tip with grayish-brown annular projections. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting from June to October.

 Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows on the slope, the edge of the valley forest, the lawn under the thickets forest, the wet place of the valley, the streamside, the river channel, the wilderness, the farmland side and so on are also common, the altitude is 160~3,400 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, the Hanjiang river area, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The upper part of the branches of the herb is villous and there are purple-brown glandular spots, the Leaf is round or ovate, with irregular small serrations at the edge. The herb, which has tender ranches, many leaves and dark green color, is better.

(3).Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino.


 Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Máo Gěng Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem erect, slender, 30~80 cm tall, usually upper branched, appressed pubescent, sometimes upper densely hairy.

 Basal leaf flowering withered; Middle leaves ovoid, triangular-ovoid or ovoid-lanceolate, 2.5~11 cm long, 1.5~7 cm wide, base broadly cuneate or obtuse, sometimes descending into winged stalks 0.5~6 cm long, apex acuminate, margin regularly toothed; Upper leaves gradually smaller, ovate-lanceolate, 1 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, margin sparsely toothed or entire, sessile or sessile; Both surfaces of all leaves pilose, 3-veined, veins slightly protuberant below.

 Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino.:flowering plant Inflorescence 10~18 mm in diameter, most of the inflorescence arranged in branches into an evacuated panicle; Pedicels slender, sparsely pubescent. Involucre campanulate; Involucral bracts 2-layered, leafy, abaxially densely covered with purplish-brown capitate stipitate-glandular hairs; Outer bracts 5, linear spatulate, 6-9 mm long, inner bracts obovate-oblong, 3 mm long. Stipules obovate-oblong, abaxially sparsely capitate with stipitate-glandular hairs. Tube of female corolla ca. 0.8 mm long, bisexual corolla upper campanulate, apex 4~5 dentate lobed. Achene obovate, 4-arrowed, ca. 2.5 mm long, grayish-brown ringed. Its flowering period is from April to September, fruiting from June to November.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on the roadside, wilderness, grassland, and hillside thickets, at an elevation of 300~1,000 meters above sea level. It distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and other areas of China. It also distributes in some other areas of East Asia.

 Characters of herbs: The upper part of the branch of the herb is sparsely covered with pubescence, with small leaves and regular serrated edges. The herb, which has tender ranches, many leaves and dark green color, is better.
 
Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.

 Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xi Xian Cao:Siegesbeckia Herb or Herba Siegesbeckiae.

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