Introduction of Xi Xian Cao:Siegesbeckia Herb or Herba Siegesbeckiae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Siegesbeckia Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source three plant species, ①.Siegesbeckia orientalis L., ②.Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino., ③.Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Siegesbeckia Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Herba Siegesbeckiae(Siegesbeckia Herb).
Pin Yin Name: Xī Xiān Cǎo.
English Name: Siegesbeckia Herb.
Latin Name: Herba Siegesbeckiae.
Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The Herb Herba Siegesbeckiae is the dried aerial part of Siegesbeckia orientalis L., Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino or Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino, used (1).to dispel wind-damp and unblock collateral meridians for treating wind-damp(rheumatic or rheumatoid) arthralgia, and (2).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores, abscesses, and ulcers. The herb is commonly known as Herba Siegesbeckiae, Siegesbeckia Herb, Xī Xiān Cǎo.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Siegesbeckiae(Siegesbeckia Herb) as the dried aerial part of (1). Siegesbeckia orientalis L., (2). Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino., (3). Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino. They are plants of the Siegesbeckia L genus, Asteraceae family (Compositae, daisy family), Campanulales order. These commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Siegesbeckia orientalis L.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem is upright, ca. 30~100 cm tall, branches are obtuse, upper branches are often dizygotic; All branches are pale pubescent. Basal leaf withered during flowering; Central leaf is triangular-ovoid or ovate-lanceolate, 4~10 cm long, 1.8~6.5 cm wide, base broadly cuneate, descending into a winged stalk, apex acuminate, margin regularly lobed or coarsely toothed, papery, uppersurface is green, lowersurface is pale green, glandular, both surfaces are hairy, basal veins triply, lateral veins and reticulate veins are conspicuous; Upper leaves becoming smaller, ovate-oblong, margin shallowly undulate or entire, subsessile.
Inflorescences are 15~20 mm in diameter, mostly clustered at branchlets, arranged into leafy panicles; Pedicels are 1.5~4 cm long, densely pubescent; Involucre is broadly bell-shaped; Involucral bracts are 2-layered, leafy, abaxially covered with purplish-brown capitate stipitate-glandular hairs; 5~6 outer bracts, spatulate or spatulate, spreading, 8~11 mm long, ca. 1.2 mm wide; Inner bracts are ovoid oblong or ovoid, ca.5 mm long, ca. 1.5~2.2 mm wide. Outer bracket is oblong, inwardly curved, inner bracket is obovate-oblong. Flowers are yellow; Tube length of female corolla is 0.7 mm; Hermaphroditic tubular flowers upper campanulate, upper with 4~5 ovoid lobes. Achene is obovate-ovoid, 4-ribbed, tip with grayish-brown annular projections, 3~3.5 mm long, 1~1.5 mm wide. Its flowering period is from April to September, fruiting from June to November.
Ecological environment: the plant is widely distributed in China, Southeast Asia, and North America tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, Europe, Armenia(Caucasus); It is distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, the Hanjiang river area, and other regions in China. It grows in mountains, grasslands, thickets, forest margins, and undergrowth at an elevation of 110~2,700 meters. It is also commonly found in cultivated land. The plant is adaptable, but it grows well in a warm and humid environment. Its growth is better in soil rich in humus, fertile, loose sandy soil.
Growth characteristics: The plant Siegesbeckia orientalis grows wild on the hillside, roadside, wasteland, strong adaptability. It prefers a warm and humid environment, grows well in rich humus fertile clay and noisy loam soil, and has a high yield. Soil moisture should not be high, otherwise easy to cause root rot. A low-lying, waterlogging area is not suitable for cultivation.
Characters of herbs: The stem is cylindrical, the surface is gray-green, yellow-brown or purple-brown, longitudinal grooves and fine longitudinal stripes, opposite branches, slightly enlarged nodes, densely covered with white pubescence; The texture of the herb is hard and crisp, easily broken and there are obvious white pith visible on the fracture surface. Leaves are opposite, mostly shedding or broken; The complete leaf is triangular-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 4~10 cm long and 1.8~6.5 cm wide, the apex is blunt and pointed, the base is broad and cuneiform, and the edge is irregularly lobed or coarsely toothed; Both surfaces are coated with hairs, there are glandular spots on the lower surface. Sometimes yellow sand-like inflorescences can be seen at the top of stem or axils of leaves. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has tender ranches, many leaves and dark green color.
Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-inflammatory effect; ②.antihypertensive effect; ③.vasodilation effect; ④.inhibitory effect on cellular immunity and humoral immunity; ⑤.inhibitory effect on non-specific immunity; ⑥.inhibitory effect on thrombosis; ⑦.antibacterial and antimalarial effect; ⑧.antioxidant effect.
Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dampness, strengthen muscles and bones, free meridians and channels, lower blood pressure, clear heat and detoxify. It is indicated for the treatment of quadriplegia, rheumatic arthralgia, aching muscles and bones, weakness in waist and knees, malaria, acute hepatitis, jaundice, hypertension, malignant boils, carbuncle, sore, urticaria wet sores, traumatic bleeding, insect and beast bites.
Administration of Herba Siegesbeckiae (Xī Xiān Cǎo):
Administration Guide of Herba Siegesbeckiae (Xī Xiān Cǎo)
①.Internally:9~12 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 3~4 qian (about 9~12 grams),big dosage 1~2 liang (about 30~60 grams), extract juice or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply,or fumigation wash with water decoction;③.Internally:water decoction, 9~12 grams, big dosage could be 30~60 grams, extract juice or prepare to pill,powder. Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick,or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply,or fumigation wash with water decoction.
(2).Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xiàn Gěng Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem is upright, stout, 30~110 cm tall, upper much-branched, spreading grayish villous and hispid. Basal leaves are ovate-lanceolate, withered during flowering; Middle leaf is ovoid or ovate, spreading, 3.5~12 cm long, 1.8~6 cm wide, base broadly cuneate, descending into a winged stalk 1~3 cm long, apex acuminate, margin with pointed regular or irregular coarse teeth; Upper leaves becoming smaller, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; All leaves are dark green on uppersurface, pale green on undersurface, 3-veined basal, lateral veins and reticulate veins are conspicuous, both surfaces are flattened pubescent, villous along veins.
Inflorescences are 18~22 mm in diameter, mostly branched, arranged in loose panicles; Pedicels are longer, dense purple-brown head with stipitate-glandular hair and villous; Involucre campanulate; Involucral bracts have 2 layers, leaflike, abaxially densely purplish-brown head with stipitate-glandular hairs, outer layer is linear spatulate or broadly linear, 7~14 mm long, inner layer is ovoid oblong, 3.5 mm long. Ligulate flower corolla tube is 1~1.2 mm long, ligulate apex is 2-3 lobed, sometimes 5 lobed; Bisexual tubular flowers ca. 2.5 mm long, coronal campanulate, apex 4~5 lobed. Achene is obovate-ovoid, 4-ribbed, tip with grayish-brown annular projections. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting from June to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows on the slope, the edge of the valley forest, the lawn under the thickets forest, the wet place of the valley, the streamside, the river channel, the wilderness, the farmland side and so on are also common, the altitude is 160~3,400 meters above sea level. It is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, the Hanjiang river area, and other areas of China.
Characters of herbs: The upper part of the branches of the herb is villous and there are purple-brown glandular spots, the leaf is round or ovate, with irregular small serrations at the edge. The herb of better grade has tender ranches, many leaves and dark green color.
(3).Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Máo Gěng Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem is upright, slender, 30~80 cm tall, usually upper part is branched, appressed pubescent, sometimes upper part is densely hairy.
Basal leaf is withered during flowering; Middle leaves are ovoid, triangular-ovoid or ovoid-lanceolate, 2.5~11 cm long, 1.5~7 cm wide, base is broadly cuneate or obtuse, sometimes descending into winged stalks 0.5~6 cm long, apex acuminate, margin regularly toothed; Upper leaves are gradually smaller, ovate-lanceolate, 1 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, margin sparsely toothed or entire, sessile or sessile; Both surfaces of all leaves are pilose, 3-veined, veins slightly protuberant below.
Inflorescence is 10~18 mm in diameter, most of the inflorescence arranged in branches into an evacuated panicle; Pedicels are slender, sparsely pubescent. Involucre campanulate; Involucral bracts are 2-layered, leafy, abaxially densely covered with purplish-brown capitate stipitate-glandular hairs; Outer bracts 5, linear spatulate, 6-9 mm long, inner bracts are obovate-oblong, 3 mm long. Stipules are obovate-oblong, abaxially sparsely capitate with stipitate-glandular hairs. Tube of female corolla is 0.8 mm long, bisexual corolla upper campanulate, apex 4~5 dentate lobed. Achene is obovate, 4-arrowed, ca. 2.5 mm long, grayish-brown ringed. Its flowering period is from April to September, fruiting from June to November.
Ecological environment: The plant grows on the roadside, wilderness, grassland, and hillside thickets, at an elevation of 300~1,000 meters above sea level. It is distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and other areas of China. It also distributes in some other areas of East Asia.
Characters of herbs: The upper part of the branch of the herb is sparsely covered with pubescence, with small leaves and regular serrated edges. The herb of better grade has tender ranches, many leaves and dark green color.
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1.Introduction of Xi Xian Cao:Siegesbeckia Herb or Herba Siegesbeckiae.