Introduction of Fang Ji:Fourstamen Stephania Root or Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon06 Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.

 
Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae(Fourstamen Stephania Root).

Fourstamen Stephania Root Pin Yin Name: Fánɡ Jǐ.
 English Name: Fourstamen Stephania Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae is the dried root of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore(family Menispermaceae), used to dispel wind-damp, induce diuresis in cases of rheumatic arthritis, edema, and oliguria. The herb is commonly known as Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Fourstamen Stephania Root, Fánɡ Jǐ.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae(Fourstamen Stephania Root) as the dried root of (1). Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It is a plant of the Stephania Lour. Genus, the Menispermaceae family, Ranales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Stephania tetrandra S. Moore.


 Stephania tetrandra S. Moore.:drawing of plant and herb Botanical description: It is commonly known as Fěn Fáng Jǐ. Herbaceous vine, ca. 1~3 meters high; Taproots fleshy, columnar; Branchlets have straight lines. Leaves papery, broadly triangular, sometimes triangular suborbicular, usually 4~7 cm long, 5~8.5 cm wide or crossed, apex convex, base slightly concave or subtruncated, both surfaces or just below appressed pubescent; 9~10 palmate veins, relatively fine, network veins very dense, obvious; Petiole 3~7 cm long. Inflorescence capitate, racemose on axillary, long and pendulous branches, bracts small or very small; Male flowers: 4 sepals or sometimes 5, usually obovate-elliptic, clawed ca. 0.8 mm long, ciliate; 5 petals, fleshy, 0.6 mm long, margin inflexed; The stamens of polydrug were about 0.8 mm long. Female flowers: sepals and petals resembling male flowers. Drupe subglobose when ripe, red; Fruit core diameter about 5.5 mm, the back of the cockscomb - shaped eminence, about 15 small cross-rib carving on each side. It is flowering summer, fruiting in autumn.

 Stephania tetrandra S. Moore.:growing plants Perennial leaves entwine vines. Stem slender with longitudinal stripes. Leaves alternate, broadly triangular-ovate, apex obtuse, apex truncate or slightly cordate, both surfaces are pubescent, entire, palmate veined 5; Petiole shield bearing. Flowers small, unisexual, dioecious; Male inflorescences capitate, racemose, 4 sepals, 4 petals, 4 stamens, filaments joined into a column, upper disk, anthers inserted above; Female flowers sepals, petals and male flowers, carpels are different. Drupes globose, red when ripe. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from July to September.

 Stephania tetrandra S. Moore.:stems and leaves Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides, hilly areas of the grass and bushes edge, grows at the edge of the village, wilderness, roadside, and other places in the bush. It distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, Hainan, Taiwan of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Stephania tetrandra prefers a wet environment, avoid dry, waterlogging. It is advisable to choose sandy loam with good drainage and a deep and fertile soil layer or loam for cultivation. The slope, forest edge, with limestone mountain cultivation, is good.

 Fourstamen Stephania Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: This herb is irregular cylindrical, semi-cylindrical or block, more curved, 5~10 cm long. Diameter is 1~5 cm. The surface is pale grayish-yellow, often deep in the curved part of the transverse groove and into nodules of the tumor block-like. Weight, solid quality, flat section, pale, rich pink, with a sparse arrangement of radial texture. Slight smell, bitter taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.analgesic; ②.antipyretic; ③.anti-inflammatory; ④.anti-anaphylactic shock; ⑤.diuretic; ⑥.anti-hypotensive(blood pressure lowering); ⑦.muscular relaxation, and other functions.

 Medicinal efficacy: Alleviate water retention and detumescence(reduce swelling), dispelling the wind and relieving pain, discharge heat and dampness of the lower energizer. It is indicated for edema and beriberi, dampness-heat beriberi, swelling and pain of beriberi, spasm pain of hands and feet, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), eczema sore poison, scabies and sore swelling, rheumatic pain, hypertension, etc.

 Administration of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae(Fánɡ Jǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae(Fánɡ Jǐ)
TCM Books: Internally:4.5~9 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 6~10 grams,or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Fang Ji:Fourstamen Stephania Root or Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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