Introduction of Fang Ji:Fourstamen Stephania Root or Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Fourstamen Stephania Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Stephania tetrandra S. Moore., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Fourstamen Stephania Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae(Fourstamen Stephania Root).

dried herb slices of Fourstamen Stephania Root Pin Yin Name: Fánɡ Jǐ.
 English Name: Fourstamen Stephania Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae is the dried root of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, used to dispel wind-damp, induce diuresis in cases of rheumatic arthritis, edema, and oliguria. The herb is commonly known as Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Fourstamen Stephania Root, Fánɡ Jǐ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae (Fourstamen Stephania Root) as the dried root of (1). Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It is a plant of the Stephania Lour. Genus, the Menispermaceae family (moonseed family), Ranales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Stephania tetrandra S. Moore.

 a colorful drawing of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore.,drawing of plant and herb,red fruits,rhizome Botanical description: Stephania tetrandra S. Moore is commonly known as Fěn Fáng Jǐ, or Jīn Qián Diào Hú Lu, Jīn Qián Diào Há Ma, Shān Wū Guī, etc. Perennial deciduous vines, the plant grows to 1~3 meters high; tuberous roots are usually cylindrical, succulent, grow deeply underground, 3~15 cm long, 1~5 cm in diameter; root bark is pale brown or tan (chocolate brown), has transverse striation. Stem branches are thin, and have longitudinal stripes. Leaves are alternate; petioles are 5~6 cm long, scutiform (shield-like) and insert; leaf blades are triangular broad-ovate or wide triangular, 4~6 cm long, 5~6 cm wide, the apex is blunt, has small protruding tips, the base is truncate or slightly cordate, entire, the upper surface is green, the undersurface is celadon (sage green) or gypseus, both surfaces are pubescent, denser on the undersurface, 5 palmate veins.

 Flowers are small, unisexual, dioecious; male plants have cymose inflorescences, racemose; male flowers: 4 sepals or sometimes 5 sepals, arranged in a whorl, green, spatulate, about 1 mm long, about 0.5 mm wide, the base is cuneate; 4 flower petals, green, obovate, about 0.9 mm long, about 0.7 mm wide, succulent, edge is slightly recurved (introflexed), sometimes has short claws; 4 pistils, filaments connate in prismatical shape, the upper part is disc shape, anthers grow and insert on it; female plants have shortened cymes, pseudocephalic, racemose; female flowers: 4 sepals, arranged in a whorl; 4 flower petals; the ovary is elliptic, about 1 mm long, 3 styles, mamillary.

 plants of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. growing in field Drupe fruits are spheric shape (globular) when they are mature, red, 5~6 mm in diameter; the endocarp is 4~5 mm long or wide, there are 4 lines of sculpture striation on the back, 2 middle lines are protruding cockscomb-shaped, 15~17 grains are in each line, the placental trace is imperforate. Its flowering period is from May to June, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 plants of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore with many green leaves Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides or mountain slopes, in the grass of weald, in bushes, the edge of villages, wilderness, on roadsides, and other places in the bush. The plant is distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, Hainan, Taiwan of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Stephania tetrandra prefers a warm and moist environment, avoiding drought and waterlogging. It is advisable to choose fields with deep soil layers, fertile sandy loam or loam with good drainage for cultivation. For the fields on hillsides, mountain slopes or forest edge, better choose limestone mountain fields for cultivation.

 dried herb slices of Fourstamen Stephania Root are piled together Characters of herbs: The tuberous roots of Stephania tetrandra are cylindrical, semi-cylindrical lumpy, or lumpy flaky, often curved in tuberculiform, and there are constricted transverse grooves at the bend part, which are like nodules, 3~15 cm long, and 2~5 cm in diameter. The surface of those not scraped off the cork bark is taupe brown (grayish brown), has fine wrinkles and conspicuous transverse protuberant lenticels; the surface of those that have been scraped off the cork bark is ravous (pale sallow or pale grayish yellow). The herb is heavy, the texture of the herb is firm and solid, the fracture surface is flat, ash gray (grayish white) to yellowish-white, mealy (powdery), there are sparsely arranged radial marks, and the vertical section has vessel-like curly grains. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes bitter. The herb of a better grade has its cork bark removed, is dry, has uniform thickness, is heavy, mealy (powdery), and has less fiber.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.analgesic; ②.antipyretic; ③.anti-inflammatory; ④.anti-anaphylactic shock; ⑤.diuretic; ⑥.anti-hypotensive(blood pressure lowering); ⑦.muscular relaxation, and other functions.

 Medicinal efficacy: Alleviate water retention and detumescence (reduce swelling), dispelling the wind and relieving pain, discharge heat and dampness of the lower energizer. It is indicated for edema and beriberi, dampness-heat beriberi, swelling and pain of beriberi, spasm pain of hands and feet, dysuria (difficulty in micturition), eczema sore poison, scabies and sore swelling, rheumatic pain, hypertension, etc.

 Administration of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae (Fánɡ Jǐ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae (Fánɡ Jǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 6~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.




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