Introduction of Du Huo:Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root or Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.
✵The article gives records of the herb Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan., and other three usable plant species, ②.Angelica pubescens Maxim., ③.Purple stem Angelica pubescens., ④.Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels. with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Pin Yin Name: Dú Huó.
English Name: Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root.
Latin Name: Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.
Property and flavor: slightly warm, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Radix Angelicae Pubescentis is the dried root of Angelica pubescens Maxim.f.biserrata Shan et Yuan, used to dispel wind-damp, relieve arthralgia and release the superficies for wind-cold-damp (rheumatic or rheumatoid) arthalgia, especially that of the lower part of the body, and affliction of wind-cold with damp. The herb is commonly known as Radix Angelicae Pubescentis, Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root, Dú Huó.
Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root) as the dried root of (1). Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan. Other common famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Angelicae Pubescentis(Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root) as the dried root of (1). Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan., (2). Angelica pubescens Maxim., (3). Purple stem Angelica pubescens., (4). Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels. They are plants of the Angelica L. genus, Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family), Apiales order. This herbal classic book defined species and other usable species are introduced:
(1).Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Chóng Chǐ Máo Dāng Guī. Perennial herbs. Stem is upright, purplish, longitudinally furrowed. Petiole of rhizome leaves and lower stem leaves are slender, base grow into a broad sheath, margin is membranous. Leaf-blade is ovoid, 2-gyrus 3-pinnately compound, smaller leaf blade is 3-lobed, eventually lobed oblong, 4~8 cm long, 2~3 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate or rounded, margin irregularly doubly serrate, both sides are pubescent, the upper part of stem simplified into the swollen sheath. Compound umbel is terminal or lateral, involucral bracts are absent; 10~25 spokes, rarely up to 45, unequal, densely yellow pubescent; Inflorescence cymose is with 15~30 flowers; 5~8 involucral bracts, lanceolate; Flowers are white; Calyx teeth are shortly triangular; 5 petals, equally large, broadly ovate, apex pointed, inflexed; 5 stamens, filaments internally curved; Lower ovary. The dorsal part of bicuspid fruit is flat, oblong, the base is concave, dorsal edge and middle edge are raised, the lateral edge is a wing, there are 1~4 tubing between furrow, the confluent surface has 4~5 tubings. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from September to October.
Ecological environment: The plant is distributed in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, China.
Growth characteristics: The plant Angelica pubescens prefers a cool and humid climate, cold resistance, suitable for growth in the alpine mountainous areas at the altitude of 1,200~2,000 meters above sea level. It is not suitable to grow on shallow soil, water, and cohesive soil, but on black grey bubble soil and yellow sand soil with a deep soil layer and rich humus.
Characters of herbs: The root head and main root are thick and short, slightly cylindrical, with a length of 1.5~4 cm and a diameter of 1.5~3.5 cm. There are several curved branch roots in the lower part, with a length of 12~30 cm and a diameter of 0.5~1.5 cm. The surface is coarse and rough, gray-brown, with irregular longitudinal wrinkles and transverse cracks, and many transverse lenticels and fine root marks; The root head has ring pattern, multiple ring petiole mark, and concave stem mark in the middle. The texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is grayish yellow and white, the cambium ring is brown, the cortex has brown oil spots (oil pipes), and the wood part is yellowish brown; There are large pith parts and oil spots in the cross-section of the root heat. The herb has a special odor, it tastes bitter and pungent, slightly numbing tongue, the herb of better grade is thick, oily with strong aroma.
Pharmacological actions: ①. effect on platelet aggregation and experimental thrombosis; ②. effect on cardiovascular system; ③. Spasmolysis; ④. analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory effects; ⑤. antimicrobial effect:osthole and xanthotoxin showed a wide antibacterial spectrum in vitro tests on 11 strains. Umbelliferone has an obvious inhibitory effect on Brucella:; ⑥. light sensitization:bergapten, xanthotoxin and isopeulustrin, and furocoumarin compounds are light active substances when they enter the body, once shine by the sunlight or ultraviolet light, then can make the illuminated solar dermatitis, the exposed skin is affected by swelling, the pigment in the irradiated area, even skin thickening, etc; ⑦. Other effects: bergapten has a moderate protective effect on the experimental gastric ulcer. xanthotoxin and bergapten have the killing effect on Eichtenberg ascites cancer cells.
Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and eliminate dampness, dispel cold, relieve pain and numbness. It is indicated for arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness due to wind and cold, the pain of waist and knee, the headache of Shaoyin and hidden wind, clonic pain of hands and feet, chronic tracheitis, headache, and toothache.
Administration of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (Dú Huó):
Administration Guide of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (Dú Huó)
①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), infusing in wine or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~10 grams,or infusing in wine,or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,wash with water decoction.
(2).Angelica pubescens Maxim.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Máo Dāng Guī. Herbs perennial, the plant grows up to 1~3 meters tall. Stem is purplish, glabrous. Root leaves and lower stem leaves are 2-gyrus 3-pinnately compound, small leaves are ovoid, 4~14 cm long, 2.5~8 cm wide, margin obtuse, apex acuminate, base is rounded or cuneate, veins are sparsely pubescent, the upper part of stem leaves are gradually simplified into expanded leaf sheaths. Inflorescence is complex; corymbose 10~20, involucre is absent or with 1~2 sheaths; Inflorescence cymose is with 16~30 flowers; Involucre several, flowers are white; Calyx teeth is shortly triangular; 5 petals, 5 stamens; Lower ovary. The double pendulous fruit is oblate, the back is a ridge, the lateral edge is a wing, there is 1 tubing in each furrow, there are 2 tubings in the commissure. The flowering period is from June to August, fruiting period is from August to September.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in valleys, ditches, grass, or bushes. It grows in the undergrowth grass, valley edge, or hillside roadside area with an altitude of 950~2,400 meters above sea level. The plant is distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Guangxi, Xinjiang, and other areas of China.
(3).Purple stem Angelica pubescens.
Botanical description: Perennial herbs, the plant grows up to 1~2 meters tall. Stem is dark purple, longitudinally furrowed, upper part is with a few branches, densely shortly hirsute. Leaves alternate, lower and middle leaves are 2~3 gyrus pinnate deeply lobed, ultimate lobes are narrowly ovate, narrowly lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 2~5 cm long, 6~12 mm wide, veins on both surfaces are finely hairy, margin is with incised sharp teeth; Base of petiole dilated into the sheath. Upper leaves are simplified into purplish-black sacs, densely tomentose. Compound umbel is terminal, pedicel is hairy; Without involucre; 20~30 spokes, densely pilose; Involucral bracts are subulate, ciliate; Flowers are purple, less white. Fruit is elliptic in width, 0.6~1 cm long, 5~7 mm wide; Hanging fruit flat, with wide wings, dorsal ribs thin line.
Ecological environment: The plant grows on the hillside grass. The plant is mainly distributed in the north and other areas of China.
(4).Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Niú Wěi Dú Huó. Perennial herbs, the plant grows up to 0.5~1.5 meters tall. Roots are long conical, sometimes with slender branches. Stem is simple, the surface has longitudinal groove grain, sparsely pubescent. Petiole of basal leaf and lower part of stem is 8~17 cm long, base expanded into broadleaf sheath, margin is membranous; 1~2 gyrus pinnately divided, 3~5 lobes, broadly ovate or ovate, 5~13 cm long, 4~20 cm wide, 3-lobed, margin is irregularly serrate, both sides are sparsely pubescent, upper stem leaves are smaller, 3-lobed to 3-luanhea. Compound umbellate inflorescence is terminal, dense sarcophenous pilose; 16~18 umbrella spokes, 3.5~9 cm long; Involucre is few, lanceolate, sometimes margin pinnate lobed, 5~8 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate, pilose, inflorescences with flowers ca. 20, white; Calyx teeth are not conspicuous; 5 petals, tip is concave, unequal in size; 5 stamens; Ovary is inferior, densely puberulent, style base is conical. Fruit is oblate, 6~7 mm long, 5 mm wide, dorsal ribs are insignificant, 4 tubings, 2 tubings on commissure, lateral ribs developed into wings. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting period is from August to September.
Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides, under thickets, and forests. It is mainly distributed in the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, southwest, and other areas of China.
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1.Introduction of Du Huo:Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root or Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.