Introduction of Du Huo:Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root or Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan., and other three usable plant species, ②.Angelica pubescens Maxim., ③.Angelica porphyrocaulis Nakaiet Kitag., ④.Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels. with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Angelicae Pubescentis(Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root).

Radix Angelicae Pubescentis Pin Yin Name: Dú Huó.
 English Name: Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.
 Property and flavor: slightly warm, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Angelicae Pubescentis is the dried root of Angelica pubescens Maxim.f.biserrata Shan et Yuan, used to dispel wind-damp, relieve arthralgia and release the superficies for wind-cold-damp (rheumatic or rheumatoid) arthalgia, especially that of the lower part of the body, and affliction of wind-cold with damp. The herb is commonly known as Radix Angelicae Pubescentis, Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root, Dú Huó.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root) as the dried root of (1). Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan. Other common famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root) as the dried root of (1). Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan., (2). Angelica pubescens Maxim., (3). Angelica porphyrocaulis Nakaiet Kitag., (4). Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels. They are plants of the Angelica L. genus, Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family), and Apiales order. This herbal classic book defined species and other usable species are introduced:

(1).Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan.

 Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan.:flowering plant Botanical description: Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan., is also known as Angelica biserrata (Shan et Yuan) Yuan et Shan., or Angelica pubescens auct. non Maxim., it is commonly known as Chóng Chǐ Dāng Guī, or Chóng Chǐ Máo Dāng Guī. Perennial tall herbs. The root is subcylindrical, tan (chocolate brown), up to 15 cm long, 1~2.5 cm in diameter, and has a special fragrance. The stem is upright, up to 1~2 meters high, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, hollow, often purplish, smooth, or slightly with shallow grooves, and the upper part has short coarse hairs. Leaves are biternate pinnatisect, broadly ovate, 20~30 cm long or up to 40 cm long, 15~25 cm wide; petioles of cauline leaves are up to 30~50 cm long, base is enlarged into long tubular shape, half stem-clasping thick membraneous leaf sheath, spreading, the back surface is glabrous or slightly pubescent; final lobules are membraneous, ovoid to oblong oval, 5.5~18 cm long, 3~6.5 cm wide, apex is acuminate, base is cuneate, edge is irregularly sharp-serrate or biserrate, tip of teeth has short incurvate pointed tip, apical final lobules are often deeply 3-parted, base is usually decurrent along rhachis to aliform shape, lateral lobules are short stipitate or sessile, both surfaces are pubescent along leaf veins and margin; stipule (peraphyllum) of inflorescence is simplified to gibbose leaf sheath, glabrous, occasionally covered with sparse short hairs.

 The compound umbel is apical or lateral, the peduncle is 5~16 cm long to up to 20 cm long, densely covered with short coarse hairs; 1 involucral bract, long subulate, has marginal seta( tricholoma), caducous; spokes 10~25, 1.5~5 cm long, densely covered with short coarse hairs; umbel has 17~28 flowers or up to 36 flowers; 5~10 involucel bracts, broadly lanceolate, shorter than pedicel (flower stalk), apex is long pointed, the under surface and edge is covered with short hairs; flowers are white; no calyx teeth; flower petals are obovate, the tip is concave; stylopodium is a flat disc.

 The fruit is elliptic, 6~8 mm long, and 3~5 mm wide, side wings are equal width as the fruit body or slightly narrower, the back is a ridge, protuberant, groove between ridges has 1~2 vittae (oil ducts) or up to 3, the connation has 2~4 vittae (oil ducts) or up to 6. Its flowering period is from August to September, the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan.:growing shrub Ecological environment: The plant grows on dank hillsides and mountain slopes, thicket under forests, and sparse bushes. The plant is distributed in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, China. It is also cultivated in Alpine areas in the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Angelica pubescens prefers a cool and humid climate, it is tolerant to cold, and suitable for growth in the high and cold alpine mountainous areas at the altitude of 1,200~2,000 meters above sea level. It is better to choose fields with deep soil layers, black gray bubble soil, and yellow sandy soil rich in humus for cultivation, should not choose fields with shallow soil layers, water logging fields, and clay soils.

 Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The root head and tap root (main root) are thick and short, slightly cylindrical (subcylindrical), 1.5~4 cm long, and 1.5~3.5 cm in diameter. There are several curved rootlets in the lower part, 12~30 cm long, and 0.5~1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is coarse and rough, taupe brown, with irregular longitudinal wrinkles and cross cracks, and many lalongate lenticels and radicel marks (fine root marks); The root head has ring grain (fringes), with multiseriate ringlike petiole marks, and concave stem mark in the center. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, the fracture surface is grayish yellow-white, the cambium ring is brown, the cortex has brown oil spots (vittae, or oil ducts), and the woody part is yellowish brown; There are large pith parts and oil spots in the cross-section of the root head. The herb has a special odor, it tastes bitter and pungent, slightly numbing the tongue. The herb of better grade is thick, and oily with a strong aroma.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. effect on platelet aggregation and experimental thrombosis; ②. effect on cardiovascular system; ③. Spasmolysis; ④. analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory effects; ⑤. antimicrobial effect:osthole and xanthotoxin showed a wide antibacterial spectrum in vitro tests on 11 strains. Umbelliferone has an obvious inhibitory effect on Brucella:; ⑥. light sensitization:bergapten, xanthotoxin and isopeulustrin, and furocoumarin compounds are light active substances when they enter the body, once shine by the sunlight or ultraviolet light, then can make the illuminated solar dermatitis, the exposed skin is affected by swelling, the pigment in the irradiated area, even skin thickening, etc; ⑦. Other effects: bergapten has a moderate protective effect on the experimental gastric ulcer. xanthotoxin and bergapten have the killing effect on Eichtenberg ascites cancer cells.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and eliminate dampness, dispel cold, relieve pain and numbness. It is indicated for arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness due to wind and cold, the pain of waist and knee, the headache of Shaoyin and hidden wind, clonic pain of hands and feet, chronic tracheitis, headache, and toothache.

 Administration of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (Dú Huó): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (Dú Huó)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), infusing in wine or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~10 grams,or infusing in wine,or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,wash with water decoction.

(2).Angelica pubescens Maxim.

 Angelica pubescens Maxim.:flowering plant Botanical description: Angelica pubescens Maxim., is commonly known as Máo Dāng Guī. Perennial herbs, the plant grows up to 1~3 meters tall. The stem is purplish and glabrous. Basal leaves and cauline leaves on the lower stem are biternate or triternate pinnately compound leaves, lobules (foliole) are ovoid, 4~14 cm long, 2.5~8 cm wide, margin has crenature, the apex is acuminate, the base is rounded or cuneate, veins are sparsely pubescent, cauline leaves of the upper stem are gradually simplified into expanded leaf sheaths.

 Compound umbel, 10~20 spokes, involucre is absent or has 1~2 sheath-like bracts; Umbellule (umbellet) has 16~30 flowers; several involucels (involucellum), flowers are white; Calyx teeth are short triangular; 5 petals, 5 stamens; the ovary is inferior.

 The cremocarp is oblate, the back ridge is linear and raised, the lateral edge is winglike, there are 1 vittae (oil duct) in each groove, and there are 2 vittae (oil duct) in the commissure. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from August to September.

 Angelica pubescens Maxim.:drawing of plant Ecological environment: The plant grows in valleys, ditches, grass, or bushes. It grows in the undergrowth grass, valley edge, or hillside and mountain slopes, roadside, in the area at an altitude of 950~2,400 meters above sea level. The plant is distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Xinjiang, and other areas of China.

(3).Angelica porphyrocaulis Nakaiet Kitag.

 Angelica pubescens Maxim.:flowers Botanical description: Angelica porphyrocaulis Nakaiet Kitag., is also known as Purple stem Angelica pubescens, or Purple Angelica pubescens. Perennial herbs, the plant grows up to 1~2 meters tall. The stem is modena (dark purple), has longitudinal grooves, and the upper part has a few branches, densely covered with shortly hirsute. Leaves are alternate, leaves on the lower and middle part are bipinnatipartite to tripinnatipartite, final lobes are narrowly ovate, narrow-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 2~5 cm long, 6~12 mm wide, veins are finely hairy on both surfaces, the margin is with incised sharp teeth; Base of the petiole is enlarged into a sheath. Upper leaves are simplified into atropurpureus (purple black) cystic form leaf sheath, outside is densely tomentose.

 Compound umbel is terminal, pedicel is hairy; no involucre; 20~30 spokes, densely pilose; Involucral bracts are subulate, have marginal seta (tricholoma); Flowers are purple, rarely white.

 The cremocarp is broadly elliptical, 0.6~1 cm long, and 5~7 mm wide; the mericarp is flat, with wide wings, and dorsal ribs are thin and linear.

 Ecological environment: The plant mostly grows in the grass on hillsides or mountain slopes. The plant is mainly distributed in the north and other areas of China.

(4).Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels.

 Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels.:flowers Botanical description: Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels., is commonly known as Niú Wěi Dú Huó. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 0.5~1.5 meters tall. Roots are long conical, and sometimes have several slender rootlets. The stem is simple, the surface has longitudinal grooves, sparsely pubescent. Petioles of basal leaves and cauline leaves on the lower part of the stem are 8~17 cm long, the base expanded into a broad leaf sheath, the margin is membranous; pinnately divided or bipinnatifid, 3~5 lobes, lobes are broad-ovate or oval (egg-shaped), 5~13 cm long, 4~20 cm wide, 3-lobed, margin is irregularly serrate, both surfaces are sparsely pubescent, leaves on the upper part of the stem are smaller, 3-lobed to deeply 3-parted. Compound umbel is apical, densely covered with pilose; 16~18 umbrella spokes, 3.5~9 cm long; General involucre is few, long lanceolate, sometimes margin is pinnatilobate, 5~8 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate, pilose, umbellule (umbellet) has about 20 flowers, white; Calyx teeth are not conspicuous; 5 petals, the tip is concave, unequal in size; 5 stamens; Ovary is inferior, densely puberulent, style base is conical. The cremocarp is oblate, 6~7 mm long, and 5 mm wide, dorsal ribs are inconspicuous, 4 vittae (oil duct), 2 vittae (oil duct) on commissure, lateral ribs developed into wings. Its flowering period is from May to July, the fruiting period is from August to September.

 Heracleum hemsleyanum Diels.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides and mountain slopes, bushes, and forests. It is mainly distributed in the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, southwest, and other areas of China.
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