Introduction of Xu Chang Qing:Paniculate Swallowwort Root or Radix Cynanchi Paniculati.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Paniculate Swallowwort Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge) Kitag., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Paniculate Swallowwort Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Cynanchi Paniculati(Paniculate Swallowwort Root).

dried herb segments of Paniculate Swallowwort Root Pin Yin Name: Xú Cháng Qīng.
 English Name: Paniculate Swallowwort Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Cynanchi Paniculati.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Cynanchi Paniculati is the dried root and rhizome of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge) Kitag., used to unblock collateral meridians, alleviate pain, relieve toxicity and reduce swelling for treating rheumatalgia, toothache, lumbago, traumatic injuries, dysmenorrhea, and eczema. The herb is also known as Paniculate Swallowwort Root, Radix Cynanchi Paniculati or Xú Cháng Qīng.

 Botanical source: The herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Cynanchi Paniculati(Paniculate Swallowwort Root) as the dried root and rhizome of (1). Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge) Kitag. It is a plant of the Cynanchum Linn. Genus, Asclepiadaceae family (Asclepiadaceae, milkweed subfamily), Contortae order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge) Kitag.

 flowering plant of Cynanchum paniculatum Bge.Kitag.,with small green flower buds and yellowish flowers Botanical description: Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge) Kitag is also known as Asclepias paniculata Bunge or Pycnostelma paniculata K.Schum., it is commonly known as Xú Cháng Qīng or Jiān Dāo ér Miáo. A perennial upright herb, the plant grows up to 1 meter high. The roots are thin and whisker-shaped, with more than 50 roots, its shape is like a horsetail and has a special aroma. The stem is thin and straight, unbranched, glabrous, or puberulent. Leaves are opposite, sessile; leaf blades are lanceolate to linear, 4~13 cm long, 3~15 mm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is narrowing, both surfaces are glabrous, or the upper surface is sparsely pilose, leaf edge is slightly reflexed, has cilia, the upper surface is dark green, the undersurface is pea green (pale green); the main vein is protuberant.

 flowering plant of Cynanchum paniculatum Bge.Kitag with many greenish yellow flowers Coniform cymes, grow in leaf axils near the top, up to 7 cm long, and have more than 10 flowers; the calyx is 5-parted, ovate-lanceolate; corolla is yellow-green, 5-parted, broadly ovate, explanate or revolute; 5 catacorolla (paracorolla), yellow, succulent, reniform, base connate with stamens; 5 stamens, connect with each other and are cylindraceous; anthers have 2 loculi, one pollinium (pollen mass) per loculus, pendulous, stalks are short, explanate; 1 pistil, ovary is superior, composed of 2 free carpels, 2 styles, stigma is pentagonal, the apex is slightly protuberant.

 Follicles are corniform, solitary, and about 6 cm long, the surface is hazel (pale brown). Seeds are many, oval (egg-shaped) and flat, and dark brown; the apex has a tuft of white, thin, long hairs. Its flowering period is from May to July, and the fruiting period is from September to December.

 a flowering plant of Cynanchum paniculatum Bge.Kitag. Ecological environment: The plant grows in the grass on sunny slopes. The plant is distributed in the eastern, middle south, northern, northwest, and southwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Cynanchum paniculatum has a strong adaptability to climates, and it can be cultivated in all parts of the northern and southern areas. It is better to choose fertile, loose, sandy loam for cultivation.

 a flowering plant of Cynanchum paniculatum Bge.Kitag. with many small flowers Characters of herbs: The rhizome is irregularly columnar, with disc knots, 0.5~3.5 cm long, and 2~4 mm in diameter; some have cylindrical stem residue attached on the top, which is 1~2 cm long, and the fracture surface is hollow. Roots cluster at the root nodes, cylindrical, thin and long, and curved, 10~16 cm long, and 1~1.5 mm in diameter; the surface is fallow (light yellowish-brown) to light brown (pale brown), has fine longitudinal wrinkles and fine fibrous roots; the texture of the herb is crisp, easy to break, and the fracture surface is mealy (powdery), the cortex is off-white or yellowish-white, the cambium ring is light brown; and the xylem (wood part) is thin and small. The herb has a fragrant odor, and it tastes slightly pungent and cool. The whole herb has roots, and a stem is single or has few branches, 20~60 cm long, and 1~2 mm in diameter; the surface is pale yellowish-green, and the base is slightly mauve (lilac), with fine longitudinal striation, or piliferous; the texture is slightly crisp, the fracture surface is fibrous. Leaves are opposite, leaf blades are twisted, and easily broken, intact leaves are long lanceolate, the surface is pale yellowish-green, stipitate (has short stalks), or subsessile. The herb of a better grade has a strong aroma.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.analgesic effect, ②.sedative effect, ③.blood pressure-lowering effect, ④.lowering blood lipids. ⑤.the effect on smooth muscle. ⑥.antibacterial effect: It has inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus A.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and eliminate dampness, relieve itching, relieve pain, relieve cough, relieve swelling, alleviate water retention, promote blood circulation and detoxify. It is indicated for rheumatic pain and numbness, stomachache distension fullness, stomachache, toothache, lumbago, rheumatic pain, epigastric pain, menstrual abdominal pain, injury of fall, chronic tracheitis, ascites (abdominal dropsy), edema, diarrhea, dysentery, enteritis, urticaria (nettlerash), eczema, venomous snake bite, etc.

 Administration of Radix Cynanchi Paniculati(Xú Cháng Qīng): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Cynanchi Paniculati(Xú Cháng Qīng)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~12 grams, decoct later; ②.Internally:water decoction,1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), or prepare to pill, or infusing in wine. Externally:mashed and apply stick, or wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), better not decoct for long time, or prepare to pill, or infusing in wine.
 Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Cynanchi Paniculati should be used cautiously in conditions physical weakness.




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  • 1.Introduction of Xu Chang Qing:Paniculate Swallowwort Root or Radix Cynanchi Paniculati.

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