Introduction of Qin Jiao:Large-leaf Gentian Root or Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Large-leaf Gentian Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source four plant species, ①.Gentiana macrophylla Pall., ②.Gentiana straminea Maxim., ③.Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk., ④.Gentiana dahurica Fisch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Large-leaf Gentian Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae(Large-leaf Gentian Root).

Large-leaf Gentian Root Pin Yin Name: Qín Jiāo.
 English Name: Large-leaf Gentian Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae is the dried root of Gentiana macrophylla Pall.Gentiana straminea Maxim., Gentiana dahurica Fisch.(family Gentianaceae), used (1).to dispel wind-damp, relieve arthralgia and clear consumptive heat for the treatment of wind-damp(rheumatic or rheumatoid) pain, and also for fever in phthisis, and (2).to remove damp-heat for treating jaundice. The herb is commonly known as Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae, Large-leaf Gentian Root, Qín Jiāo.

 Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Botanical source: Official herbal classics and famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae(Large-leaf Gentian Root) as the dried root of (1).Gentiana macrophylla Pall., (2).Gentiana straminea Maxim., (3).Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk., (4).Gentiana dahurica Fisch. They are plants of the Gentiana. Genus, Gentianaceae family, Gentianales order. These officially defined species and usable species are introduced as:

(1).Gentiana macrophylla Pall.


 Gentiana macrophylla Pall.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Qín Jiāo. Perennial herbs, 20-60 cm tall. Taproots coarsely long, cylindrical, subtersely slender, not straight, with a few branches, middle much ribbed; The rhizome has many fibrous remnant leaf bases. Stems erect or oblique, cylindrical, glabrous. Basal leaves clustered, sessile, leaf blade lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, up to 40 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, apex apical, entire, 5 main veins; Stem leaves 3-4 pairs, opposite, smaller, base connate. Inflorescence of many integrated terminals and upper axillary stems; Calyx tube one side dehiscent half, calyx teeth shallow; Corolla tubular, deep blue-purple, ca. 2 cm long, apex 5-lobed, 5 short folds between lobes; 5 stamens, inserted in the middle of corolla tube; Ovary oblong, sessile. Capsule oblong or elliptic. Seed elliptic, wingless, brown, lustrous. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from August to October.

 Gentiana macrophylla Pall.:Drawing of plant and herb Ecological environment: The plant grows in mountain grasslands, on both sides of streams, on roadside slopes, and in thickets with an altitude of 400~2,400 meters above sea level. The plant distributes in the north, northwest, and southwest of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Gentiana macrophylla prefers a cool, humid climate, cold resistance. It is suitable to cultivate in loam soil with deep, fertile and rich humus.

 Gentiana macrophylla Pall.:flowering plant Characters of herbs: The root is slightly conical, thick at the top and thin at the bottom, with a length of 7~30 cm and a diameter of 1~3 cm. The surface is grayish yellow or brownish yellow, with longitudinal or twisted longitudinal grooves. The root head is often swollen, mostly composed of several rhizomes, and there are short fibrous vascular bundles of leaf base on the remaining stem base, the texture of the herb is hard and brittle and easy to break, the cortex of the fracture surface is yellow or brown, the wood part is yellow. The herb has a special odor, it tastes bitter and puckery.The herb which texture is solid and firm, brown, with strong odor and tastes is better.

 Large-leaf Gentian Root:herb photo Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-inflammatory effect; ②.effect on central system:sedative effect; ③.effect on cardiovascular system; ④.effect on blood glucose; ⑤.anti-anaphylactic shock and antihistamine effects; ⑥.effect on smooth muscle; ⑦.other effects:gentiopicrin has inhibitory effect on plasmodium.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dampness, clear dampness and heat, harmonize the blood and free tendons, relieve tendons and channels, clear deficiency heat, clear heat and diuretic, relieve dampness and removing jaundice, stop arthralgia. It is indicated for rheumatism pain, pain of numbness, muscular constricture, jaundice, dampness-heat jaundice, joint ache pain, hemiplegia, afternoon hot flash, infantile malnutrition fever, hemafecia(blood in stool), bone steaming and hot flash, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), etc.

 Administration of Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae(Qín Jiāo): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae(Qín Jiāo)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams),infusing in wine or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded into powder and apply;③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams,or infusing in wine,or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder and apply.

(2).Gentiana straminea Maxim.


 Gentiana straminea Maxim.:flowering plantGentiana straminea Maxim.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Má Huā Qín Jiāo. Perennial herbs, 10~20 cm tall. The taproots are stout and conical. Basal leaves clustered, sessile, leaves larger, lanceolate, apex acute, entire, 5 main veins, main veins broad, raised abaxially; Stem leaves opposite, smaller. Flowers less into cymes, long peduncle; Calyx tube yellow-green, membranous, dehiscent on one side, calyx teeth 2-5, equal length; Corolla tubular, yellow, funnelform, larynx with most green spots, apex 5-lobed, lobes ovoid; 5 stamens, inserted in lower part of corolla tube; Ovary superior, 1 loculus, with 2 lateral membranous placentas. Capsule, 2 dehiscent petals, ellipsoid lanceolate, stalk 7~12 mm. Seeds brown, shiny, narrow oblong. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from August to October.

 Gentiana straminea Maxim.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows in high mountains, grasslands, and streams at altitudes of 2,000~5,000 meters above sea level. It distributes in northwest, southwest, middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Gentiana straminea Maxim.:flowering plant Characters of herbs: The roots are slightly conical, with a length of 8~18 cm and a diameter of 1~3 cm. The lower part of the main root is multi-branched or most of them are separated from each other and then joined, which is slightly netted or twisted, so it is commonly known as the Ma Hua Jiao(fried dough twist Gentian Root). The texture of the herb is loose and crisp, easily broken, the fracture surface is mostly withered and decayed.The herb which texture is solid and firm, brown, with strong odor and tastes is better.

(3).Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk.


 Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Cū Jīng Qín Jiāo. Perennial herbs, 20-40 cm tall. The stems are large, most or all of them divided into small roots, twisted together in a right-handed twist. Rhizome with many fibrous remnant leaf bases, stem erect or oblique, cylindrical, glabrous. Basal leaves are clustered, leaves are larger, narrowly elliptic or ellipsoid lanceolate, up to 40 cm long, 4~5 cm wide, apex slightly acute, entire, main veins 5 longitudinal leaves; Stem leaves opposite, smaller. Flower stem stout and short, slightly inclined, flower majority, without peduncle, in the stem top cluster, is a head shape, thin axillary as a wheel shape; Calyx tube dehiscent only on top side, calyx teeth extremely shallow or absent; Floral tube ampulla, 2~2.2 cm long, yellow or blue-purple, ca. 3 cm long, lobes apex slightly pointed, interior spotted; 5 stamens; Ovary oblong, sessile. Capsule, oblong, sessile. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting from September to October.

 Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows in alpine meadows, hillside grasslands, thickets, and forest margins with an elevation of 2,100-4,500 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the northwest, southwest area of China.

 Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk.:flowering plant Characters of herbs: The roots are slightly cylindrical, thicker, unbranched and rarely twisted with each other, with a length of 12~20 cm and a diameter of 1~3.5 cm. The surface is yellowish brown or dark brown, with longitudinal twisted wrinkles; The root head has yellowish petiole residue and fibrous vascular bundle of leaf base. The herb tastes bitter and puckery.The herb which texture is solid and firm, brown, with strong odor and tastes is better.

(4).Gentiana dahurica Fisch.


 Gentiana dahurica Fisch.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xiǎo Qín Jiāo, or Dá Wū Lǐ Qín Jiāo. Perennial herbs, 10~25 cm tall. Roots simple or slightly branched, twisted to the left, slender cylindrical, less than 1 cm in diameter. Basal leaves clustered, with many fibrous remnant basal leaves at base; Leaf blade long, narrowly lanceolate, sessile; Cauline leaves smaller, opposite, sessile, linear-lanceolate to linear, 2~5 cm long, 2~4 mm wide, entire. Flowers often numerous or 1~3, terminal, inflorescence in gyrates; Calyx tube usually not dehiscent, thinly lobed on one side; 5 lobes, untidy, linear, apex acuminate; Corolla dark blue; 5 stamens, filaments linear subulate; Ovary oblong, sessile, style linear, stigma 2-lobed. Capsule elliptic, several corolla lengths. The seeds are light brown and shiny. Flowering period: July to August. Fruiting period: September to October.

 Gentiana dahurica Fisch.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows in the ridge of fields, roadside, sandy land, sunny slope, and dry grassland with an altitude of 800-500 meters above sea level. The plant distributes in the north, northwest, southwest, and other areas of China.

 Gentiana dahurica Fisch.:flowering plantGentiana dahurica Fisch.:flowering plant Characters of herbs: The roots are slightly long spindle-shaped or cylindrical, 8~20 cm long and 2~9 mm in diameter. The surface is brownish yellow or brownish brown, with longitudinal or twisted furrows, and the surface is yellow after peeling. The root is thin, single, occasionally bifurcated, with transverse texture on the surface, and the stem base and short fibrous leaf sheath remain at the top. The main root is usually one or divided into several branches. The texture of the herb is crisp, easily broken, the fracture surface is yellow and white. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes bitter and puckery.The herb which texture is solid and firm, brown, with strong odor and tastes is better.
 
Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.

 Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Qin Jiao:Large-leaf Gentian Root or Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae.

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