Introduction of Chuan Shan Long:Chuanlong Yam or Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chuanlong Yam, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Dioscorea nipponica Makino., and another usable plant species, ②.Dioscorea nipponica Makino subsp.rosthornii(Prain et Burkill)C.T.Ting., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Chuanlong Yam, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae(Chuan Di Long).

Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae Pin Yin Name: Chuān Dì Lónɡ,or Chuān Shān Lónɡ.
 English Name: Chuanlong Yam.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae is the dried rhizome of Dioscorea nipponica Makino(family Dioscoreaceae), used to dispel wind-damp, activate blood circulation, unblock collateral meridians and resolve phlegm in the treatment of rheumatalgia, sprain, traumatic pains, and chronic cough with expectoration. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae, Chuān Dì Lónɡ.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae(Chuan Di Long) as the dried rhizome of (1). Dioscorea nipponica Makino. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae(Chuan Di Long) as the dried rhizome of (1). Dioscorea nipponica Makino., (2). Dioscorea nipponica Makino subsp.rosthornii(Prain et Burkill)C.T.Ting. They are plants of the Dioscorea genus, Dioscoreaceae family, Liliflorae order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Dioscorea nipponica Makino.


 Dioscorea nipponica Makino.:growing plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Chuān Lóng Shǔ Yǔ. Herbs perennial twining, up to 5 meters long. Rhizome transverse, cylindrical, woody, much-branched, cork layer markedly exfoliated. Stem sinistral, cylindrical, subglabrous. Single leaves alternate; Leaf 10~20 cm long; Leaf blade palmately cordate, variable, stem base leaves 10~15 cm long, 9~13 cm wide, margin unequal triangular lobed, middle lobed or deeply lobed, apex leaf blade small, nearly entire, surface yellowish-green, glossy, glabrous or sparsely white pilose, especially dense in veins. Flowers unisexual, dioecious. The male inflorescence is an axillary spike, the base of the inflorescence is usually 2~4 integrated umbels, the top of the inflorescence is usually a single flower. Bracts lanceolate, apex acuminate, shorter than perianth; Perianth discoid, 6-lobed, lobes apex obtuse; 6 stamens, inserted in the center of perianth lobes, anthers introverted. Female inflorescence spicate, solitary; Perianth 6-lobed, lobes lanceolate; Pistil stigma 3-lobed, lobes 2-lobed. Capsule pale yellow at maturity, triangular, apex concave, base nearly rounded, each rib winged, varying in size, generally about 2 cm long and 1.5 cm wide. Seed each chamber 2, sometimes only 1 development, grows at the base of the central axis, all-round have unequal thin film shape wing, the upper part is rectangular, length is about 2 times than width. Its flowering period is from June to August.

 Dioscorea nipponica Makino.:drawing of plant and rhizomeEcological environment: the plant grows on slopes, forest sides, river valleys, and bushes at an altitude of 300~2,000 meters above sea level. It distributes in north, northwest (except Xinjiang), the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Dioscorea nipponica Makino.:growing leaves and stems Growth characteristics: The plant Dioscorea nipponica can grow at 8~35℃, but the best temperature for its growth is 15~25℃. Drought tolerant, plants need light from the late seedling stage to mature age. It is advisable to select loose and fertile sandy loam for cultivation. Loam and clay loam can also be selected for planting.

 Chuanlong Yam:herb photo Characters of herbs: The rhizome is cylindrical, slightly curved, and branched, with a length of 10~15 cm and a diameter of 0.3~1.5 cm. The surface is yellowish-white or brownish yellow, with irregular longitudinal grooves, punctate root marks and protruding stem marks on one side, occasionally with membranous light brown cortex and fine roots. The texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is flat, white or yellowish-white, scattered with light brown vascular bundles. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes bitter.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antitussive, expectorant, antiasthmatic, anti-hypoxia, inhibit platelet agglutination, diuretic, antibacterial, antiviral and other functions; ②.water decoction inhibit cellular immunity and humoral immunity and enhance the phagocytic function of phagocytes; ③.significantly reduce cholesterol level and blood pressure, delay heart rate, and improve coronary circulation.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activate blood circulation and free tendons, promoting blood circulation to remove the meridian obstruction, help digestion and alleviate water retention, dispelling wind and eliminate dampness, removing phlegm, preventing attack or recurrence of malaria, relieve cough. It is indicated for the treatment of wind-cold-dampness arthralgia(anemofrigid-damp arthralgia), numbness of limbs, chronic tracheitis, thoracic obstruction and cardiodynia(heartache), dyspepsia(indigestion), traumatic injury from fall, malaria, carbuncle swelling, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae(Chuān Dì Lónɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae(Chuān Dì Lónɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1 liang(about 15~30 grams),fresh herb 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams),or infusing in wine.Externally:mashed the fresh herb and apply stick;②.Internally:water decoction, dry herb 6~9 grams,fresh herb 30~45 grams,or infusing in wine.Externally:proper amount,mashed the fresh herb and apply stick.

(2).Dioscorea nipponica Makino subsp.rosthornii(Prain et Burkill)C.T.Ting.


 Dioscorea nipponica Makino subsp.rosthornii Prain et Burkill C.T.Ting.:growing plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Chái Huáng Jiāng. The main difference between this subspecies and the original subspecies is that the plant is thick and strong, the rhizome has no spayed cork, the flowers have more or less stalks, the number of chromosomes is 40, and the content of potato saponins in the rhizome is low, the average is 1.25%. In terms of geographical distribution, they are transitional plants in the warm zone, distributed in central China south of Qinling mountains. In addition to its different morphological characteristics, Dioscorea nipponica has a chromosome of 20 and a high content of 1.5-2%. It is distributed in northern China to the north of the Qinling mountains and belongs to the temperate zone. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from August to October.

 Dioscorea nipponica Makino subsp.rosthornii Prain et Burkill C.T.Ting.:growing plantEcological environment: The plant grows in the valley thickets and sparse miscellaneous wood forests with an altitude of 1,000~1,800 meters above sea level, and the forest margins. It distributes in the south of Qinling mountain, the south of Gansu, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, southwest, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: It is similar to the rhizome of Dioscorea nipponica Makino, except that the rhizome is thicker, the surface is smoother, and there is no peeling exfoliation.
 
Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.

 Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Chuan Shan Long:Chuanlong Yam or Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae.

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