Introduction of Fu Pinɡ:Herba Spirodelae or Common ducksmeat Herb.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common ducksmeat Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Spirodela polyrrhiza(L.) Schneid., ②.Lemna minor L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Common ducksmeat Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Spirodelae(Common ducksmeat Herb).

Common ducksmeat Herb:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Fú Pínɡ.
 English Name: Common ducksmeat Herb,Duckweed.
 Latin Name: Herba Spirodelae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Spirodelae is the dried entire plant of Spirodela polyrrhiza(L.) Schneid., used to promote eruption for measles, to relieve itching for urticaria, and to induce diuresis for edema.

 Botanical source: The herb Herba Spirodelae(Common ducksmeat Herb) is the dried entire plant of Spirodela polyrrhiza(L.) Schneid., it is a plant of the Lemna L. genus, the Lemnaceae family (water lens or duckweed family) of the Arales order. It is also known as Herba Spirodelae, Common ducksmeat Herb, Fú Pínɡ.

 Spirodela polyrrhiza L.Schneid.:plant in pond Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Spirodelae(Common ducksmeat Herb) as the dried entire plant of :(1). Spirodela polyrrhiza(L.) Schneid., or (2).Lemna minor L. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Spirodela polyrrhiza(L.)Schneid.


 Botanical description: Spirodela polyrrhiza(L.)Schneid. is also known as Lemna polyrrhiza L. It is commonly known as Zǐ Píng or purple duckweed, a perennial small herb, floating on the surface of the water. Roots are 5~11 in fascicles, slender, fibrous, and 3~5 cm long. New shoots grow on one side of the root's shoot, which is connected to the parent by a thin stalk before it separates. The thallus is flat, solitary or 2~5 clustered, broadly obovate, 4~10 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, apex is blunt, the upper surface is slightly concave, dark green, the under surface is purplish, inconspicuous palmate veins 5~11. Inflorescence grows within the indenture on the edge of thalli form; Flowers are unisexual, monoecious; spathe is sacculated, short and small, 2-lipped, there are 2 male flowers and 1 female flower inside, the perianth is absent; Male flower has 2 stamens, anther is 2-locule, filaments are very thin; the female flower has 1 pistil, the ovary is sessile, 1 locule, 2 upright ovules, style is short, stigma is flat or annular. The fruit is round, the edge has a wing. Its flowering period is from April to June, the fruiting period is from May to July.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in marshes, paddy fields, bays, or still waters. It is widely distributed in the north and south areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm climate and moist environment, avoiding severe cold and freezing weather. Better choose paddy fields, ponds, and lakes for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The thallus is oval, ovoid, or ovate-elliptic, with a long diameter of 3~6 mm. Single thallus scattered or 2~5 thallus grow clustered. The upper surface is light green to gray-green, with neat or slightly curled edges. The under surface is purple-green to purple-brown, the edge is orderly or slightly curly, and there is a small concavity on both sides of the upper surface, several fibrous roots grow on here on the under surface. The herb is light, and fragile when twisted by hand. The herb has a slight smell and a mild taste. The herb of better grade is green, and under surface is purple.

 The herb is collected during June and September, fish out and removed impurities, wash it clean, dry in sun.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Cardiovascular effects; ②. Antipyretic effect; ③. Other effects: killing effects on culex pipium larvae and mosquito pupae in the laboratory and the field.

 Medicinal efficacy: Induce perspiration and relieve the exterior syndrome, prompt diuresis and eliminate swelling, clear heat and detoxification, indicated for the wind-heat exterior syndrome, measles without adequate eruption, urticaria (hidden rashes) and itching, edema and oliguria, uroschesis (retention of urine, difficulty in urination), skin ulcer and tinea, erysipelas (inflammatory disease with redness of skin), scald or burns(empyrosis), etc.

 Administration of Herba Spirodelae (Fú Pínɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Spirodelae (Fú Pínɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams,Externally:proper amount,immersion cleaning with water decoction; ②.water decoction,1~2 qian (about 3~6 grams),fresh herb 0.5~1 liang (about 15~30 grams), extract juice or prepare to pill,powder.Externally: fumigation wash the affected area with water decoction, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.water decoction, 3~9 grams, fresh herb dosage could be 15~30 grams; extract juice, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally: fumigation wash the affected area with water decoction, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick.

(2).Lemna minor L.


 Lemna minor L.:flowering plant in pond Botanical description: Lemna minor L. is also known as Fú Pínɡ or duckweed, a small floating herb. 1 piece of root, 3~4 cm long, thin and slender, root sheath is wingless, root crown is obtuse or truncated. The thallus is symmetrical, obovate, elliptic or subcircular, 1.5~6 mm long, 2~3 mm wide, the upper surface is smooth, green, opaque, the under surface is light yellow or purple, entire-edge, with inconspicuous 3 veins. The thallus has a capsule on one side of the undersurface, and the new thallus emerges from the capsule and floats out, connecting the mother thallus with a very short thin stalk, and then falling off. Flowers are unisexual, monoecious, and grow at lobulated edges of the thallus; Spathe is winglike, with 1 pistillate flower, and 2 staminate flowers; Male anthers are 2-locule, filaments are slender; Pistillate flower has 1 pistil, the ovary is 1-locule, with 1 curved ovule. Fruit is subturbinate, and wingless. 1 seed, with raised endosperm and 12~15 irregular convex veins.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in ponds, paddy fields, lakes, or still water and often mixes with purple duckweed. It is distributed throughout China from north to south area.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm climate and moist environment, avoiding severe cold and freezing weather. Better choose paddy fields, ponds, and lakes for cultivation.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Fu Pinɡ:Herba Spirodelae or Common ducksmeat Herb.

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