Introduction of Fang Feng:Radix Saposhnikoviae or Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, Saposhnikovia divaricata(Turcz.) Schischk., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Saposhnikoviae(Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root).

Saposhnikovia divaricata plant Pin Yin Name: Fáng Fēng.
 English Name: Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Saposhnikoviae.
 Property and flavor: light warm, pungent, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Saposhnikoviae is the dried root of Saposhnikovia divaricata(Turcz.) Schischk.(family Umbelliferae), used (1).to release the superficies for exterior syndromes, (2).to dispel wind in cases of urticaria, (3).to dispel wind-damp and alleviate pain in cases of rheumatalgia, and (4).to relieve spasm in cases of tetanus. The herb is commonly known as Radix Saposhnikoviae, Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root, Fánɡ Fēnɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Saposhnikoviae is the dry root of the Saposhnikovia divaricata(Turcz.) Schischk., it is a plant of the Saposhnikovia Schischk genus, the Apiaceae(Umbelliferae) family of the Apiales(Umbellales) order.

Saposhnikovia divaricata(Turcz.) Schischk.

 herb photo of Saposhnikovia divaricata root Botanical description: The Saposhnikovia divaricata(Turcz.) Schischk., is commonly known as "Saposhnikovia divaricata", or "Fang Feng". Perennial herb, 30~80 cm high. The roots are thick, long cylindrical, branched, light yellow laurel color, the roots are ramping up, nearly as long as the main stem, and finely ribbed. Basal leaves are clustered, petiolate petiole, base broadly sheathed, slightly amplexicaul; leaf blade is ovate or oblong, 14~35 cm long, 6~8~18 cm wide, 2- to 3-pinnately divided, the first lobe is ovate or oblong, stalked, 5~8 cm long, the lower part of the second lobe has a short stalk, the distal lobe is narrowly wedge-shaped, 2.5~5 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide; on the top lobe it has a wide leaf sheath. Most of umbellate, grow on stem and branch apices, terminal peduncle 2~5 cm long, paravegan 5~7, 3~5 cm long, glabrous, without involucre bracts; 4~10 umbellules dead, 4~6 small sepals, linear or lanceolate, ca. 3 mm; calyx teeth triangular-ovate; petals obovate, white, ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous, apex retuse, introducted. Double-hanging fruit is narrowly round or elliptical, 4-5 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, with verrucous protrusions when young, gradually maturing; there are tubules 1 in each furrow, and 2 tubings on the commissure. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting from September to October.

 Growth characteristics: The plant likes enough sunshine, a cool slightly dry climate, resistance to cold and drought, avoid waterlogging. Saposhnikovia divaricata is a rooting plant, which should be cultivated in sandy soil with a deep soil layer, loose and fertile soil with good drainage, and should not be planted in acidic soil with heavy viscosity.

 Characters of herbs: This herb is cylindrical or long conical, 6 to 15 cm long, 0.3 ~ 0.8 cm ~ 1.2 cm in diameter, often branched. The root head is enlarged, several stem bases or short fibrous leaf bases remain at the top, and the lower part branches. The surface is grayish brown or tan, with longitudinal wrinkles, root marks and lenticels. The quality is hard and tough, it is not easy to break, the cross-section is fibril, the cortex of the cross-section is light brown, and the wooden part is yellow and white. Slightly fragrant, slightly bitter and pungent.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus hemolyticus, pneumococcus, and fungi; ②. inhibit allergic contractions of the isolated trachea and ileum smooth muscle in guinea pigs; ③. Enhance the phagocytic function of mouse peritoneal macrophages; ④. antipyretic, analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Inducing diaphoresis to dispel wind(relieve the exterior and dispel wind), eliminate dampness, antispasmodic, indicated for a headache of cold, rheumatism, pain or numbness, urticaria and pruritus, tetanus and so on.

 Administration of Radix Saposhnikoviae(Fáng Fēng): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Saposhnikoviae(Fáng Fēng)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams;②.water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:grinded into a fine powder and apply stick;③.water decoction, 5~110 grams, or grinded to a fine powder and prepared to pill, power. Externally: proper amount, fumigation wash with water decoction.

Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.
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