Introduction of Fang Feng:Radix Saposhnikoviae or Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Saposhnikoviae(Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root).

Saposhnikovia divaricata plant Pin Yin Name: Fáng Fēng.
 English Name: Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Saposhnikoviae.
 Property and flavor: light warm in nature, tastes pungent, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Saposhnikoviae is the dried root of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk.(family Umbelliferae), used (1).to release the superficies for exterior syndromes, (2).to dispel wind in cases of urticaria, (3).to dispel wind-damp and alleviate pain in cases of rheumatalgia, and (4).to relieve spasm in cases of tetanus. The herb is commonly known as Radix Saposhnikoviae, Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root, Fánɡ Fēnɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Saposhnikoviae is the dry root of the Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk., it is a plant of the Saposhnikovia Schischk genus, the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family of the Apiales (Umbellales) order. This commonly used species is introduced:

Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk.

 herb photo of Saposhnikovia divaricata root Botanical description: The plant, Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk is commonly known as Saposhnikovia divaricata, or Fang Feng. A perennial herbaceous plant, it grows up to 30~80 cm high. The roots are thick, long cylindrical, branched, light yellow-brown, fibrous petiole residues grow densely on the root head, with obvious ring-shaped stripes. The stem is solitary, with two branches, branches grow sloping upward, almost the same length as the main stem, with fine edges. Basal leaves are clustered, the petiole is prolate, the base is broadly sheathed, and slightly amplexicaul; the leaf blade is egg-shaped (oval) or oblong, 14~35 cm long, 6~8~18 cm wide, 2- to 3-pinnately divided, the first lobe is egg-shaped or oblong, petiolate, 5~8 cm long, the lower part of the second lobe has a short stalk, the distal lobe is narrowly wedge-shaped, 2.5~5 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide; acrophyll is simplified, has a wide leaf sheath. The compound umbels are numerous and grow on the apex of the stem and branch, the terminal peduncle is 2~5 cm long, the umbrella spoke 5~7, 3~5 cm long, glabrous, without involucre bracts; the umbellule has 4~10 flowers, involucre bractlet 4~6, linear or lanceolate, about 3 mm long; calyx teeth are triangular-oval; petals are obovate, white, about 1.5 mm long, glabrous, the apex is retuse, with infracted strap. Cremocarp is narrowly round or elliptical, 4~5 mm long, 2~3 mm wide, with verrucous protrusions when young, gradually turns flat while maturing; there is 1 oil duct in each edge sulcus, and 2 oil ducts on the commissure. Its flowering period is from August to September, the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows on grassland, hills, and slope with many gravels. It is distributed in the north, and northwest of China. The plant prefers enough sunshine, a cool slightly dry climate, resistance to cold and drought, and avoiding waterlogging. Saposhnikovia divaricata is a rooting plant, which should be cultivated in sandy soil with a deep soil layer, loose and fertile soil with good drainage, with sufficient sunshine, and should not be planted in acidic soil with heavy viscosity.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is cylindrical or long conical, the lower part gradually turns thin, some are slightly curved, 15 to 30 cm long, 0.5 cm ~2.0 cm in diameter, the surface is taupe brown, coarse, with longitudinal wrinkles, numerous cross lenticels and point-like protrusions fine root marks. The root head has obvious dense ring stripes, and brown piliferous leaf bases remaining on some of the ring stripes. The herb is light, the texture is loose, and easily broken, the fracture surface is not flat, and the cortex is light brown, with cracks. There are scattered yellowish-brown oil spots, the xylem (wood part) is light yellow. The herb has a slightly special fragrant odor, it tastes slightly sweet. The herb of better grade has a thick root, the cortex of the fracture surface is light brown, and the xylem (wood part) is light yellow.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus hemolyticus, pneumococcus, and fungi; ②. inhibit allergic contractions of the isolated trachea and ileum smooth muscle in guinea pigs; ③. Enhance the phagocytic function of mouse peritoneal macrophages; ④. antipyretic, analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Inducing diaphoresis to dispel wind (relieve the exterior and dispel wind), eliminate dampness, antispasmodic, indicated for a headache from cold, rheumatism, pain or numbness, urticaria and pruritus, tetanus and so on.

 Administration of Radix Saposhnikoviae (Fáng Fēng): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Saposhnikoviae (Fáng Fēng)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams;②.water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick;③.water decoction, 5~10 grams, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, power. Externally: proper amount, fumigation wash with water decoction.

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