Introduction of Sheng Jiang:Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens or Fresh Ginger.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon01 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.

 
Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens(Fresh Ginger).

Fresh Ginger Pin Yin Name: Shēng Jiāng.
 English Name: Fresh Ginger.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens is the fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale(Willd.)Rosc.(family Zingiberaceae), used as (1).to induce sweating for releasing the superficies in cases of wind-cold affliction, (2).to warm the middle for arresting vomiting. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Fresh Ginger, Shēnɡ Jiānɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Fresh Ginger(Sheng Jiang) is the fresh rhizome(tuber or rootstalk) of Zingiber officinale Rosc., it is a plant species of the Zingiber genus, the Zingiberaceae(ginger family) family of the Zingiberales order.

 Zingiber officinale Rosc (1).Zingiber officinale Rosc.:
 Botanical description: The Zingiber officinale Rosc., is a perennial herb, 50~80 cm high. Hypertrophic rhizomes, cross-section is yellow-white, with a strong spicy odor. Leaves are alternate, arranged in 2 rows, sessile, several clasping stems; leaf blade length 2~4 mm; leaf blade lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 15~30 cm long, 1.5~2.2 cm wide, apex acuminate, base narrow, leaf leather sheath amphibian, glabrous. The calyx is extracted from the rhizomes and grows 15~25 cm long; the spikes are oval-shaped, 4~5 cm long; the sepals are ovate, about 2.5 cm long, pale green, with a pale yellow edge, and a small pointed tip; the calyx tube is ca. 1 cm, with 3 short tines; corolla is yellow-green, tube length is 2~2.5 cm, 3 lobes, lanceolate, less than 2 cm in length, median lobes of oblong petals oblong-ovate, shorter than corolla lobes, with purple stripes and yellowish spots, ovate on both sides, yellowish green, with purple margin; 1 stamens, dark purple, anthers ca. 9 m, appendages enclosing styles; ovary 3-locular, glabrous, 1 styles, stigma subglobose. Fruit. The majority of seeds are black. It is flowering in August.

 Growth characteristics: Ginger likes warm and humid environmental conditions, not resistant to low temperature and frost, afraid of damp, afraid of direct light. It is advisable to choose sloping land and slightly overcast plots for cultivation, better choose deep, loose, fertile, and well-drained sandy loam to heavy loam.

 Characters of herbs: Rhizomes are flattened irregular lumps with branched branches, 4~18 cm long, the apex of each column with stem marks or buds, the surface is yellowish-white or grayish-white, glossy, with light brown segments. It is brittle and easily broken, and when it is broken, the juice oozes out; The cross-section is light yellow, the inner cortex has an obvious ring grain, and the veins appear in the middle. It is aromatic and distinctive, tastes spicy. Likewise, it is better to have large, plump, and tender pieces.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Intravenous injection of ginger ethanol extract can temporarily reduce the range of stomach motion in vivo in rabbits, but it can stimulate and then inhibit the gastric fundus muscle strips of isolated rats, and has a contractile effect on isolated guinea-pig ileum, and has a non-competitive antagonistic effect on the dose-response relationship of acetylcholine or histamine; ②. Administration of ginger decoction 0.1 g/kg and 0.2 g/kg by gavage can significantly inhibit acid and stress-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats, which may be related to the promotion of gastric mucosa synthesis and the release of endogenous PG; ③. Ginger saps, zingerone, and shogaol mixture can resist the vomiting effect of cupric sulfate; ④. Ginger oil has therapeutic and preventive effects on carbon tetrachloride liver damage in rats and mice. Gingerol and shogaol have inhibitory effects on liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride and galactosamine.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipating cold and relieving exterior syndrome, calm the adverse-rising energy and controlling nausea and vomiting, eliminating phlegm and stopping cough, detoxicate poisons, indicated for anemofrigid cold(a wind-cold type of common cold), fever with aversion to cold, headache and stuffy nose, vomit, retch, phlegmatic cough, diarrhea (loose bowels), detoxify poisons of Pinellia tuberifera, Rhizoma arisaematis, fish and crab, the meat of birds and beasts, etc.

 Administration of Fresh Ginger(Shēng Jiāng): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fresh Ginger(Shēng Jiāng)
TCM Books: Internally:3~10 grams(CP), or water decoction,1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams),or extract juice.Externally: mashed and apply stick, apply at the affected area or fried and ironing(DCTM), or water decoction, 3~10 grams, or extract the juice and take after mixing it with water, wine.Externally: proper amount, mashed and apply stick, or fried and ironing, or extract juice and smear(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Sheng Jiang:Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens or Fresh Ginger.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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