Introduction of Bai Zhi:Radix Angelicae Dahuricae or Dahurian Angelica Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon01 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.

 
Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Dahurian Angelica Root).

herb photo of Dahurian Angelica Root Pin Yin Name: Bái Zhǐ.
 English Name: Dahurian Angelica Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Angelicae Dahuricae is the dried root of Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f. or Angelica dahurica var.formosana(Boiss.) Shan et Yuan(family Umbelliferae), used (1).to release the superficies, disperse wind and alleviate pain in cases of frontal headache and stuffy nose in colds, rheumatalgia, and toothache, (2).to eliminate dampness for checking leukorrhagia, and (3).to discharge pus and reduce swelling for the treatment of boils, sores, abscesses, rhinitis, and nasosinusitis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Angelicae Dahuricae, Dahurian Angelica Root, Bái Zhǐ.

 Botanical source: Common official herbal classics defined the herb Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Bái Zhǐ) as the dry root of the Umbelliferae family plant species (1).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., or (2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb also used the root of several other species of the same family: (3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi., or (4).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica, or (5).Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., (6).Heracleum scabridum Franch. They are plants of the Angelica genus, the Apiaceae family(Umbelliferae) of the Apiales order. These 2 commonly used species and other 4 usable species are introduced as:

(1).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:plant in flowering  Botanical description: The Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica L genus, it is commonly known as "Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hook", "Dahurian angelica", or "Bai Zhi". Perennial tall herbs, 1~2.5 meters high. Root is cylindrical, branching, 3~5 cm in diameter, tawny to the brown outer skin, with a strong odor. Stem base diameter is 2~5 cm, sometimes up to 7~8 cm, usually purplish, hollow, with longitudinal grooves.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:picture of the herb and plant Basal leaves are rupennate, with long stalks, and tubular sheath at the lower part of petiole. The upper leaves of the stem have two to three feathery divisions, the leaf contour is ovoid to triangular, the length is 15~30 cm, the width is 10~25 cm, the petiole is up to 15 cm, the lower part is a cystic swollen membranous sheath, glabrous or rare, often with purple. Terminal lobes are oblong, ovate or linear-lanceolate, mostly sessile, 2.5~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, acute, margin irregular white cartilaginous rough serrated, with short pointed, base on both sides often unequal, down into a wing along leaf axis; The leaf below inflorescence reduced to a leafless, markedly enlarged cystic sheath, glabrous outside.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:young shrub Inflorescences are terminal or lateral, 10~30 cm in diameter, 5~20 cm long, inflorescences stem, umbrella shaft, and flower stalk all have short strigose; 18~40 parasol, the central main parasol number sometimes is as much as 70; Involucral bracts usually are absent or with 1~2 sheaths growing ovoid dilated; 5~10 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate, membranous, white flowers; Calyx teeth; Petals are obovate, the top curve into concave shape; Ovary glabrous or pubescent; Style more than 2 times longer than a short conical stylopodium.

 Fruit is oblong to ovoid, yellowish-brown, sometimes purplish, 4~7 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, glabrous, dorsal ridge oblong, thick and obtuse, nearly spongy, far wider than groove, lateral wing shape, narrower than the body. There is 1 tubing in the edge groove and 2 tubings in the joint surface. The flowering period is from July to August, the fruiting period is from August to September.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:young shrub and leaves Ecological environment:  the Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., grows under forests, forest margins, beside streams, thickets, and valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly distributes in the north area of China. It prefers to mild and humid climate and sunny environment, tolerant to cold.

 The species (2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan. and (3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi. are its varietas.

 Growth characteristics: Angelica dahurica likes warm and humid climate, cold resistant. It is suitable for cultivation with sufficient sunlight, in the deep soil layer, loose and fertile, good drainage sandy soil.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is long conical, 10~25 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, the surface is gray-brown or yellow-brown, root head is blunt quadrigonal or nearly round, with vertical wrinkles, branch root mark and transverse protrusion like lenticels, some arranged in four vertical lines. There is a hollow stem mark at the top. Its texture is solid, fracture surface is white or gray-white, powdery, brown cambium ring, nearly square or nearly round, many brown oil spots scatter on the skin part.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects; ②. raise blood pressure, slow down pulse, deepens the breath, cause salivation and vomiting, a large dose may cause spasm and paralysis; ③. furocoumarin compounds have photosensitive action and antispasmolysis to smooth muscle; ④. inhibitory effects on bacteria and fungi.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dissipate cold, free orifices and relieve pain, reduce swelling and discharge pus, dry dampness, and relieve leukorrhea.

 Administration of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Bái Zhǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Bái Zhǐ)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP), or water decoction, 0.8~2 qian(2.4~6 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply stick(DCTM), or water decoction, 3~10 grams, or grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, power.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply stick(CHMM).

(2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan.


 Angelica dahuricaFisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana Boiss.Shan et Yuan.:plant photo and picture Botanical description: The Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica L genus, it is commonly known as "Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi C. Q. Yuan et Shan.", "Angelica dahurica(Fisch.et Hoffm.)Benth.et Hook.f.ex Franch.et Sav.cv.Hangbaizhi Hort.", or "Hang Bai Zhi". Perennial herb, 1~1.5 meters tall, cylindrical, nearly square on the upper, grey-brown surface, with a strong odor. Stem is cylindrical, 2~5 cm in diameter, usually purplish, hollow, with longitudinal grooves; Basal leaves are rupennate, with long stalks, tubular stems and edge membranous sheath below the petiole. Cauline leaves pinnate 2~3 back to split, the blade contour ovate to triangular, 15~3 cm long and 10~25 cm wide, petiole to 15 cm, lower part for cystic swollen membranous sheath, rare glabrous or hairy, usually with purple, back at the end of the crack running time, ovoid or linear-lanceolate, 2.5~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, acute, margin with irregular white coarsely serrate, along rachis decurrent wing shape.

 Angelica dahuricaFisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana Boiss.Shan et Yuan.:plant and flower The leaves below the inflorescence are simplified into a significantly expanded cystic sheath, with an outer glabrous compound umbelliform inflorescence terminal or lateral, 10~30 cm in diameter, 5~20 cm in length, inflorescence stem, parasol and pedicle all have short strigose. Umbrella stem 18~40; 1~2 involucral bracts, dilated into an ovoid sheath, 5~10 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate;

 Flowers are white, fruit oval, yellow-brown, 4~7 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, nearly spongy, flank winged, groove with 1 tubing, joint surface with 2 tubings, flowering from May to June, fruiting from July to September.

 Characters of herbs: Root is conical, 10~20 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, the upper part is nearly square, square or class surface ash brown, with larger sample lenticel transverse ridges, 0.5~1 cm long, arranged in a longitudinal, nearly 4 shape circles and 4 ridges, the top has a hollow stem scars, qualitative hard and heavy, section of white, foot powder, nearly square root of the upper section visible cambium, densely brown leather department point fragrant, taste slightly bitter. The herb with dry body, only branches, stout, hard quality, weight, the strong aroma is good.

 Ecological environment:  the Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan., grows under forests, forest margins, beside streams, thickets, and valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, China.

(3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch. Ex Hoffm. Benth.Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi:photo of plant. Botanical description: The Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica L genus, it is commonly known as "Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi.", or "Qi Bai Zhi". Its plant morphology is consistent with that of the species (2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan.

 Characters of herbs: Root is conical, yellowish to the yellowish-brown surface, transverse protrusion of lenticular, gray-white cross-section, oily.

 Ecological environment:  the Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi., grows under forests, forest margins, beside streams, thickets, and valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly distributes in the north area of China, and it is mainly cultivated in the Anguo county of Hebei province.

(4).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.var.dahurica.:flowering plant 01 Botanical description: The Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica, is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica L genus, it is commonly known as "Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica", or "Xing An Bai Zhi". Perennial tall herb, 1~2.5 meters high. Root is cylindrical, branching, 3~5 cm in diameter, tawny to the brown outer skin, with a strong odor. Stem base diameter is 2~5 cm, sometimes up to 7~8 cm, usually purplish, hollow, with longitudinal grooves. Basal leaves are rupennate, with long stalks, and tubular sheath at the lower part of petiole. The upper leaves of the stem have two to three feathery divisions, the leaf contour is ovoid to triangular, the length is 15~30 cm, the width is 10~25 cm, the petiole is up to 15 cm, the lower part is a cystic swollen membranous sheath, glabrous or rare, often with purple. Terminal lobes are oblong, ovate or linear-lanceolate, mostly sessile, 2.5~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, acute, margin irregular white cartilaginous rough serrated, with short pointed, base on both sides often unequal, down into a wing along leaf axis;

 The leaf below inflorescence reduced to a leafless, markedly enlarged cystic sheath, glabrous outside. Inflorescences terminal or lateral, 10~30 cm in diameter, 5~20 cm long, inflorescences stem, umbrella shaft, and flower stalk all have short strigose; 18~40 parasols, the central main parasol sometimes as much as 70; Involucral bracts usually absent or with 1~2 sheaths growing ovoid dilated; 5~10 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate, membranous, white flowers; Calyx teeth; Petals obovate, the top of the curve into concave shape; Ovary glabrous or pubescent; Style more than 2 times longer than a short conical stylopodium.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.var.dahurica.:flowering plant 02 Fruit oblong to ovoid, yellowish-brown, sometimes purplish, 4~7 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, glabrous, dorsal ridge oblong, thick and obtuse, nearly spongy, far wider than groove, lateral wing shape, narrower than the body. There is 1 tubing in the edge groove and 2 tubings in the joint surface. The flowering period is from July to August, fruiting period is from August to September.

 Characters of herbs: Root is thinner than Bai Zhi, conical. The appearance color is tan, the upper part is more horizontal furrow, the lower part has longitudinal grain, the scar after the lateral root is broken. With a sallow face and a smell like celery.

 Ecological environment: the Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., grows mostly in the valley, under the forest, ditch grass, or bushes. Geographical distribution: this species mainly distributes in the northwest provinces of China.

(5).Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi.


 Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi. Botanical description: The Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica L genus, it is commonly known as "Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi.", or "Chuan Bai Zhi" or "Ying Xing Dang Gui(Hetero Angelica)". Perennial herb, 1~2 meters high. The roots are straight and there are several branches at lower part. Stem is erect, cylindrical, hollow, with a surface of slender arris. Leaves are alternate; Leaves in the lower part of stem 2~3 back 3 out of the full-pinnately cleft, and finally the cleavage plate is ovate to lanceolate. Petiole sheathed, clasping the stem; The leaves on the upper part of the stem were simplified into broad and expanded leaf sheaths. Leaf margin irregular serrated, green at upper part, grey-white to pale green at lower part, both surfaces are glabrous, with only short bristles on veins.

 Compound umbel terminal, total pedicels 15~20 cm long; Total value missing, several small involucral bracts, narrowly lanceolate to linear, smaller umbrella stem is long; Calyx not apparent; 5 petals, white, broadly ovate to quasi-circular, apex slightly concave, with an uvulus in the center folded inward; 5 stamens, anthers elliptic: ovary lower, 2 chambers, 2 styles.

 Double canthus long elliptic, 5 ridges distinct to right, more lignified wings on lateral ridges. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting period is from June to July.

 Ecological environment: the Angelica dahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., grows in mountain and forest margin. Geographical distribution: this species mainly distributes in the north area, and it is cultivated in the southwest area of China too.

(6).Heracleum scabridum Franch.


 Heracleum scabridum Franch.:branches,leaves and flowers Botanical description: The Heracleum scabridum Franch., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica L genus, it is commonly known as "Heracleum scabridum Franch.", or "Dian Bai Zhi", or "Niu Fang Feng". Perennial herb, 60~100 cm high. The whole plant is covered with coarse, fine hair. Roots are spindle-shaped, aromatic, lower branched. Stem is cylindrical, hollow, with longitudinal grooves, white spines, upper part is branched. Stem lower leaf profile ovoid to triangular, 2-loop pinnate deep fissure, 5~20 cm long, 5~7 cm wide, lobes wide ovoid to oblong, 2.5~5 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, margin with unequal teeth, green surface, rough and fine wrinkle with pale green on the back, both sides are bristled, more on the back. The upper leaves of the stem are similar in shape to the lower part of the stem.

 Inflorescences compound, terminal or lateral, with a total stalk length of 14~18 cm; Involucral bracts are missing or 1~3, linear-lanceolate, 13~17 umbrella shafts, coarsely hairy, 4~5 bracteoles, linear; Small umbelliform inflorescence and more than 30 flowers; Calyx teeth are short, linear triangular; Petals are white, two, outward turning for the radiation flap; 5 stamens, alternate with petals, filaments thick and curved; Stylopodium conical, 2 styles, shorter, forked.

 Fruit obovate or ovate, 7~8 mm long, 5~6 mm wide, smooth, each groove has 1 tubing, rod shape, length 1/2 or more of fruiting length, the joint surface has 2 tubings, Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting period from August to September.

 Ecological environment: the Heracleum scabridum Franch., grows in mountain forest and grass at an altitude above 2,000 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: this species mainly distributes in the southwest area of China.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bai Zhi:Radix Angelicae Dahuricae or Dahurian Angelica Root.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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