Introduction of Bai Zhi:Radix Angelicae Dahuricae or Dahurian Angelica Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Dahurian Angelica Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its officially defined botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f., or ②.Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan., and other 4 usable plant species, ③.Angelica dahurica(Fisch.Ex Hoffm.)Benth.Et Hook.f.ex Franch.Et Sav.Cv.Qibaizhi., ④.Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.var.dahurica, ⑤.Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., ⑥.Heracleum scabridum Franch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these six plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these six plants, the features of the herb Dahurian Angelica Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Dahurian Angelica Root).

herb photo of Dahurian Angelica Root Pin Yin Name: Bái Zhǐ.
 English Name: Dahurian Angelica Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Angelicae Dahuricae is the dried root of Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., or Angelica dahurica var.formosana(Boiss.) Shan et Yuan (family Umbelliferae), used (1).to release the superficies, disperse wind and alleviate pain in cases of frontal headache and stuffy nose in colds, rheumatalgia, and toothache, (2).to eliminate dampness for checking leukorrhagia, and (3).to discharge pus and reduce swelling for the treatment of boils, sores, abscesses, rhinitis, and nasosinusitis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Angelicae Dahuricae, Dahurian Angelica Root, Bái Zhǐ.

 Botanical source: Common official herbal classics defined the herb Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Bái Zhǐ) as the dry root of the Umbelliferae family plant species (1).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., or (2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb and also used the root of several other species of the same family: (3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi., or (4).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica, or (5).Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., (6).Heracleum scabridum Franch. They are plants of the Angelica genus, the Apiaceae family(Umbelliferae) of the Apiales order. These 2 commonly used species and the other 4 usable species are introduced:

(1).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:plant in flowering  Botanical description: The Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as "Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hook", "Dahurian angelica", or "Bai Zhi". A perennial tall herb, it grows up to 1~2.5 meters high. The root is cylindrical, branching, 3~5 cm in diameter, tawny to brown outer skin, with a strong odor. Stem base diameter is 2~5 cm, sometimes up to 7~8 cm, usually purplish, hollow, with longitudinal grooves.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:picture of the herb and plant Basal leaves are rupennate, with long stalks, and a tubular sheath at the lower part of the petiole. The upper leaves of the stem have two to three feathery divisions, the leaf contour is ovoid to triangular, the length is 15~30 cm, the width is 10~25 cm, the petiole is up to 15 cm, and the lower part is a cystic swollen membranous sheath, glabrous or rare, often with purple. Terminal lobes are oblong, ovate or linear-lanceolate, mostly sessile, 2.5~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, acute, margin irregular white cartilaginous rough serrated, with short pointed, its base is often unequal on both sides, down into a wing along leaf axis; The leaf below inflorescence reduced to a leafless, markedly enlarged cystic sheath, the out surface is glabrous.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:young shrub The inflorescences are terminal or lateral, 10~30 cm in diameter, 5~20 cm long, inflorescences stem, umbrella shaft, and flower stalk all have short strigose; 18~40 parasol, the central main parasol number sometimes is as much as 70; Involucral bracts usually are absent or with 1~2 sheaths growing ovoid dilated; 5~10 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate, membranous, white flowers; Calyx is teeth-shape; Petals are obovate, the top curve into concave shape; Ovary is glabrous or pubescent; Style is more than 2 times longer than a short conical stylopodium.

 Fruit is oblong to ovoid, yellowish-brown, sometimes purplish, 4~7 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, glabrous, dorsal ridge oblong, thick and obtuse, nearly spongy, far wider than groove, lateral wing shape, narrower than the body. There is 1 tubing in the edge groove and 2 tubings on the joint surface. The flowering period is from July to August, the fruiting period is from August to September.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:young shrub and leaves Ecological environment:  The Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., grows under forests, forest margins, beside streams, thickets, and valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the north area of China. It prefers the mild and humid climate and a sunny environment, tolerant of cold.

 The species (2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan. and (3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi. are its varietas.

 Growth characteristics: Angelica dahurica likes warm and humid climates, cold resistant. It is suitable for cultivation with sufficient sunlight, in the deep soil layer, loose and fertile, with good drainage sandy soil.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is long conical, 10 ~ 25 cm long, and 1.5 ~ 2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is grayish-brown or yellowish-brown, and the root head is blunt quadrangular or nearly round, with longitudinal wrinkles, branch root marks, and lenticels-like lateral protrusions, some of which are arranged in four longitudinal rows. There are sunken stem marks on the top. The quality is hard and firm, the cross-section is white or off-white, powdery, forming brown layers, nearly square or nearly round, with many brown oil spots scattered on the cortex. It smells aromatic, pungent, and slightly bitter.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects; ②. raise blood pressure, slow down pulse, deepens the breath, cause salivation and vomiting, a large dose may cause spasm and paralysis; ③. furocoumarin compounds have photosensitive action and antispasmolysis to smooth muscle; ④. inhibitory effects on bacteria and fungi.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dissipate cold, free orifices and relieve pain, reduce swelling and discharge pus, dry dampness, and relieve leukorrhea.

 Administration of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Bái Zhǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Bái Zhǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;②.water decoction, 0.8~2 qian(2.4~6 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply stick;③.water decoction, 3~10 grams, or grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, power.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply stick.

(2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan.


 Angelica dahuricaFisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana Boiss.Shan et Yuan.:plant photo and picture Botanical description: The Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as "Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi C. Q. Yuan et Shan.", "Angelica dahurica(Fisch.et Hoffm.)Benth.et Hook.f.ex Franch.et Sav.cv.Hangbaizhi Hort.", or "Hang Bai Zhi". Perennial herb, the plant grows 1~1.5 meters tall, cylindrical, nearly square on the upper, grey-brown surface, with a strong odor. The stem is cylindrical, 2~5 cm in diameter, usually purplish, hollow, with longitudinal grooves; Basal leaves are rupennate, with long stalks, tubular stems and edge membranous sheath below the petiole. Cauline leaves pinnate 2~3 back to split, the blade contour is ovate to triangular, 15~3 cm long and 10~25 cm wide, the petiole is up to 15 cm long, the lower part for cystic swollen membranous sheath, rare glabrous or hairy, usually with purple, back at the end of the crack running time, ovoid or linear-lanceolate, 2.5~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, acute, margin with irregular white coarsely serrate, along rachis decurrent wing shape.

 Angelica dahuricaFisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana Boiss.Shan et Yuan.:plant and flower The leaves below the inflorescence are simplified into a significantly expanded cystic sheath, with an outer glabrous compound umbelliform inflorescence terminal or lateral, 10~30 cm in diameter, 5~20 cm in length, inflorescence stem, parasol, and pedicle all have short strigose. Umbrella stem 18~40; 1~2 involucral bracts, dilated into an ovoid sheath, 5~10 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate;

  Flowers are white, fruit is oval, yellow-brown, 4~7 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, nearly spongy, flank winged, groove with 1 tubing, joint surface with 2 tubings, its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from July to September.

 Characters of herbs: The root is conical, 10~20 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, the upper part is nearly square, the surface is ash brown, with larger sample lenticel transverse ridges, 0.5~1 cm long, arranged in a longitudinal, nearly 4 shape circles and 4 ridges, the top has hollow stem scars, the texture is hard and heavy, the cross-section is white, sufficient in powder, nearly square root of the upper section has visible cambium, densely brown leather department point fragrant, taste slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has a dry body, only branches, stout, hard quality, weight, and a strong aroma.

 Ecological environment: The Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan., grows under forests, forest margins, beside streams, thickets, and valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, China.

(3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch. Ex Hoffm. Benth.Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi:photo of plant. Botanical description: The Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as "Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi.", or "Qi Bai Zhi". Its plant morphology is consistent with that of the species (2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan.

 Characters of herbs: The root is conical, yellowish to yellowish-brown surface, transverse protrusion of lenticular, gray-white cross-section, oily.

 Ecological environment: The Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi., grows under forests, forest margins, beside streams, thickets, and valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the north area of China.

(4).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.var.dahurica.:flowering plant 01 Botanical description: The Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica, is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as "Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica", or "Xing An Bai Zhi". The plant is a perennial tall herb, it grows 1~2.5 meters high. The root is cylindrical, branching, 3~5 cm in diameter, and the outer skin is tawny to brown, with a strong odor. Stem base diameter is 2~5 cm, sometimes up to 7~8 cm, usually purplish, hollow, with longitudinal grooves. Basal leaves are rupennate, with long stalks, and a tubular sheath at the lower part of the petiole. The upper leaves of the stem have two to three feathery divisions, the leaf contour is ovoid to triangular, the length is 15~30 cm, the width is 10~25 cm, the petiole is up to 15 cm, and the lower part is a cystic swollen membranous sheath, glabrous or rare, often purple. Terminal lobes are oblong, ovate or linear-lanceolate, mostly sessile, 2.5~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, acute, the margin is irregular white cartilaginous rough serrated, with short pointed, the base is often unequal on both sides, down into a wing along leaf axis;

 The leaf below inflorescence reduced to a leafless, markedly enlarged cystic sheath, glabrous outside. Inflorescences are terminal or lateral, 10~30 cm in diameter, 5~20 cm long, inflorescences stem, umbrella shaft, and flower stalk all have short strigose; 18~40 parasols, the central main parasol sometimes is as much as 70; Involucral bracts are usually absent or with 1~2 sheaths growing ovoid dilated; 5~10 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate, membranous, white flowers; Calyx is teeth-shape; Petals are obovate, the top curve into concave shape; Ovary is glabrous or pubescent; Style is more than 2 times longer than a short conical stylopodium.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.var.dahurica.:flowering plant 02 Fruit is oblong to ovoid, yellowish-brown, sometimes purplish, 4~7 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, glabrous, dorsal ridge oblong, thick and obtuse, nearly spongy, far wider than groove, lateral wing shape, narrower than the body. There is 1 tubing in the edge groove and 2 tubings on the joint surface. The flowering period is from July to August, the fruiting period is from August to September.

 Characters of herbs: The root is thinner than Bai Zhi, conical. The appearance color is tan, the upper part is more horizontal furrow, the lower part has longitudinal grain, and the scar after the lateral root is broken. With a sallow surface and a smell like celery.

 Ecological environment: The Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., grows mostly in the valley, under the forest, ditch grass, or bushes. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the northwest provinces of China.

(5).Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi.


 Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi. Botanical description: The Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as "Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi.", or "Chuan Bai Zhi" or "Ying Xing Dang Gui(Hetero Angelica)". The plant is a perennial herb, it grows up to 1~2 meters high. The roots are straight and there are several branches in the lower part. The stem is erect, cylindrical, and hollow, with a surface of slender arris. Leaves are alternate; Leaves in the lower part of stem 2~3 back 3 out of the full-pinnately cleft, and finally, the cleavage plate is ovate to lanceolate. The petiole is sheathed, clasping the stem; The leaves on the upper part of the stem are simplified into broad and expanded leaf sheaths. The leaf margin is irregularly serrated, green in the upper part, grey-white to pale green in the lower part, and both surfaces are glabrous, with only short bristles on veins.

 Compound umbel is terminal, total pedicels are 15~20 cm long; several small involucral bracts, narrowly lanceolate to linear, smaller umbrella stem is long; Calyx is not apparent; 5 petals, white, broadly ovate to quasi-circular, the apex is slightly concave, with an uvulus in the center folded inward; 5 stamens, anthers are elliptic: ovary is lower, 2 chambers, 2 styles.

 Double canthus is long elliptic, 5 ridges distinct to right, and more lignified wings on lateral ridges. Its flowering period is from May to June, the fruiting period is from June to July.

 Ecological environment: The Angelica dahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., grows in mountain and forest margins. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the north area, and it is cultivated in the southwest area of China.

(6).Heracleum scabridum Franch.


 Heracleum scabridum Franch.:branches,leaves and flowers Botanical description: The Heracleum scabridum Franch., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as "Heracleum scabridum Franch.", or "Dian Bai Zhi", or "Niu Fang Feng". The plant is a perennial herb, it grows up to 60~100 cm high. The whole plant is covered with coarse, fine hair. Roots are spindle-shaped, aromatic, and lower branched. The stem is cylindrical, hollow, with longitudinal grooves, and white spines, the upper part is branched. Stem lower leaf is ovoid to triangular, 2-loop pinnate deep fissure, 5~20 cm long, 5~7 cm wide, lobes are wide ovoid to oblong, 2.5~5 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, margin with unequal teeth, green surface, rough and fine wrinkle with pale green on the back, both sides are bristled, more on the back. The upper leaves of the stem are similar in shape to the lower part of the stem.

 The inflorescences are compound, terminal, or lateral, with a total stalk length of 14~18 cm; Involucral bracts are missing or 1~3, linear-lanceolate, 13~17 umbrella shafts, coarsely hairy, 4~5 bracteoles, linear; Small umbelliform inflorescence and more than 30 flowers; Calyx teeth are short, linear triangular; Petals are white, two, outward turning for the radiation flap; 5 stamens, alternate with petals, filaments are thick and curved; Stylopodium is conical, 2 styles, shorter, forked.

 Fruit is obovate or ovate, 7~8 mm long, 5~6 mm wide, smooth, each groove has 1 tubing, rod shape, length is half or more of fruiting length, the joint surface has 2 tubings, its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting period from August to September.

 Ecological environment: The Heracleum scabridum Franch., grows in mountain forests and grass at an altitude above 2,000 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the southwest area of China.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bai Zhi:Radix Angelicae Dahuricae or Dahurian Angelica Root.

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