Introduction of Bai Zhi:Radix Angelicae Dahuricae or Dahurian Angelica Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Dahurian Angelica Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f., or ②.Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan., and other 4 usable plant species, ③.Angelica dahurica(Fisch.Ex Hoffm.)Benth.Et Hook.f.ex Franch.Et Sav.Cv.Qibaizhi., ④.Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.var.dahurica, ⑤.Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., ⑥.Heracleum scabridum Franch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these six plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these six plants, the features of the herb Dahurian Angelica Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Angelicae Dahuricae(Dahurian Angelica Root).

herb photo of Dahurian Angelica Root Pin Yin Name: Bái Zhǐ.
 English Name: Dahurian Angelica Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Angelicae Dahuricae is the dried root of Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., or Angelica dahurica var.formosana(Boiss.) Shan et Yuan (family Umbelliferae), used (1).to release the superficies, disperse wind and alleviate pain in cases of frontal headache and stuffy nose in colds, rheumatalgia, and toothache, (2).to eliminate dampness for checking leukorrhagia, and (3).to discharge pus and reduce swelling for the treatment of boils, sores, abscesses, rhinitis, and nasosinusitis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Angelicae Dahuricae, Dahurian Angelica Root, Bái Zhǐ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bái Zhǐ) as the dry root of the Umbelliferae family plant species (1).Angelica dahurica (Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f., or (2).Angelica dahurica (Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.) Shan et Yuan. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb and also used the root of several other species of the same family: (3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi., or (4).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica, or (5).Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., (6).Heracleum scabridum Franch. They are plants of the Angelica genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) of the Apiales order. These 2 commonly used species and the other 4 usable species are introduced:

(1).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:plant in flowering  Botanical description: Angelica dahurica (Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hook, Dahurian angelica, or Bai Zhi. A perennial tall herb, it grows up to 1~1.5 meters high. The root is cylindrical, the upper part is nearly square, the surface is taupe brown, has numerous bigger lenticel-like cross protrusions, arrange in several longitudinal grooves. Stem and leaf sheath are mostly olive (greenish yellow).

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:picture of the herb and plant Basal leaves are pinnate, have long petioles (stalks), and a tubular amplexicaular (stem-clasping) sheath with membranous edges at the lower part of the petiole. The upper leaves of the stem are bipinnatifid or tripinnatifid, the profile of leaf blade is oval (egg-shaped) to triangular, the length is 15~30 cm, the width is 10~25 cm, the lower part of the petiole is a cystic swollen membranous sheath, glabrous or glabrate, often purplish. Terminal lobes are oblong, oval or linear-lanceolate, mostly are sessile, 2.5~6 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, acuminate (tapering), margin is irregular white cartilaginous rough serrated, with short pointed apex, its base is often unequal on both sides, is decurrent to aliform along leaf axis; the leaf below inflorescence reduced to a aphyllous, markedly enlarged cystic sheath, the out surface is glabrous.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:young shrub Compound umbels are terminal or lateral, 10~30 cm in diameter, peduncles (flower stalks) are 5~20 cm long, peduncle, umbrella spoke and flower stalk all have short coarse hairs; 18~40 umbrella spokes, 1~2 involucral bracts, usually absent; 5~10 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate, membranous; white flowers; flower petals are obovate, the top curve into concave shape; style is 2 times longer than the short conical stylus.

 Fruits are oblong to ovoid, yellowish-brown, sometimes purplish, 4~7 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, glabrous, dorsal ridge is oblong, thick and obtuse, far wider than the groove, lateral edge is aliform (winglike), narrower than the fruit. There is 1 vitta (oil duct) in the edge groove and 2 vittae (oil duct) on the commissure. Its flowering period is from July to August, and the fruiting period is from August to September.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth. et Hook.f.:young shrub and leaves Ecological environment: The plant, Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f grows in forests, forest edges, beside streams, thickets, and in valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the northern area of China. It prefers a mild and humid climate and a sunny environment, tolerant of coldness.

 The species (2).Angelica dahurica (Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana (Boiss.) Shan et Yuan., and (3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi are its varietas.

 Growth characteristics: Angelica dahurica likes a warm and humid climate, resistant to coldness. It is appropriate to choose a field with sufficient sunlight, deep soil layers, loose and fertile, sandy loam with good drainage.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is long conical, 10~25 cm long, and 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is taupe brown (grayish-brown) or yellowish-brown, and the root head is blunt quadrangular or orbicular (subrotund), with numerous wrinkles, rootlet marks, and lenticel lateral protrusions, some of which are arranged in four longitudinal rows. There are sunken stem marks on the top. The quality is hard and firm, the fracture surface is white or off-white, pulverulent (powdery), forming brown layers, nearly square or orbicular (subrotund), with many brown oil spots scattering on the cortex, cambium ring is brown, nearly square. It smells aromatic, pungent, and tastes slight bitter.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects; ②. raise blood pressure, slow down pulse, deepens the breath, cause salivation and vomiting, a large dose may cause spasm and paralysis; ③. furocoumarin compounds have photosensitive action and antispasmolysis to smooth muscle; ④. inhibitory effects on bacteria and fungi.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dissipate cold, free orifices and relieve pain, reduce swelling and discharge pus, dry dampness, and relieve leukorrhea.

 Administration of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bái Zhǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bái Zhǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 3~9 grams; ②.water decoction, 0.8~2 qian (2.4~6 grams), or prepare to pill,powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.water decoction, 3~10 grams, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, power.Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick.

(2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan.


 Angelica dahuricaFisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana Boiss.Shan et Yuan.:plant photo and picture Botanical description: Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi C. Q. Yuan et Shan., Angelica dahurica(Fisch.et Hoffm.)Benth.et Hook.f.ex Franch.et Sav.cv.Hangbaizhi Hort., or Hang Bai Zhi. A perennial herb, the plant grows 1~1.5 meters tall, cylindrical, nearly square on the upper part, surface is taupe brown (grayish-brown), has a strong odor. The stem is cylindrical, 2~5 cm in diameter, usually purplish, hollow, with longitudinal grooves; basal leaves are rupennate, has long petioles (long stalks), tubular stems and sheath with membraneous edges at the lower of the petiole. Cauline leaves are bipinnatifid or tripinnatifid, the leaf blades are ovate to triangular, 15~3 cm long, and 10~25 cm wide, the petioles are up to 15 cm long, the lower part has a cystic swollen membranous sheath, rare glabrous or piliferous, usually purplish, back at the end of the cracking time, ovoid or linear-lanceolate, 2.5~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, pointed, margin is irregular white coarsely serrate, rachis is decurrent and aliform (winglike).

 Angelica dahuricaFisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana Boiss.Shan et Yuan.:plant and flower Leaves below the inflorescence are simplified to a significantly expanded cystic sheath, has an outer glabrous compound umbelliform inflorescence, terminal or lateral, 10~30 cm in diameter, 5~20 cm in length, peduncle (flower stalk) is umbelliform (umbellated), and pedicles all are short strigose. 18~40 umbrella stalks; 1~2 involucral bracts, dilated into an ovoid sheath, 5~10 bracteoles, linear-lanceolate;

 Flowers are white, fruits are oval, yellow-brown, 4~7 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, nearly spongy, flank winged, groove has 1 vitta (oil duct), commissure has 2 vittae (oil duct), its flowering period is from May to June, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Characters of herbs: The root is conical, 10~20 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, the upper part is nearly square, the surface is taupe brown (grayish brown), with larger sample lenticel transverse ridges, 0.5~1 cm long, arranged in a longitudinal, nearly 4 shape circles and 4 ridges, the top has hollow stem scars, the texture is hard and heavy, the cross-section is white, sufficient mealiness, nearly square, the upper section of the root has visible cambium, densely brown cortex is fragrant, taste slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade is dry, only branches, stout, hard, heavy, and has a strong aroma.

 Ecological environment: The plant Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan grows in forests, forest edges, beside streams, thickets, and in valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China.

(3).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch. Ex Hoffm. Benth.Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi:photo of plant. Botanical description: The plant, Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f. ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, and it is commonly known as Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm.) Benth. Et Hook.f .ex Franch. Et Sav. Cv.Qibaizhi., or Qi Bai Zhi. Its plant morphology is consistent with that of the species (2).Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth.et Hook.f. var.formosana(Boiss.)Shan et Yuan.

 Characters of herbs: The root is conical, the surface is yellowish to yellowish-brown, transverse protrusion of lenticular, gray-white cross-section, oily.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in forests, forest edges, beside streams, in thickets and valleys. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the northern area of China.

(4).Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica.


 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.var.dahurica.:flowering plant 01 Botanical description: The plant Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. var. dahurica, or Xing An Bai Zhi. The plant is a perennial tall herb, and the plant grows up to 2.5 meters tall. The roots are thick and big, and straight, sometimes have several branches. Stems are thick and big, nearly cylindrical, the base is about 5~9 cm thick, hollow, usually prunus (violet red), the base is glabrous, pubescent on the part near to inflorescence. Leaves on the lower stem are large; petioles are long, the base is enlarged and is sheath-shaped, amplexicaular (stem-clasping); leaves are bipinnatifid or tripinnatifid, terminal lobes are oval (egg-shaped) to ovate-oblong, 2–6 cm long, 1–3 cm wide, the apex is pointed, margin is sharply biserrate (double serrate), base is decurrent and turns petiolate; cauline leaves on the upper part of the stem are smaller, petioles are all enlarged to ovate leaf sheaths, both surfaces of the leaves are glabrous, only pubescent on the veins.

 Compound umbels are terminal or axillary, pedicels are 10~30 cm long; involucre bracts are absent or there are 1~2 dilated sheath bracts, 14~16 involucret (involucel), narrowly lanceolate, longer than pedicels or equal length; the calyx is absent; 5 flower petals, white, ovate-lanceolate, the apex is acuminate (tapering), incurved; 5 stamens, filaments are slender and exsert beyond petals: the ovary is inferior, 2-loculed, 2 styles, short, the base is yellowish-white or white.

 Angelica dahurica Fisch.ex Hoffm.Benth.et Hook.var.dahurica.:flowering plant 02 Cremocarps are flat oval or orbicular (subrotund), schizocarp has 5 fruit ribs, and lateral ribs are aliform (wing-like). Its flowering period is from June to July, and its fruiting period is from July to September.

 Characters of herbs: The root is thinner than Bai Zhi, conical. The surface is tan (chocolate brown), the upper part has more cross furrows, the lower part has longitudinal striations, and scars after the lateral root is broken. It has a sallow surface and a celery-like smell.

 Ecological environment: The plant Angelica dahurica(Fisch.ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook.f grows mostly on river banks, stream sides, and jungle conglomerates along the coast. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the northwest areas of China.

(5).Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi.


 Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi. Botanical description: The plant, Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, and it is commonly known as Angelicadahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi., Chuan Bai Zhi or Yi Xing Dang Gui (anomalous Angelica). A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 1~2 meters tall. Roots are straight, have several branch roots. The stem is upright, cylindrical, and hollow, the surface has fine edges. Leaves are alternate; the cauline leaves on the lower part of the stem are bipinnatifid or tripinnatifid, and the terminal lobes are ovate-oblong to lanceolate. The petiole is sheath-shaped, amplexicaular (stem-clasping); the leaves on the upper part of the stem gradually simplified to a broadly expanded leaf sheath; leaf edges are irregularly serrate, the upper surface is green, the undersurface is grayish to pale green, both surfaces are glabrous, only strigose (strigillose) on veins.

 Compound umbels are terminal, pedicels are 15~20 cm long; involucre bracts are lacking, several involucels (involucellum), narrowly lanceolate to linear, longer than small pedicel; the calyx is inconspicuous; 5 petals, white, broadly ovate to orbicular (subrotund), the apex is slightly concave, with a ligulate lobe folding inward (recurved) in the center; 5 stamens, anthers are oval: the ovary is inferior, 2-loculed, 2 styles.

 Cremocarp is long elliptic, schizocarp has conspicuous 5-sided ridges, and lateral ribs have lignified wings. Its flowering period is from May to June, and its fruiting period is from June to July.

 Ecological environment: The plant, Angelica dahuricavar.formosanacv.Chuanbaizhi grows in mountain and forest margins. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the northern area, and it is cultivated in the southwest area of China.

(6).Heracleum scabridum Franch.


 Heracleum scabridum Franch.:branches,leaves and flowers Botanical description: The plant Heracleum scabridum Franch is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Angelica genus, it is commonly known as Heracleum scabridum Franch., Dian Bai Zhi, or Niu Fang Feng. The plant is a perennial herb, the whole plant is covered with coarse bristles. Taproot is fusiform. Leaves on the lower stem are petiolate, length of petiole is 2~4 cm, base has a broad leaf sheath, the leaf is bipinnatifid, 5~20 cm long, 5~7 cm wide, lobes are broadly ovate to long elliptic, 2.5~5 cm long, the upper surface is dark green, has rough fine wrinkles, the undersurface is light green, edge is unequally serrated; cauline leaves on the upper stem are similar to the leaves on the lower stem.

 Compound umbels are terminal and lateral; 13~20 peduncles; involucral bracts are absent or 1~3, linear-lanceolate; 4-5 involucel (involucret) bracts, linear; flowers are in 2 types, and flowers on edges are large, irregular, central flowers are nearly neat; 5 calyx teeth, linear-triangular; 5 petals, white, the apex is 2-lobed; 5 stamens; the ovary is glabrate (glabrescent).

 Cremocarps are obovate or oval (egg-shaped), 7~8 mm long, schizocarp has 5 fine edges. Its flowering period is from May to July, and the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in mountain forests and meadows, in areas at altitudes over 2,000 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: this species mainly grows in the southwest area of China.
 

 
  

 

 QR codeURL QR code:
 URL QR-code 

 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bai Zhi:Radix Angelicae Dahuricae or Dahurian Angelica Root.

 Last edit and latest revision date:
   cool hit counter