Introduction of Su Mu:Sappan Wood or Lignum Sappan.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Sappan Wood, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Caesalpinia sappan L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Sappan Wood, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Lignum Sappan(Sappan Wood).

Lignum Sappan:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Sū Mù.
 English Name: Sappan Wood.
 Latin Name: Lignum Sappan.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, sweet, salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Lignum Sappan is the dried heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L., used to activate blood and remove stasis, mainly for the treatment of contused wounds, dysmenorrhea, and amenorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Lignum Sappan, Sappan Wood, Logwood, Sū Mù.

 Caesalpinia sappan L.:flowers Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Lignum Sappan(Sappan Wood) as the dried heartwood of the species (1). Caesalpinia sappan L. It is a plant of the Caesalpinia genus, the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Caesalpinia sappan L.

 Caesalpinia sappan L.:drawing of plant parts Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Sū Mù. Small evergreen trees, the tree grows up to 5~10 meters tall. Trunk is with spines, branchlets are grayish-green, with rounded convex lenticels, new branchlets are puberulent, later shed. The leaves are 2-gyrus with double pinnate compound leaves, up to 30 cm or longer. Barbs are opposite, 9~13, 6~15 cm long, leaf axis is pilose; Leaflets are 9~16 pairs, oblong, ca. 14 mm long, ca. 6 mm wide, the apex is obtuse, slightly concave, entire, the upper part is green and glabrous, the lower mask is fine, sessile; Stipules are with pyramidal spines. Inflorescences are paniculate, terminal, broadly flowered, as long as leaves, pubescent; Flower is yellow, the diameter is 10~15 mm; Calyx base is connate, upper is 5-lobed, lobes are slightly irregular; 5 petals, 4 round, equal in size, lowest 1 is small, upper petals are oblong obovate, base ca. 1/2 narrowed into claws; 10 stamens, the lower part of filaments are covered with cotton-like hairs; Ovary is superior, 1 compartment. The pod is oblong, oblique, flat, thickly leathery, without spines, without setae, apical one side beak, about 7.5 cm long, about 3.5 cm in diameter, dark red when mature, with short hairs, not dehiscent, containing 4~4 seeds. Its flowering period is from May to June, its fruiting period is from September to October.

 Caesalpinia sappan L.:pods Ecological Environment: The tree is mainly distributed in the Zhujiang river area, southwest, Taiwan, and other areas of China. It was native to Burma, the Malay peninsula, and Sri Lanka.

 Growth characteristics: The tree Caesalpinia sappan prefers sunshine, avoid shading and waterlogging, drought tolerance. They are mostly found in areas with less rainfall, slightly resistant to frost. It can be grown in tropical and south Asia subtropical areas. The soil requirements are not strict, broken soil, clay soil, and alluvial soil are suitable for planting.

 Sappan Wood:herb photo Characters of herbs: The dry heartwood is long cylindrical or half-cylindrical, with a length of 10~100 cm and a diameter of 3~12 cm. The surface is yellow-red to brown-red, with knife cutting marks and branch marks, longitudinal cracks are common. The cross-section is slightly shiny, and the annual rings are obvious, there is dark brown, loose, and bright pith part. The texture of the herb is firm and hard. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slight puckery. The herb of better grade is thick and big, the texture of the herb is firm and solid, red-yellow.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.cardiovascular effect; ②.anticancer and inhibition of mutagenesis; ③.central inhibitory effect and hypnotic effect; ④.inhibits aldose reductase; ⑤.inhibition on various bacteria, including staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus diphtheriae, Bacillus influenzae, Bacterium flexneri and Bacillus paratyphoid, it also has inhibition effect on Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus typhi, Paratyphoid A and B, pneumobacillus.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activate blood circulation, remove blood stasis, detumescence (reduce swelling) and relieve pain. It is indicated for fall injury, injury of tendon and muscle, bone fracture, blood stagnation and stasis, swelling and pain, woman heart and abdomen pain due to Qi and blood stagnation, dysmenorrhea, blood stagnation, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain after menstruation), postpartum blood stasis, postpartum pain in heart and abdomen due to stasis obstruction, postpartum blood stasis swelling pain and dyspnea with rapid respiration, stabbing pain in chest and abdomen, postpartum fainting or coma due to blood stasis, dysentery, carbuncle, ulcer or swelling pain, tetanus, pain from fall injury and blood stagnation, traumatic injury, etc.

 Administration of Lignum Sappan (Sū Mù): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Lignum Sappan (Sū Mù)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), prepare to finely ground herb powder or prepare to paste. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder, sprinkle apply; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~9 grams, or prepare to finely ground herb powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, sprinkle apply.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Lignum Sappan should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or hypermenorrhea, or should forbidden using during pregnancy. Should not be prepared with ironware.

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