Introduction of Dan Shen:Danshen Root or Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Danshen Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source plant species, ①.Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., ②.Salvia przewalskii Maxim., and other usable plant species, ③.Salvia bowleyana Dunn., ④.Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum(Diels)Stib., ⑤.Salvia yunnanensis C. H. Wright., ⑥.Salvia kiaometiensis Levl.,f. pubescens Stib., ⑦.Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.mss., and other species used in some areas, ⑧.Salvia digitaloides Diels., ⑨.Salvia trijuga Diels., ⑩.Salvia plectranthoides Girff., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these ten plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these ten plant species, the features of the herb Danshen Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae(Danshen Root).

Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Dān Shēn.
 English Name: Danshen Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae is the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.(family Labiatae), used (1).to promote blood circulation and to remove blood stasis for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, abdominal masses due to stagnation of blood, as well as ischemic apoplexy and coronary heart disease, (2). to remove heat from the blood for treating boils and sores, and (3).to induce tranquilization for treating palpitation and insomnia. The herb is commonly known as Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Danshen Root, Root of Dan-Shen, Dān Shēn, Chinese Red-Sage Root.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, or Dan Shen as the dry root and rhizome of the Salvia Linn. genus, the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family Lamiales order plant species (1).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., or (2).Salvia przewalskii Maxim. and several other species of the same genus, including (3).Salvia bowleyana Dunn., (4).Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum(Diels)Stib., (5).Salvia yunnanensis C. H. Wright., (6).Salvia kiaometiensis Levl.,f. pubescens Stib., (7).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.mss., Besides, other species (8).Salvia digitaloides Diels., (9).Salvia trijuga Diels., (10).Salvia plectranthoides Girff. are also used in some areas. The species Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is the herbal classic book defined botanical origin of the herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae or Dan Shen. Some famous common herbal classics defined the botanical origin as both the root and rhizome of (1).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., and the (2).Salvia przewalskii Maxim. Other herbal classics noted that other species listed are used as herbs Dan Shen at different areas, some other herbal classics defined the other species(except 1 and 2) are adulterants of the herbal classic book defined Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. These 2 commonly used species and other 8 usable species are introduced as:

(1).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.


 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and the Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Salvia miltiorrhiza", or "Dan Shen" (Dan means red, its Chinese name could be understood as a kind of red color Ginseng), or "Hong Gen"(literally it means red root), perennial herb, grows up to 30~100 cm high. All plants are densely yellowish pilose and glandular hairs. Stems are quadrangular, with grooves, upper branches. Leaves are opposite, oddly feathered geranium; petiole is 1~7 cm long; leaflets are usually 5, dilute 3 or 7, apical lobule largest, lateral leaflets are smaller, leaflets are ovate to broadly ovate, the length is 2~7 cm, width is 0.8~5 cm, apex acute or acuminate, base obliquely rounded or broadly cuneate, margin serrate on both sides, densely covered with white pilose on both surfaces. Round umbel inflorescence is consisting of terminal or axillary racemes, with 3~10 flowers in each round, lower part is alienated, the upper part is dense; bracts are lanceolate, glabrous at the upper part, slightly pilose at the lower part; the calyx is near bell-shaped, purple; corolla is 2-lipped, blue-purple, 2~1.7 cm long, the upper lip is erect, sickle-shaped, apex micro cleft, the lower lip is shorter than the upper lip, apex 3-lobed, the central lobe is longer and larger than lobes on both sides; 2 developing stamens, grow in the middle of the lower lip, out of the corolla, 2 staminodes, linear, grow on both sides of the upper lip and throat, anthers degenerate into petaloid; disk slightly expanded in front; ovary superior, 4 deep, style is slender, stigma 2-lobed, lobes ranging. Nutlets are oblong, brown, or black when cooked, about 3.2 cm long and 1.5 mm in diameter, and are packaged in a pod. Its flowering period is from May to September, fruiting from August to October.

 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., grows on the hillside, grassy places in forests or ditch at an elevation of 120~1,300 meters. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the northwest, north, the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and southwest area of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Salvia miltiorrhiza prefers mild and a humid climate, resistant to cold, strong adaptability. It is advisable to cultivate in sandy loam with sunny terrain, deep soil layer, medium fertility, and good drainage.

 Danshen Root:herb prepared by traditional method Characters of herbs: The rhizome is thick, sometimes with egg reddish-purple or grayish-brown stalks at the top. 1 to several roots, the surface is brick red or reddish-brown, long cylindrical, straight or curved, sometimes with branches and roots, 10~20 cm in length, 0.2~1 cm in diameter, there are longitudinal wrinkles and roots marks on the surface, coarse and rough; The old root cork is grayish brown or brown, and often falls off in the form of scales, revealing the new cork of red-brown structure, and sometimes the bark is cracked, showing the white wood part. The texture of the herb is hard, easily broken, the fracture surface is uneven, keratose, or fibrous. The cambium ring is obvious, the wood part is yellow and white, and the vessels are arranged radially. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes mild and slightly bitter.

 Cultivated roots are stout, with a diameter of 0.5~1.5 cm. The surface is reddish-brown, with longitudinal wrinkles, and the cortex is not easy to peel off. The texture of the herb is solid, the fracture surface is flat, slightly keratose.

 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.:flowering plant Pharmacological actions: ①.dilate coronary arteries and peripheral blood vessels, increase coronary blood flow, slow down the heart rate, reduce the degree of myocardial ischemic injury; ②.promote fibrinolysis and anticoagulant effect; ③.reduce the liver tissue damage caused by carbon tetrachloride and promote the regeneration of liver cells; ④.regulate humoral immunity and cellular immunity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis, stimulate the menstrual flow and relieve pain, clearing away the heart-fire and relieving restlessness, nourishing blood and tranquilizing the mind, tranquilizing the heart, apocenosis(dispel pus), cooling blood and eliminating carbuncle. It is indicated for thoracic obstruction and heartache, angina pectoris, heartache(heart pain), abdominal hypochondriac pain, abdominal pain due to blood stasis, pyretic arthralgia and pain(arthralgia due to heat-toxicity), joint pain, abdominal mass, lumps, heat enter into the Ying blood, dysphoria(agitated, restless, irritable), upset and sleepless, palpitation due to alarm and sleepless, menoxenia(irregular menses), dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain after menstruation), amenorrhea, metrorrhagia(flooding) and morbid leukorrhea, postpartum abdominal pain stasis, malignant sore and swollen poison, carbuncle sore, swelling and ulcer pain, traumatic injury, etc.

 Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae(Dān Shēn): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae(Dān Shēn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:10~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare ointment and smear apply, or fumigation wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction,5~15 grams, big dosage could be 30 grams.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae should not be combined with black false hellebore, saline water, vinegar. The herb should not be used during pregnancy if not necessary.

(2).Salvia przewalskii Maxim.


 Salvia przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Salvia przewalskii Maxim., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Przewalsk Sage Root", or "Radix Salviae Przewalskii", or "Ganxi Sage", "Ganxi Salvia", or "Gān Xī Shǔ Wěi Cǎo", or "Gansu Dan Shen", perennial plant, grows up to 60 cm. The roots are stout, straight, and live in a round dish. According to the song or pod, the skin is red-brown and 15~40 cm long. Stems are erect, branched from base, densely pubescent. Leaves are simple, basally or culm, all with long stalks; stem leaves are opposite, the leaf blade is triangular or elliptic-shaped, apex acute, the base is cordate or truncate, margin triangular or semi-circular teeth, the upper part is green, slightly bristly, grayish-white at the lower part. Umbrella inflorescences have 2-4-flowered racemes; bracts are ovate or elliptic; the calyx is bell-shaped, densely glandular hairs outside, 2-lipped; corolla is 2-lipped, purplish red, externally puberulous, the inside surface is 3~5 mm from the base with a slender, trichome ring; 2 fertile stamens, grow in front of the throat of the crown tube, filaments are flattened, longer than the herb septum, 2 staminodes, grow rearward in crown-throat production; The room dissolves 4 cracks, the style protrudes slightly beyond the corolla, and the apex ranges from 2 to 2 lobed. 4 nutlets, obovoid, brown. Its flowering period is from May to August.

 Salvia przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant  Root wood, straight, cylindrical cone, red-brown skin, 10~15 cm long, diameter 3~7 mm. Stems are up to 60 cm, branching from base, ascending, clustered, branched from the upper part, densely pubescent. Leaves and cauline leaves, each with stalks, the leaf blade is triangular or elliptic-shaped, sparsely ovoid, sometimes with rounded lateral lobes, 5~11 cm long, 3~7 cm wide, apex acute, base cordate or serpentine, margins nearly neatly crenate teeth, grassy, ​​green at the upper part, slightly hirsute, grayish at the lower part, densely gray tomentose; petiole length is 6~21 cm, petiole of stem leaves 1~4 cm, densely puberulent. Umbrella inflorescences are 2-4-flowered, dissociated, composing racemes 8~20 cm tall on top, sometimes with axillary racemes forming panicles; sepals are ovate or elliptic, 3~8 mm long, broad 2.5~3.5 mm, apex acute, base cuneate, entire, both surfaces are villous; pedicel length is 1~5 mm, densely puberulent with an axillary axis. The calyx is bell-shaped, 11 mm long, densely glandular villous outside, mixed with red-brown glands, faintly vellated inside, 2-lipped, upper triangular-shaped semicircle, 4 mm long, 5 mm wide, the apex has 3 short tips, the lower lip is shorter than the upper lip, 3 mm long, 6 mm wide, and the half-split is 2 teeth, with a triangular tooth and a sharp tip. Corolla is purple-red, 21~35 mm long, externally puberulous, spreading red-brown glands on the upper lip, 3~5 mm oblique to the base of the lax soft hairy ring, crown about 17 mm long, below the hair ring is a narrow tube, about 2 mm wide. It gradually enlarges upwards from the hair ring. It stretches outward into the larynx. The width of the throat is about 8 mm.

 Salvia przewalskii Maxim.:purple flowers The crown has two lips, the upper lip is oblong, and the length is 5 mm, Apex emarginate, slightly concave, margin ciliate, lower lip 7 mm long, 11 mm wide, 3-lobed, middle lobe is obovoid, apically nearly truncate, lateral lobes are semicircular. The fertile stamen extends below the upper lip, filaments flattened, 4.5 mm long, horizontally stretched, glabrous, appendage 3.5 mm long, curved, nearly equal in length to upper and lower arms, and transverse to each other at the top of the lower arm and joined together. Style slightly beyond the corolla, apex 2-lobed, posterior lobe very short. The front of the disk is slightly enlarged. Nutlets are obovoid, 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, grayish brown, glabrous. Its flowering period is from May to August.

 Salvia przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The Salvia przewalskii Maxim., grows in forest margins, roadsides, and ditched shrubs at altitudes of 2,100~4,050 meters. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the northwest, southwest area of China. It prefers a mild and humid climate, cold and adaptable. With sunny terrain, deep soil, medium fertility, and good drainage of sandy loam suitable for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The root head is stubby or tufted with 2 to several erect slender stem bases. The rhizome has a diameter of 0.5~1 cm and a length of 1~4 cm and has grayish-brown residual stem bases and scales, which are covered with grayish-white hairs. The main root is obvious, reddish-brown, conical, generally unbranched, occasionally the lower part is forked or branched, with a diameter of 0.3~5 cm, a length of 15~40 cm, straight or curved, and sparse roots; Thicker roots are twisted from one to several strands into cords, with many longitudinal furrows. The old taupe cork often falls off in scales or strips, exposing the new reddish-brown cork, which is withered and loose. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is uneven, revealing many yellow and white punctate catheter groups, and dead cork tissue is outside the vascular bundle group; The texture of the fine root is hard, the cork layer is reddish-brown, the bark is grayish-white or chocolate-brown, the cambium ring is obvious, and the xylem is grayish-brown.

(3).Salvia bowleyana Dunn.


 Salvia bowleyana Dunn.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Salvia bowleyana Dunn., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Bowley Sage Root", or "Nan Dan Shen", or "South Dan Shen", perennial herb; roots are thick, red appearance, pale yellow surface. The stem is thick, about 1 meter high, bluntly prismatic, with four troughs, downwardly villous.

 Salvia bowleyana Dunn.:flowering plant Leaves are pinnately compound, 10~20 cm long, 7 leaflets, terminal leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, 4~7.5 cm long, 2~4.5 cm wide, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate, the base is round or shallowly heart-shaped or slightly oblique, the edges are serrated or serrate, and the grass is fine. The veins on both sides are slightly viscous and the rest are hairless. The lateral veins are 5~6 pairs, and the midribs are obviously below the top, above the green, below the light green, lateral leaflets are smaller, the base is oblique; petiole length is 4~6 cm, abdomen concave-convex, villous.

 Salvia bowleyana Dunn.:drawing of whole plant Umbrella inflorescence 8 to many flowering, composing 14~30 cm long terminal racemes or racemose panicles; sepals are lanceolate, 3~4 mm long, 1 mm wide, apex acute, base cuneate, bilaterally abaxial pubescent, margin entire, ciliate; pedicel ca. 4 mm, densely villous and glandular villous with inflorescence axis. The calyx is tube-shaped, 8~10 mm long, adaxially puberulent and pubescent outside, the inner surface is long white bristly at the throat, 2-lipped, split to calyx 1/4 long, upper lip is broadly triangular, ca. 2 Millimeters, width is about 5 mm, abutment with 3 small teeth, lower lip, triangular, 1.5 mm long, 4 mm wide, lobed into 2 teeth, tooth triangular, close, apex acute. Corolla is pale purple, violet to blue-purple, 1.9~2.4 cm long, puberulent outside, obliquely labile ring near the inner base of the crown tube, the crown tube is 10 mm in length, bulging calyx, base 2.5 mm wide, upward width up to throat width of 7 mm, crown-shaped two-lip, upper lip slightly sickle-shaped, folded on both sides, the length is about 8~12 mm, width is about 5 mm, apex deep concave, the lower lip is slightly shorter, rectangular, about 11 mm long, 12 mm wide, 3-lobed, the middle lobe is largest, obcordate, apex emarginate, base slightly constricted, 3 mm long, 6 mm wide, lateral lobes are oval, smaller, up to 2 mm wide. 2 fertile stamens, extending to the upper lip, filaments ca. 4 mm, flattened, glabrous, appendix ca. 19 mm, the upper arm is 15 mm, the lower arm is 4 mm, lower arm chamber not developed, top joint. Style stretched out, up to 2.8 cm, apex not equal 2-lobed, posterior lobes are short. The disk expands slightly in front of the disk. Nutlets are elliptic, ca. 3 mm, brown, hairy at the top. Its flowering period is from March to July.

 Ecological Environment: The Salvia bowleyana Dunn., grows in mountains, valleys, roadsides, under forests, or on watersides at altitudes of 30~960 meters. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in Jiangxi, Guangdong, and Guangxi, and several other provinces of China.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is thick and short, and there is a stem base remaining at the upper end. There are several roots, cylindrical, slightly curled, 5~20 cm in length and 2~8 mm in diameter; The surface is grayish-brown or grayish-red. The texture of the herb is hard, easily broken, the fracture surface is uneven, keratose. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter.

(4).Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum(Diels)Stib.


 Botanical description: The Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum(Diels)Stib., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Brown Hairy Salvia", or "Hè Máo Dān Shēn"(literally it means Brown hairy Salvia).

 Ecological Environment: The Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum(Diels)Stib., grows in margins of shrubbery, hillside, and ditch at altitudes of 2,100 hectares and 4,500 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in China.

(5).Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright.


 Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Yunnan Salvia", or "Yunnan Sage", or "Dian Dan Shen", or "Yunnan Dan Shen", perennial plant, rhizomes are short and spasm, rooting roots and fibrous roots below, tuberous roots are usually 2-3, scarlet, spindle-shaped, 3~5 cm long, 3~6 mm in diameter. Stems are erect, ca. 30 cm tall, obtusely 4-angled, grooved, densely spreading white villous. Leaves usually base out, rarely 1~2 pairs of stem leaves; base leaves are simple or trifid or pinnate, with handles, pedicles 2.5~10 cm in length, the villous, single leaf blade is oblong-elliptic, 2~8 cm long, 1.5~3.5 cm wide, apex obtuse or rounded, base cordate to rounded, margin crenate, rigidly papery, green at the upper part, purple at the lower part, densely covered on both sides or sparse villous, rarely becoming glabrous, usually with finely wrinkled, trifid or pinnately split top lobes are largest, ovoid or elliptic, equal or smaller than simple leaves, lateral lobes or lateral leaflets are ovoid, with the rest identical to single leaves; cauline leaves with short stalks, the leaf blade is lanceolate or narrowly ovate or narrowly elliptic, usually smaller than basal leaves, the rest is identical to basal leaves. Umbrella inflorescence is 4-6-flowered, dissociated, composing long 7~13 cm terminal racemes or racemose panicles; bracts are elliptic-lanceolate, small, generally shorter than pedicels, entire, pubescent; Pedicel ca. 3 mm, villous and glandular puberulous with inflorescence axis. The calyx is bell-shaped, 7~9 mm long, often with abaxially reddish-purple on the abaxial surface, villous outside along veins, glandular part of the margin, marginal hairs on the margin of gills, inconspicuous vellus hairs on the inner surface, 2-lipped, the upper lip is broadly triangular, 2.5 mm long, 6.5 mm wide, the apex is spurred, 3-veined, 2-sided veins are narrowly winged, the lower lip is longer than the upper lip, 3 mm long, 5 mm wide, 2-lobed, the tooth is triangular, gradual tip. Corolla is blue-purple, 2.5~3 cm long, pubescent outside, puberulent in the lower part of the crown, crown tube 13~15 mm long, flared, base approximately 2.5 mm wide, up to 6 mm wide to the throat, crown-shaped, lip-shaped, upper lip, sickle-shaped, apex emarginate, holding up, 9~11 mm long, 4.5 mm wide, the lower lip is 3-lobed, the middle lobe is largest, inverted heart-shaped, 4.5 mm long, 7 mm wide, apex emarginate, the base is contracted, margin undulate; lateral lobes are oval, 2.5 mm wide. 2 fertile stamens, wrapped in corolla on the upper lip, filaments are flattened, 3 mm long, the septum is 6~10 mm long, the upper arm is approximately twice as long as the lower arm, degeneration of the lower arm chamber, top joint. Style is stretched, the apex is not equal 2-lobed, posterior lobes are short. The front of the disk is slightly enlarged. Nutlets are oval, black-brown, smooth. Its flowering period is from April to August.

 Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The Salvia yunnanensis C.H. Wright., grows on the hillside grassland, forest edge, and dry woodland with 1,800~2,900 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is short, the surface is coarse and rough, with dense leaf marks, residual stem base and petiole base. Roots are hammer-shaped, one to several, clustered or attached to one side of the rhizome, with a length of 5~18 cm and a diameter of 2~7 mm, even to 1 cm; The branches of the roots become thinner. The surface is brick red or dark red-brown, with longitudinal shrinkage lines and fibrous root marks; The old root cork bark is grayish-brown or chocolate-brown, falling off in a scaly shape, revealing red-brown new cork, some of which are cracked, showing that the white wood part is hard and easily broken, the fracture surface is uneven, keratose or fibrous, the cork layer is brick red, the wood part is grayish-brown, the cambium is obvious, the wood part is yellow and white, and radial texture can be seen. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes mild and slightly bitter.

(6).Salvia kiaometiensis Levl.,f. pubescens Stib.


 Botanical description: The Salvia kiaometiensis Levl., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Salvia kiaometiensis", or "Buckwheat field Salvia", or "Buckwheat field Sage", or "Qiaomaidi Shuweicao", or "Tu Dan Shen", perennial herb, grows up to 20~50 cm tall. Stems are 4-angled, sulcate, yellow-brown pilose. The main roots are elongated, grows up to 40 cm long, up to 2.5 cm thick, twisted, woody, and the skin peeling is red. Leaves are opposite; petiole long 9~21 cm, coats; leaf blade is ovate, 4~15 cm long, 2~10 cm wide, apex acute, base subulate, margin crenate, thinly papery, covered with yellowish-brown gland points. Round umbel, each 2~4 flowers, composed of terminal racemes or racemose panicles; sepals are broadly ovoid, entire, ciliate, pedicel ca. 3 mm; the calyx is narrowly campanulate or campanulate, second lip-shaped, less than cleft lip length 1/3, lower lip and upper lip are nearly equal length; corolla is violet-brown or red, the crown is cylindrical, crown-shaped two-lip; fertile stamens stretch to the upper lip, filaments flat; style and corolla upper lip are equal in length, tip 2 shallow. Nutlets are dark brown, obovoid, apex rounded, with stripes on the back. Its flowering period is from May to November, fruiting in November.

 Ecological Environment: The Salvia kiaometiensis Levl., grows in the wilderness, grassland, and hillside. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest of China.

(7).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.


 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "White Flower Salvia", or "Bai Hua Dan Shen", perennial herb, the roots are hypertrophic, red at outside. Stem height is 40~80 cm, villous. Leaves often have a pinnate, compound leaf; lobule 1 to 3 pairs, ovate or elliptic-ovate, hairy on both surfaces. Flowers are white, umbels, composing terminal or inflorescence racemes, densely glandular hairs or villous; bracts are lanceolate, the calyx is white, with 11 veins, ca. 11 mm, glandular hairs are outside, 2 lips, the upper lip is a broad triangle, top. 3 polymeric tips, lower lip with 2 teeth, triangular or nearly semicircular; corolla is white, 2~2.7 cm long, tube hairy ring, the upper lip is file shape, the lower lip is shorter than the upper lip, 3-lobed, the middle lobe is largest; stamens bearing the base of the lower lip. Nutlets are black, oval. Its flowering period is from April to June; fruiting from July to August.

 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li., grows in the wilderness, grassland, and hillside. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River.

(8).Salvia digitaloides Diels.


 Salvia digitaloides Diels.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Salvia digitaloides Diels., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and the Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Salvia digitaloides", or "White Back Salvia", "Digitaloides Sage", or "Bai Bei Dan Shen", or "Yin Zi Dan Shen", or "Mao Di Huang Shuweicao", perennial erect herbs. Stem height is 30~60 cm, densely villous. Leaves usually composed of base leaves and stem leaves, leaves are oblong-ovate, 3.5~11 cm long, 2~3 cm wide, apex obtuse or rounded, base rounded, margin crenate, crêpe paper quality, dark green at upper part, softly puberulent, slightly wrinkled below, densely white short-villus; base leaf petiole is 6~8 cm long, cauline leaves are shortly or to sessile. Umbrella inflorescences are 4-6-flowered, 3~8 cm long, 13~cm terminal racemes, sometimes infructescence; panicles obovate or ovoid, entire, long filaments; pedicels 3~4 mm long, densely villous with sequence axes. The calyx is bell-shaped, length 10~12 mm, after the start of the end of the width of 10 mm, bright green, outside the villous, with purple veins, the inner surface is a small rough hair, two-lip, upper lip wide triangle, length 2~2. 5 mm, 5.6 mm wide, the margin is villous, apex flanked by three cusps, the lower lip is slightly larger than the upper lip, semi fissured into 2 teeth, teeth are broadly triangular, apex acute. Corolla is yellow, lavender speckles, 3.3~3.5 cm long, externally minutely puberulent, inner surface 5 mm obliquely to base slightly soft furry loops, a crown tube extending outward, ca. 2.4 centimeters, base approximately 2.5 millimeters wide, gradually curved upwards, and gradually inflated, up to 1 cm wide at the throat, crown-shaped, lip-shaped, the upper lip is oblong, 8 mm long, 7 mm wide, the apex is rounded or dimples, the lower lip is greater than the upper lip, length 12 mm, width 13 mm, 3 cracks, the central lobe is heart-shaped, up to 10 mm, lateral lobes are semi-circular, width is about bucket mm. The fertile stamens extend slightly out of the corolla. The filaments are flat, extending horizontally, 7 mm long, 6 mm long, curved, and the upper arms and lower arms are equal in length. The lower two arms have slanted chambers and are associated with each other. Style is far beyond the corolla, the apex is not equal 2-lobed, the posterior lobe is very short. The front of the disk is slightly enlarged. Ovary lobes are ovoid. Nutlets are grayish-black, obovoid, ventral ribs, 4 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, smooth. Its flowering period is from April to June.

 Salvia digitaloides Diels.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The Salvia digitaloides Diels., grows in mountain pine forests at an altitude of 2,500~3,600 meters above sea level and on wild-slope grasslands. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the Yunnan province of China.

(9).Salvia trijuga Diels.


 Salvia trijuga Diels.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Salvia trijuga Diels., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Salvia trijuga", or "Triple Leaf Salvia", or "Clover Sage", or "San Dui Ye Dan Shen", perennial herb, 30~60 cm high. Root hypertrophy, scarlet, long 3~10 cm. Stems are villous. Leaves have single leaves and three compound leaves; lower leaves often three leaves, petiole length 5~7 cm, the upper leaves are dense and adnate bristles, below the veins, are softly hairy. Umbrella inflorescences are 2-flowered, dissociated, composing terminal racemes or racemose panicles; the calyx is campanulate, external glandular villous, inner hardly follicular, 2-lipped; corolla is blue-purple, with yellow spots, outside near hairless, inner mask hair ring; filaments are about 5 mm, the length is about 8 mm, curved into an arc, the upper and lower arms are nearly equal in length or the upper arm is slightly longer. Nutlets are oblong, dark brown, glabrous. Its flowering period is from July to September.

 Salvia trijuga Diels.:flowering plant Perennial plant; roots thick, vermilion, long cone, 3~10 cm long, diameter 3~5 mm. Stems are erect, 30-60 cm tall, obtusely 4-angled, grooved, villous. Leaves have single leaves and three pinnate compound leaves, thinly compound leaves with 5 leaflets; three leaves at the lower part, with a long handle, pedicel length 5~7 cm, flat, villous, terminal leaflets are oval or elliptic heart-shaped, 5~6 cm long, 4~5 cm wide, apex obtuse, the base is heart-shaped or truncated, margins are scalloped, bristles above and densely adnate, below veins are loosely puberulent, with scattered yellowish glands in the remainder, petiole long 8~3 cm, lateral leaflets are smaller, oval or round oval, 1~4 cm long, wide 0.5~2.8 cm, the petiole is also shorter, the hair is the same as the top leaflet; the upper stem is a single leaf or three out of the leaflet, single leaf and endoscopic leaflet similar. Umbrella is 2-flowered, dissociated, composed terminal racemes or racemose panicles; sepals are small, lanceolate or narrowly ovoid, 5~12 mm long, 1~3 mm wide, apex obtuse, the base is wide cuneate, entire, marginally puberulous and glandular-ciliate; pedicel ca. 3 mm, densely villous and glandular-pubescent with inflorescence axis. The calyx is campanulate, 1~11 mm long, glandular villous outside, slightly hardened inside, 2-lipped, calyx to calyx ca. 1/4 full, upper lip 2.5 mm, width 6 mm, apex shallowly split into 3 small teeth, tooth width triangle, apex obtuse, lower lip and upper lip are same in length, deep split into 2 teeth, triangular teeth, apex acute or near acute. Corolla is blue-purple, with yellow spots, the crown is about 2 cm long, the base is cylindrical, abruptly swollen out of the outside, almost glabrous or slightly pubescent outside, the inner surface near the base without obvious loops, crowns 2-lipped, upper lip-helmet, obliquely stretched, ca. 9 mm, outer pubescent, the lower lip is longer, outer subglabrous, 3-lobed, middle lobe laterally elliptic or suborbicular, 5 mm long, broad 9 mm, apex retuse, margin undulate, lateral lobes obliquely triangular, apex obtuse, ca. 2 mm wide. 2 fertile stamens, extending to the upper lip, filaments 5 mm long, medicine meristem 8 mm long, curved into an arch, upper and lower arms nearly equal or upper arm slightly longer, lower arm flat and thick, degenerative room, second degradant room top joint. Staminodes are very small, clublike. The style is extensible, approx. 2.3 cm, apex not equal 2-lobed, the posterior lobe is slightly shorter. Disk near the flat top. Nutlets are oblong, dark brown, glabrous. Its flowering period is from July to September.

 Ecological Environment: The Salvia trijuga Diels., grows on the slopes, valleys, valleys, shrubs, forests, or meadows at an altitude of 1,900-3,900 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: There is a stem base on the top of the rhizome. One to several roots, slender cylindrical or curved, multi-branched, 0.5~4 mm in diameter; The surface is vermilion with longitudinal edges. The texture of the herb is hard, easy to break, the fracture surface is uneven, keratose or fibrous, the cork layer is vermilion, the cortex is grayish brown or grayish-white, the wood part is yellowish-white with radial texture. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes mild and slightly bitter.

(10).Salvia plectranthoides Girff.


 Salvia plectranthoides Girff.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Salvia plectranthoides Girff., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as "Long crown Salvia", or "Long crown Sage", or "Xiao Dan Shen", or "Chang Guang Shuweicao", annual or biennial plant; rhizomes creeping or obliquely ascending, short, nearly woody, often with roots increasing, fusiform, 1.5~3 cm long, 3~5 mm thick, vermitis red, lateral roots filiform, most. Stems are erect or ascending from the base, solitary or few clustered, obtusely 4-angled, sulcate, densely pubescent, with spreading pubescent hairs or only ever spreading. Leaf bases and stems, odd-pinnate or double-pinnate, three to 5-7 leaflets, ovate, suborbicular to lanceolate, 0.5~5 cm long, width is equal or narrow, apex acute to acuminate, blunt to nearly circular, base oblique, broadly cuneate or rounded, margin crenate or dentate, grassy, ​​often purple at the lower part, both surfaces are hairless or slightly lobed above the veins, glands on the lower part of the mask, petioles are longer or shorter than the leaves, abdomen concave-convex back, slightly enlarged base; was developed or chronic hairy hairless. Umbrella inflorescence is 2~5~7-flowered, dissociated, composed of elongated terminal racemes or racemose panicles; sepals are small, lanceolate, and pedicels as long or shorter than pedicels, apex acuminate, base cuneate, entire, with long cilia; pedicels ca. 1~2 mm, densely glandular with pubescus. The calyx is campanulate or tube-shaped, the flower is 5-8 mm long, glandular-pubescent outside on vein, sparsely pale yellow glandular, inner bristly ringless, slightly hardened in the upper half, two-lipped, cleft lip to calyx 1/4 length, the upper lip is semi-circular, 1.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, entire, apex with 3 connived small teeth, lower lip nearly equal to the upper lip, 3 mm wide, 2 deep, the tooth is triangular, apex acuminate, fruit calyx increased, long 7~11 mm, the outside surface is hairless. Corolla is red, purple to purple-blue, thin white, 1.1~2.0 cm long, short outside the pubescence, hairless inside, crown tube, slightly enlarged in the upper part, crown-shaped and two-lipped, the upper lip is straight, about 3 mm long, 1.75 mm wide, the lower lip is wide, slightly longer than the upper lip, 3-lobed, the largest in the splinter, inverted heart-shaped, the apex is emarginate, the margin is shallowly undulated, lateral lobes are nearly semi-circular, smaller. 2 fertile stamens, slightly extended, filaments 2~3 mm long, the septum is nearly straight, 3~4 mm long, upper arms are slightly longer, lower extremities slightly dilated and united with each other. Styles are extensose, apex not equal 2-lobed, posterior lobes are short. The front of the disk is slightly enlarged. Nutlets are oblong, ca. 2.5 mm, ventral ribs, rounded at the top, pale brown, tan. Its flowering period is from May to August.

 Ecological Environment: The Salvia plectranthoides Girff., grows on the slopes, valleys, sparse forests and streams with an altitude of 600 to 1,200 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, southwest area, the west, and upper reaches of the Zhujiang river area, China.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is short and nearly woody. The root is cylindrical or fusiform, grayish red.
 
herbs regulating blood conditions,herbs activating blood and resolving stasis.

 Introduction: Herbs activating blood and resolving stasis: also known as blood-activating and stasis-resolving herbs, an agent or substance herbs that promotes blood flow and removes stagnant blood, also known as blood-activating and stasis-dispelling herbs, or blood-activating herbs and stasis-resolving herbs.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Dan Shen:Danshen Root or Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.

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