Introduction of Dan Shen:Danshen Root or Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Danshen Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source plant species, ①.Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., ②.Salvia przewalskii Maxim., and other usable plant species, ③.Salvia bowleyana Dunn., ④.Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum (Diels) Stib., ⑤.Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright., ⑥.Salvia kiaometiensis Lévl.f. pubescens Stib., ⑦.Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li., and other species used in some areas, ⑧.Salvia digitaloides Diels., ⑨.Salvia trijuga Diels., ⑩.Salvia plectranthoides Girff., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these ten plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these ten plant species, the features of the herb Danshen Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae(Danshen Root).

Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Dān Shēn.
 English Name: Danshen Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae is the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., used (1).to promote blood circulation and to remove blood stasis for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, abdominal masses due to stagnation of blood, as well as ischemic apoplexy and coronary heart disease, (2). to remove heat from the blood for treating boils and sores, and (3).to induce tranquilization for treating palpitation and insomnia. The herb is commonly known as Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Danshen Root, Root of Dan-Shen, Dān Shēn, Chinese Red-Sage Root.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, or Dan Shen as the dry root and rhizome of the Salvia Linn. genus, the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) of Lamiales order plant species (1).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., or (2).Salvia przewalskii Maxim. and several other species of the same genus, including (3).Salvia bowleyana Dunn., (4).Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum (Diels) Stib., (5).Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright., (6).Salvia kiaometiensis Lévl.f. pubescens Stib., (7).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li., Besides, other species (8).Salvia digitaloides Diels., (9).Salvia trijuga Diels., (10).Salvia plectranthoides Girff. are also used in some areas. The species Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is the herbal classic book defined botanical origin of the herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae or Dan Shen. Some famous common herbal classics defined the botanical origin as both the root and rhizome of (1).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., and the (2).Salvia przewalskii Maxim. Other herbal classics noted that other species listed are used as herbs Dan Shen at different areas, some other herbal classics defined the other species(except 1 and 2) are adulterants of the herbal classic book defined Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. These 2 commonly used species and other 8 usable species are introduced:

(1).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.


 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.:flowering plant Botanical description: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and the Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Salvia miltiorrhiza, or Dan Shen (means a kind of red-colored Ginseng), or Hong Gen (means red root). A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 30–100 cm high. The whole plant is densely covered with pale yellow pilose and glandular hairs. Stems are quadrangular, with grooves, and the upper part is branched. Leaves are opposite, imparipinnate leaves; petioles are 1~7 cm long; usually 5 lobules (folioles), rarely 3 or 7, the apical lobule is the biggest, the lateral lobules are smaller, leaflet blades are oval (egg-shaped) to broad-ovate, 2~7 cm long, width is 0.8~5 cm, apex is sharp-pointed or acuminate, base is oblique circular or broadly cuneate, leaf margin has crenatures, both leaf surfaces are densely covered with white pilose.

 Verticillasters form apical or axillary racemes, with 3~10 flowers in each floral whorl, flowers on the lower part are away, flowers on the upper part are dense; flower bracts are lanceolate, the upper surface is glabrous, slightly piliferous on the under surface; the calyx is nearly campanulate, purple; corolla is bilabiate, royal purple (bluish violet), 2~2.7 cm long, the upper lip is upright, sickle-shaped, the apex is slightly cleft, the lower lip is shorter than the upper lip, the apex is 3-lobed, the central lobe is longer and bigger than lateral lobes; 2 developed stamen, grow and insert in the middle of the lower lip, stretch beyond the corolla, 2 staminodes, linear, grow on both sides of the throat part of the upper lip, anthers degenerate and are petaloid (petal-shaped); the front part of the floral disc is slightly enlarged; the ovary is superior, deeply 4-parted, style is thin and long, stigma is 2-lobed, lobes are different in size.

 Nutlets are oblong, turn brown or black when they are mature, are about 3.2 cm long, and 1.5 mm in diameter, and are enveloped in a persistent calyx. Its flowering period is from May to September, and the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge grows on hillsides and mountain slopes, meadows in forests or ditch sides, and in areas at altitudes of 120–1,300 meters above sea level. This species is mainly distributed in the northwest, northern areas, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and southwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge., prefers a warm and moist climate, is resistant to cold, and has strong adaptability. It is appropriate to choose a sunny field, with deep soil layers, sandy loam with medium fertility, and good drainage for cultivation.

 Danshen Root:herb prepared by traditional method Characters of herbs: The rhizome is thick and big, sometimes with a residual reddish violet or taupe stem base on the tip. 1 to several roots, the surface is brick red or reddish brown, long cylindrical, straight or curved, sometimes with branches and root hairs, 10~20 cm long, 0.2–1 cm in diameter, there are longitudinal wrinkles and marks of fibrous root on the surface, coarse and rough; the cork bark of the old root is taupe (dust color) or tan (chocolate brown), and often falls off as scales, the reddish-brown new cork bark is exposed, and sometimes the bark cracks, and the white xylem (wood part) is exposed. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, making it easy to break, and the fracture surface is uneven, corneous, or fibrous. The cambium ring is conspicuous, the xylem (wood part) is yellowish-white, and the tracheae are in a radiate arrangement. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes mild, slightly bitter, and puckery.

 Cultivated roots are stout, 0.5–1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is reddish-brown, with longitudinal wrinkles, and the cortex is not easy to peel off. The texture of the herb is solid, and the fracture surface is flat, slightly corneous.

 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.:flowering plant Pharmacological actions: ①.dilate coronary arteries and peripheral blood vessels, increase coronary blood flow, slow down the heart rate, reduce the degree of myocardial ischemic injury; ②.promote fibrinolysis and anticoagulant effect; ③.reduce the liver tissue damage caused by carbon tetrachloride and promote the regeneration of liver cells; ④.regulate humoral immunity and cellular immunity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis, stimulate the menstrual flow and relieve pain, clearing away the heart-fire and relieving restlessness, nourishing blood and tranquilizing the mind, tranquilizing the heart, apocenosis (dispel pus), cooling blood and eliminating carbuncle. It is indicated for thoracic obstruction and heartache, angina pectoris, heartache (heart pain), abdominal hypochondriac pain, abdominal pain due to blood stasis, pyretic arthralgia and pain (arthralgia due to heat-toxicity), joint pain, abdominal mass, lumps, heat enter into the Ying blood, dysphoria (agitated, restless, irritable), upset and sleepless, palpitation due to alarm and sleepless, menoxenia (irregular menses), dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), amenorrhea, metrorrhagia (flooding) and morbid leukorrhea, postpartum abdominal pain stasis, malignant sore and swollen poison, carbuncle sore, swelling and ulcer pain, traumatic injury, etc.

 Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Dān Shēn): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Dān Shēn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:10~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare ointment and smear apply, or fumigation wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~15 grams, big dosage could be 30 grams.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae should not be combined with black false hellebore, saline water, vinegar. The herb should not be used during pregnancy if not necessary.

(2).Salvia przewalskii Maxim.


 Salvia przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant Botanical description: Salvia przewalskii Maxim is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Przewalsk Sage Root, Radix Salviae Przewalskii, Ganxi Sage, Ganxi Salvia, or Gān Xī Shǔ Wěi Cǎo, or Gansu Dan Shen. A perennial plant, the plant grows up to 60 cm high. The roots are stout, straight, conical, and twisted or braided, the outer bark is reddish brown, and 15–40 cm long. Stems are upright, branched from the base, and densely pubescent. Simple leaf, basal or cauligenous, all with long petioles; cauline leaves are opposite, leaf blades are triangular or elliptic-hastate, the apex is pointed, the base is cordate or truncated, the margin has triangular or semicircular teeth, the upper surface is green, hirtellous, the under surface is densely covered with ash grey (grayish-white) fluff.

 Salvia przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant 2~4 verticillasters form racemes; bracts are oval (egg-shaped) or elliptic; the calyx is campaniform (bell-shaped), outside is densely covered with long glandular hairs, bilabiate; corolla is bilabiate, prunus (violet-red), outside is sparsely pubescent, there are insequent fluff rings on the part 3~5 mm distance to the base on the inner surface; 2 fertile stamens, grow at the front part of the corolla tube throat, filaments are flattened, longer than the septum, 2 staminodes, grow at the back part of the corolla tube throat; the ovary is deeply 4-parted, the style protrudes slightly beyond the corolla, and the apex is unequally shallowly 2-lobed.

 Salvia przewalskii Maxim.:purple flowers 4 nutlets, obovoid, taupe (dust color). Its flowering period is from May to August.

 Ecological Environment: Salvia przewalskii Maxim., grows in forest margins, roadsides, and bush at the sides of the ditch, in areas at altitudes of 2,100–4,050 meters. This species is mainly distributed in the northwest, southwest areas of China.

 Salvia przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant Growth characteristics: The plant Salvia przewalskii Maxim prefers warm and moist climates, is resistant to cold, and has strong adaptability. It is appropriate to choose a sunny field, with deep soil layers, sandy loam with medium fertility, and good drainage for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The root head is stubby, or tufted, with 2 to several upright, thin and long stem bases. Rhizomes are 0.5–1 cm in diameter, and 1~4 cm long, have taupe (grayish-brown) residual stem bases and scale leaves, and are covered with ash gray (grayish-white) fluff. The taproot is conspicuous, reddish-brown, conical, generally unbranched, occasionally only the lower part is bifurcated or branched, 0.3~5 cm in diameter, and 15~40 cm long, straight or curved, and root hairs are spare and rare; Thicker roots are mostly twisted, and one to several distort and are cord-like, with many longitudinal grooves, the taupe old cork often falls off in scales or strips, exposing the reddish-brown new cork, which is withered and loose. The texture of the herb is hard and crisp, easy to break, the fracture surface is uneven, revealing many yellow and white punctate tracheae groups, and dead cork tissue is outside the vascular bundle group; The texture of radicels (fine roots) is firm and hard, the cork layer is reddish-brown, the cortex part is ash gray (grayish-white) or tan (chocolate brown), the cambium ring is conspicuous, and the xylem is taupe (dust color, or grayish brown).

(3).Salvia bowleyana Dunn.


 Salvia bowleyana Dunn.:flowering plant Botanical description: Salvia bowleyana Dunn is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Bowley Sage Root, Nan Dan Shen, or South Dan Shen. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to about 1 meter high; its roots are hypertrophic, and out surface is red. The stem is stout, obtusely quadrangular, with grooves, covered with downward pilose.

 Salvia bowleyana Dunn.:flowering plant Leaves are pinnately compound leaves, opposite; petioles are 4~6 cm long, covered with pilose; leaf blades are 10~20 cm long, 5~7 lobules (folioles), apical lobules are ovoid-lanceolate, 4~7.5 cm long, 2~4.5 cm wide, apex is acuminate or caudate-acuminate, the base is round, shallowly cordate or slightly oblique, the edges have crenatures. The veins on both sides are slightly viscous, and the rest are glabrous. The lateral veins are in 5~6 pairs, and the midribs are obviously lower on the top, the upper part is green, the lower part is pale green, lateral lobules are smaller, and the base is oblique.

 Salvia bowleyana Dunn.:drawing of whole plant 8 or more verticillasters form apical racemes or racemose panicles, 14~30 cm long; the calyx is fistuliform (tubulose), bilabiate, the upper lip is wide triangular, the lower lip is smaller, triangular, lobed or 2 teeth; corolla is lilac, purple to royal purple (bluish violet), corolla tube is about 10 mm long, stretch beyond calyx, the limb is bilabiate, the upper lip is slightly sickle-shaped, the lower lip is slightly shorter and rectangular, 3-lobed, the middle lobe is the biggest, obcordate; style stretches out, the apex is unequally 2-lobed.

 Nutlets are elliptic, about 3 mm in diameter, brown, and piliferous at the top. Its flowering period is from March to July.

 Ecological Environment: Salvia bowleyana Dunn grows in mountains, valleys, watersides, roadsides, woodlands, or on watersides, in areas at altitudes of 30–960 meters above sea level. This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Gangjiang River area, the Zhujiang River area, and several other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is thick and short, and there is a residual stem base remaining at the upper end. There are several roots, cylindrical, slightly curled, 5~20 cm long, and 2~8 mm in diameter; The surface is taupe brown or pinkish-gray. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, easily broken, and the fracture surface is uneven, and corneous. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes slightly bitter.

(4).Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum (Diels) Stib.


 Botanical description: Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum (Diels) Stib is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Brown Hairy Salvia, or Hè Máo Dān Shēn (means Brown Hairy Salvia), or Hè Máo Gān Xī Shǔ Wěi Cǎo (means brown hairy Salvia przewalskii Maxim.).

 Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum (Diels) Stib., is a varietas of Salvia przewalskii Maxim., it is a perennial herb, and the plant grows up to 60 cm high. Leaf blades are triangular or oval truncated, rarely cordate oval. 2~4 verticillasters form racemes; the corolla is prunus (violet-red). Its flowering period is from July to September. The plant likes sunlights, is tolerant of cold, and is slightly resistent to aridity.

 The main difference between Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum (Diels) Stib. and original variant species Salvia przewalskii Maxim., are: when leaves are dried, the under surface of leaves is covered with stained yellow or sandy beige fluff.

 Ecological Environment: Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum (Diels) Stib grows at the forest edge, bush, ditch sides, and roadsides, in areas at altitudes of 2,100 to 4,500 meters above sea level. This species is mainly distributed in the southwest area, south of the northwest areas in China.

(5).Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright.


 Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright.:flowering plant Botanical description: Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Yunnan Salvia, Yunnan Shǔ Wěi Cǎo(means Yunnan Sage), Bēn Mǎ Cǎo. A perennial plant, the plant grows up to about 30 cm tall. Rhizomes are short, tuberous roots are usually 2-3, scarlet, fusiform (spindle-shaped), 3~5 cm long, 3~6 mm in diameter. Stems are upright, obtusely quadrangular, grooved, and densely covered with white fluff. Leaves are usually basal, rarely 1~2 pairs of cauline leaves; basal leaves are simple or trifid, with petioles, petioles are covered with pilose, pedicles are 2.5~10 cm long, the villous, single leaf blade is oblong-elliptic, 2~8 cm long, 1.5~3.5 cm wide, the apex is obtuse or rounded, the base is cordate to rounded, the margin is crenate, rigidly chartaceous (papery), the upper surface is green, the under surface is purplish, both surfaces are densely or sparsely covered with pilose, rarely becoming glabrous, usually with finely wrinkled, trifid or pinnately divided top lobes are largest, ovoid or elliptic, equal or smaller than simple leaves, lateral lobes or lateral leaflets are ovoid, with the rest identical to single leaves; cauline leaves have short petioles, the leaf blade is lanceolate, narrowly ovate, or narrowly elliptic, usually smaller than basal leaves, the rest traits are identical to basal leaves.

 Verticillasters have 4~6 flowers, separated, form an apical false raceme, the raceme is covered with glandular hairs or pilose; the calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), 7~9 mm long, outside is covered with pilose, bilabiate, the upper lip is triangular, the lower lip is 2-lobed; corolla is bluish violet, 2.5~3 cm long, the central lobe of the lower lip is obcordate; filaments are 3 mm long, septum is 6~10 mm long, the upper arm is about 2 times the length of the lower arm, the anther cell of the lower arm degenerate and connate at the front end.

 Nutlets are elliptic, black brown, and glabrous. Its flowering period is from April to August.

 Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright grows on the meadow, forest edge, open forest, and dry woodland, in areas at altitudes of 1,800–2,900 meters above sea level. This species is mainly distributed in the southwest and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is stout and short, and the surface is coarse and rough, with dense leaf marks, a residual stem base, and a petiole base. Roots are fusiform (spindle-shaped), one to several, clustered or inserted to one side of the rhizome, 5~18 cm long, and 2~7 mm in diameter, occasionally up to 1 cm in diameter; The branches of the rootlets usually turn thinner. The surface is brick red or reddish dark brown, with longitudinal wrinkles, and marks of the fibrous root are visible; The cork bark of the old root is taupe (dust color or grayish-brown) or tan (chocolate brown), falling off in a scaly shape, revealing reddish-brown new cork bark, some cortex parts are cracked, revealing the white xylem (wood part). The texture of the herb is firm and hard, easily broken, the fracture surface is uneven, corneous, or fibrous, the cork layer (phellem layer) is brick red, the cortex is taupe (grayish-brown), the cambium (cambium layer) is conspicuous, the xylem (wood part) is yellowish-white, and radial veins are visible. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes mild and slightly bitter, and puckery.

(6).Salvia kiaometiensis Lévl.,f. pubescens Stib.


 Botanical description: Salvia kiaometiensis Lévl is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Salvia kiaometiensis, Buckwheat field Salvia, Qiaomaidi Shuweicao (means Buckwheat field Sage), or Tǔ Dān Shēn. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 20–50 cm tall. Stems are quadrangular (4-angled), sulcate, and covered with tawny (yellow-brown) pilose. The taproot is in strips and elongated, grows up to 40 cm long, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, is twisted, ligneous, and reveals redness when the outer cortex peels off. Leaves are opposite; petioles are 9~21 cm long, piliferous; leaf blades are oval (egg-shaped), 4~15 cm long, 2~10 cm wide, the apex is pointed, the base is cordate, the margin has crenas, thinly chartaceous (papery), covered with tawny (yellow-brown) glandular dots (glandular points).

 Verticillasters, 2~4 flowers in each whorl, compose apical racemes or racemose panicles; involucral bracts are broadly ovoid, entire, have marginal seta (tricholoma), pedicels (flower stalks) are about 3 mm long; the calyx is narrowly campaniform or campanulate bell-shaped), bilabiate, cleft lip is less than 1/3 length of calyx, lower lip and upper lip are nearly equal length; the corolla is puce (purple brown) or red, corolla tube is terete (cylindrical), the limb is bilabiate; fertile stamens stretch to the upper lip, filaments are flat; style and the upper lip of the corolla are equal in length, the front end is 2-lobed.

 Nutlets are darkish brown, obovoid, and their apex is circular (rounded), with stripes on the back. Its flowering period is from May to November, and the fruiting period is in November.

 Ecological Environment: Salvia kiaometiensis Lévl grows in the wilderness, in meadows (grassland), and on hillsides or mountain slopes. This species is mainly distributed in the southwest of China.

(7).Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.


 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.:flowering plant Botanical description: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and Salvia genus, also known as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var. miltiorrhiza f. alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li., it is commonly known as White Flower Salvia, or Bái Huā Dān Shēn (means white flower salvia). A perennial herb, the roots are hypertrophic, and the surface is red. Stem height is 40–80 cm, villous. Leaves often have a pinna, compound leaves; lobules are in 1 to 3 pairs, oval (egg-shaped) or elliptic-ovate, and both surfaces are piliferous.

 Flowers are white, umbels, composing apical racemes, densely glandular hairs or villous; flower bracts are lanceolate, the calyx is white, with 11 veins, about 11 mm long, outside has glandular hairs, bilabiate, the upper lip is a broad triangle, lower lip has 2 teeth, triangular or nearly semicircular; the corolla is white, 2~2.7 cm long, corolla tube has piliferous rings, the upper lip is file shape, the lower lip is shorter than the upper lip, 3-lobed, the middle lobe is biggest; stamens bearing the base of the lower lip.

 Nutlets are black, and oval. Its flowering period is from April to June; fruiting from July to August.

 Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li grows in the wilderness, in meadows and grassland, and on hillsides or mountain slopes. This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and in the middle reaches of the Yellow River.

(8).Salvia digitaloides Diels.


 Salvia digitaloides Diels.:flowering plant Botanical description: Salvia digitaloides Diels is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and the Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Salvia digitaloides, White Back Salvia, Digitaloides Sage, Bai Bei Dan Shen, Yin Zi Dan Shen, or Mao Di Huang Shuweicao. A perennial upright herb, the plant grows up to 30~60 cm high. The stem is upright, densely covered with pilose. Leaves are usually composed of basal leaves and cauline leaves, opposite; petioles of basal leaves are 6~8 mm long, cauline leaves have short petioles or are sessile; leaf blades are oblong oval, 3.5~11 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, apex is obtuse or rounded, base is rounded, margin is crenate, crêpe paper quality, the upper surface is green, sparsely pubescent, the under surface is slightly wrinkled, densely covered with white short fluff; petioles of basal leaves are 6~8 cm long, cauline leaves have short petioles, or are sessile.

 Verticillasters, 4-6 flowers in each whorl, 3~8 whorls compose apical racemes; flower bracts are obovate or ovoid, covered with pilose; pedicels (flower stalks) are 3~4 mm long; The calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), bilabiate, the lower lip is slightly bigger than the upper lip; corolla is yellow, has lilac spots, corolla tube stretch beyond calyx, limb is bilabiate, the upper lip is oblong, the lower lip is bigger, central lobe is obcordiform (obcordate); developed stamen stretch beyond the corolla, filaments are flat; style is long, grows far beyond corolla, apex is unequally 2-lobed; lobe of ovary is oval (egg-shaped).

 Nutlets are grayish black, obovate, ventral surface has ridges, smooth. Its flowering period is from April to June.

 Salvia digitaloides Diels.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: Salvia digitaloides Diels grows in mountain pine forests, waste hillsides, and meadows, in areas at altitudes of 2,500–3,600 meters above sea level. This species is mainly distributed in the Yunnan province of China.

 Characters of herbs: The root is conical, 5~25 cm long, 1~3 cm in diameter, and the surface is red. The texture of the herb is loose and crisp. The herb has a mild odor, and it tastes slightly bitter and puckery.

(9).Salvia trijuga Diels.


 Salvia trijuga Diels.:flowering plant Botanical description: Salvia trijuga Diels is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Salvia trijuga, Triple Leaf Salvia, Sān Yè Shǔ Wěi Cǎo (means Threeleaf Salvia), Clover Sage, San Dui Ye Dan Shen. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 30~60 cm high. The root is hypertrophic, vermeil (vermilion or scarlet), 3~10 cm long. Stems are villous. The plant has single leaves and trifoliolate compound leaves; leaves on the lower part are usually trifoliolate leaves, petioles are 5~7 cm long, the upper surface of the leaves is covered with dense and adnate bristles, the under surface is covered with sparse pilose along veins.

 Salvia trijuga Diels.:flowering plant Verticillasters have 2 flowers, alienated, that form apical racemes or racemose panicles; the calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), the outside is covered with glandular pilose, the inner surface is covered with slightly hard appressed hairs, bilabiate; corolla is royal purple (bluish violet), with yellow spots, out surface is glabrate, inner surface has a hair ring; filaments are about 5 mm long, septum is about 8 mm long, curve to arc shape, the upper and lower arms are nearly equal length, or the upper arm is slightly longer.

 Nutlets are oblong, dull brown, and glabrous. Its flowering period is from July to September.

 Ecological Environment: Salvia trijuga Diels grows on hillsides or mountain slopes, in valleys, ditch sides, shrubs, forests, or meadows, and in areas at altitudes of 1,900–3,900 meters above sea level. This species is mainly distributed in the southwest and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: There is a residual stem base on the tip of the rhizome. One to several roots, slender cylindrical or curved, many-branched, 0.5~4 mm in diameter; the surface is vermilion, and has longitudinal ridges. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, easy to break, the fracture surface is uneven, corneous, or fibrous, the cork layer (phellem layer) is vermilion, the cortex is taupe (dust color or grayish brown) or ash gray (grayish-white), the xylem (wood part) is yellowish-white, with radial veins. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes mild, slightly bitter, and puckery.

(10).Salvia plectranthoides Girff.


 Salvia plectranthoides Girff.:flowering plant Botanical description: Salvia plectranthoides Girff is a plant of the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) and Salvia genus, it is commonly known as Long corolla Salvia, Long corolla Sage, or Xiao Dan Shen, Chang Guang Shuweicao. An annual or biennial herb, the plant grows up to 10~60 cm high. Rhizoma is short and ligneous, and the root tuber is prismatic, 1.5~5 cm long. The stem is covered with explanate sparse pilose. Basal leaves and cauline leaves are trifoliolate leaves (ternated leaf), pinnate leaves, or bipinnately compound leaves with 2~3 pairs of pinnae; petioles are long; lobules (folioles) are orbicular to lanceolate, 0.5~5 cm long, glabrous or puberulose along veins on the undersurface, and have glandular dots.

 Verticillasters are alienated, arranged in apical panicles; flower bracts are small, lanceolate; calyx is campanulate tubular, 5~8 mm long, outside veins are covered with glandular pubescence, the upper lip is entire, the lower lip is 2-lobed; corolla is red, purple to royal purple (bluish violet), 1.1~2.0 cm long, calyx tube is 2~3 times length of the calyx; filaments are 2~3 mm long, septum is 3~4 mm long, upper arm is slightly longer, the apex of the lower arm is slightly enlarged, connate with each other.

 Nutlets are oblong-trigonous, about 2.5 mm in diameter, rounded at the top, and pale brown, or tan (chocolate brown). Its flowering period is from May to August.

 Ecological Environment: Salvia plectranthoides Girff grows on hillsides or mountain slopes, valleys, open forests, and stream sides, in areas at altitudes of 600 to 1,200 meters above sea level. This species is mainly distributed in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the southwest area, and the west, and upper reaches of the Zhujiang River area, China.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is short and nearly ligneous (woody). The root is cylindrical or fusiform, pinkish-gray (grayish-red).
 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Dan Shen:Danshen Root or Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.

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