Introduction of Chuan Niu Xi:Medicinal Cyathula Root or Radix Cyathulae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Medicinal Cyathula Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cyathula officinalis Kuan., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Medicinal Cyathula Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Cyathulae(Medicinal Cyathula Root).

Radix Cyathulae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Chuān Niú Xī.
 English Name: Medicinal Cyathula Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Cyathulae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Cyathulae is the dried root of Cyathula officinalis Kuan(family Amaranthaceae), used (1).to promote blood flow for the treatment of amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and traumatic injuries, (2).to tonify the liver and kidney and strengthen the tendons and bones for lumbago and aching joints, and (3).to direct fire and blood downward for treating headache, epistaxis, and hematemesis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Cyathulae, Medicinal Cyathula Root, Chuān Niú Xī.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Cyathulae(Medicinal Cyathula Root) as the root of the species (1). Cyathula officinalis Kuan. It is a species of the Cyathula Bl. genus, the Amaranthaceae family of the Caryophyllales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Cyathula officinalis Kuan.


 Cyathula officinalis Kuan.:growing plant Botanical description: The Cyathula officinalis Kuan., is a plant of the Amaranthaceae family and Achyranthes genus, it is commonly known as "Chuān Niú Xī", "Tian Niu Xi", "Sweet Oxknee Root", "Tian Quan Niu Xi", perennial herb, grows up to 40 to 100 cm high. The main root is cylindrical, 0.8~1.5 cm in diameter, and the skin is brown. The lower part of the stem is nearly cylindrical, and the middle part is nearly prismatic. The sparse hairs are rough and the joints are slightly swollen. Inquisitors, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 3~13 cm long, 1.5~5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, entire, densely covered, and recurved hairy, densely pilose below petiole length 0.3~1.5 cm. Flowers are greenish-white, with several capitate inflorescences on branches; spikes ovate, 3~5 mm in length, dry membranous, apex with hooked burrs; pods with flowers, centered with flowers, sterile flowers on both sides of the flower; sterile floral perianth reduced to 2~5 scallops, 5 fertile tepals, 2~3 short; 5 stamens, filaments densely villous at base; 5 staminodes, rectangular, narrow, length 0.3~0.4 mm, width 0.1~0.2 mm. Apical dentate lobes; villous tufts on the outside of the base of the stamens are longer than the staminodes on the siennae; the ovary is superior, with 1 cell, and the style is thin. Umbilical oblongata obovate, 2~5 mm long. Seeds are oval. Its flowering period is from June to July, the fruiting period is from August to September.

  Cyathula officinalis Kuan.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The Cyathula Officinalis Kuan., grows wild in the forest edge, grass or cultivation, in an area with an altitude of above 500 meters. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: the plant prefers a cool, wet climate. In Sichuan province, it is mainly cultivated in the alpine mountains with an altitude of 1,200~2,400 meters. It is best to be cultivated in the mountainous area with an altitude of 1,500~1,800 meters, with high root quality and yield, and it is suitable for cultivation on the soil with sunny, deep soil layer and rich humus. Avoid continuous cropping.

 Cyathula officinalis Kuan.:growing plant Biological characteristics: The Cyathula officinalis Kuan., prefers a cool, wet climate. In Sichuan province, it is mostly cultivated in alpine mountains with an altitude of 1,200~2,400 meters. The best cultivation in the mountains with 1,500~1,800 meters gets the best quality and yield of roots. It should be cultivated in a sunny area with deep humus and rich soil.

 Medicinal Cyathula Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The root of the herb is cylindrical or nearly cylindrical, slightly bent or slightly twisted, slightly thinner downward or with a few branches, with a length of 25~60 cm and a diameter of 0.5~3 cm. The surface is yellowish-brown or grayish-brown, with slightly twisted longitudinal wrinkles and lateral root marks, and transverse obvious protuberant lenticels; Residual woody rhizomes on the upper part. The texture of the herb is tough, not easy to break, the fracture surface is light yellow or brown, punctate vascular bundles, intermittently arranged in several rounds of concentric rings. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes sweet. The herb of better grade is thick, the texture of the herb is soft and flexible, with few branches, the fracture surface is light yellow.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.protein synthesis promoting effect. ②.antifertility effect; ③.estrogenic activity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate blood stasis and stimulate the menstrual flow, promoting blood circulation, dispelling wind, remove dampness through diuresis, easing joint movement, inducing diuresis for treating strangurtia. It is indicated for amenorrhea and abdominal mass, blood stasis and amenorrhea, rheumatic lumbocrural pain, foot impotence and spasm, dystocia(difficult labour), retention of placenta, dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain after menstruation), bloody stranguria(stranguria complicated by hematuria), hematuria(blood in urine), pyretic stranguria(heat stranguria), urolithiasis(urolithic stranguria), amenorrhea(menischesis), abdominal mass, rheumatic arthralgia and pain, injury from falling down.

 Administration of Radix Cyathulae(Chuān Niú Xī): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Cyathulae(Chuān Niú Xī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), infusing in wine or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction,6~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder;or infusing in wine.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Cyathulae should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or should forbidden using during pregnancy. Should avoid using in conditions hypermenorrhea(excessive menstruation), nocturnal emission(wet dream), spermatorrhea.

 
herbs regulating blood conditions,herbs activating blood and resolving stasis.

 Introduction: Herbs activating blood and resolving stasis: also known as blood-activating and stasis-resolving herbs, an agent or substance herbs that promotes blood flow and removes stagnant blood, also known as blood-activating and stasis-dispelling herbs, or blood-activating herbs and stasis-resolving herbs.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Chuan Niu Xi:Medicinal Cyathula Root or Radix Cyathulae.

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