Introduction of Chuan Niu Xi:Medicinal Cyathula Root or Radix Cyathulae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Medicinal Cyathula Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cyathula officinalis Kuan., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Medicinal Cyathula Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Radix Cyathulae(Medicinal Cyathula Root).
Pin Yin Name: Chuān Niú Xī.
English Name: Medicinal Cyathula Root.
Latin Name: Radix Cyathulae.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Radix Cyathulae is the dried root of Cyathula officinalis Kuan, used (1).to promote blood flow for the treatment of amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and traumatic injuries, (2).to tonify the liver and kidney and strengthen the tendons and bones for lumbago and aching joints, and (3).to direct fire and blood downward for treating headache, epistaxis, and hematemesis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Cyathulae, Medicinal Cyathula Root, Chuān Niú Xī.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Cyathulae (Medicinal Cyathula Root) as the root of the species (1). Cyathula officinalis Kuan. It is a species of the Cyathula Bl. genus, the Amaranthaceae family (amaranth family) of the Caryophyllales order. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Cyathula officinalis Kuan.
Botanical description: Cyathula officinalis Kuan., is a plant of the Amaranthaceae family (amaranth family) and Achyranthes genus, it is also known as Cyathula capitata auct.non Moq., or Cyathula tomentosa auct.non (Roth) Moq., it is commonly known as Chuān Niú Xī, Tian Niu Xi, Sweet Oxknee Root, Máo Yào or Hóng Máo Yào. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 40 to 100 cm high. The taproot (main root) is cylindrical, the bark is off-white, 0.8~1.5 cm in diameter. The stem is slightly quadrangular, many-branched, and covered with sparse long coarse hairs. The lower part of the stem is nearly cylindrical, and the middle part is nearly prismatic. Leaves are opposite; petioles are 5~15 cm long; leaf blades are elliptic or narrowly elliptic, a few are obovate, 3~12 cm long, 1.5~5.5 cm wide, apex is acuminate or caudate, base is cuneate or broadly cuneate, entire, long coarse hairs adnate on the upper surface, hairs on the under surface is dense.
Compound cymes grow densely and form a ball-flower; many ball-flowers, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, viridescent (pea green), turns whitish (nearly white) when it is dried, decussate on the inflorescence axis at branch tip, stipate or 2~3 cm apart; Compound cymes are 3~6 divaricate; cymes are hermaphroditic, flower is in the center, sterile flowers grow on both sides; flower bracts are oval (egg-shaped), 4~5 mm long, bright and glossy, apex is spiny shape (awn-shaped) or uncinate (falcate); tapel of sterile flowers turns to hard and firm hamous awns; hermaphroditic flowers are 3~5 mm long, tapels are lanceolate, apex is awn-shaped (thorn tip), 3 tapels of inner side are narrower; nodular fascicular hairs grow densely on the base of filaments, staminode is rectangular, 0.3~0.4 mm long, width is about 1/2 of length, apex is dentate lobed; ovary is terete or obovate, 1.3~1.8 mm long, style is about 1.5 mm long, persistent, stigma is capitate.
Utricles (utriculus) are elliptic or obovate, 2~3 mm long, 1~2 mm in diameter, primrose yellow (faint yellow), wrapped inside persistent perianth. Seeds are elliptic, lentoid, 1.5~2 mm long, reddish, glossy, and bright. Its flowering period is from June to July, the fruiting period is from August to September.
Ecological Environment: Cyathula officinalis Kuan., grows wild in the forest edge, grass, or in cultivation, in an area at altitudes of over 500 meters above sea level. This plant species is mainly distributed in the southwest area and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: Cyathula officinalis Kuan., prefers a cool, wet, or humid climate. In southwest areas, it is mainly cultivated in areas of cold alpine mountains at altitudes of 1,200~2,400 meters above sea level. It is best to choose mountainous areas at altitudes of 1,500~1,800 meters above sea level for cultivation, with high root quality and yield, and it is appropriate to choose a sunny field with deep soil layers, humus-rich loam for cultivation, and should avoid continuous cropping.
Characters of herbs: The root of the herb is cylindrical or subcylindrical (nearly cylindrical), slightly bent or slightly twisted, slightly branched, 25~60 cm long, and 0.5~3 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-brown or taupe (dust color), with slightly twisted longitudinal wrinkles and lateral root marks, and conspicuous lalongate protuberant lenticels; the upper part of the root has residual woody rhizomes. The texture of the herb is tough (pliable but strong), not easy to break, the fracture surface is pale yellow or brown, and vascular bundles are punctate (dotted), intermittently arranged in several rounds of concentric rings. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes sweet. The herb of a better grade is stout (thick and strong), the texture of the herb is pliable and tough, with few branches, and the fracture surface is pale yellow.
Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate blood stasis and stimulate the menstrual flow, promoting blood circulation, dispelling wind, remove dampness through diuresis, easing joint movement, inducing diuresis for treating strangurtia. It is indicated for amenorrhea and abdominal mass, blood stasis and amenorrhea, rheumatic lumbocrural pain, foot impotence and spasm, dystocia (difficult labour), retention of placenta, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), bloody stranguria (stranguria complicated by hematuria), hematuria (blood in urine), pyretic stranguria (heat stranguria), urolithiasis (urolithic stranguria), amenorrhea (menischesis), abdominal mass, rheumatic arthralgia and pain, injury from falling down.
Administration of Radix Cyathulae (Chuān Niú Xī):
Administration Guide of Radix Cyathulae (Chuān Niú Xī)
①.Internally:5~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), infusing in wine or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 6~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder;or infusing in wine.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Cyathulae should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or should forbidden using during pregnancy. Should avoid using in conditions hypermenorrhea (excessive menstruation), nocturnal emission (wet dream), spermatorrhea.
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1.Introduction of Chuan Niu Xi:Medicinal Cyathula Root or Radix Cyathulae.