Introduction of Ji Xue Teng:Suberect Spatholobus Stem or Caulis Spatholobi.
✵The article gives records of the herb Suberect Spatholobus Stem, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Spatholobus suberectus Dunn., and other three usable plant species, ②.Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutcher., ③.Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels., ④.Millettia nitida Benth., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Suberect Spatholobus Stem, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem).
Pin Yin Name: Jī Xuè Ténɡ.
English Name: Suberect Spatholobus Stem.
Latin Name: Caulis Spatholobi.
Property and flavor: warm, bitter, slightly sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Caulis Spatholobi is the dried lianoid stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, used to move and tonify the blood, regulate menstruation and unblock collateral meridians for the treatment of menstrual disorders due to blood deficiency together with blood stasis, inflammation of peripheral vessels or thrombosis, numbness of the body and limbs, and also effective for leucopenia. The herb is commonly known as Caulis Spatholobi, Suberect Spatholobus Stem, Jī Xuè Ténɡ (means chicken-blood vine).
Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Caulis Spatholobi (Suberect Spatholobus Stem) as the dried lianoid stem of the species (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. It is a plant of the Spatholobus Hassk genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem) as the dried lianoid stem of the species (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn., (2). Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutcher.(Mucuna Adans genus), (3). Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.(Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus), (4). Millettia nitida Benth.(Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus). They are plants of the Mucuna Adans or Millettia Wight et Arn genus, the Leguminosae family (Fabaceae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. Thus, in a strict sense, only the dried lianoid stem of (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. is the officially identified botanical origin. These 1 herbal classic book defined species and other 3 usable species in certain areas are introduced:
(1).Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.
Botanical description: Spatholobus suberectus Dunn is also known as Butea suberecta (Dunn) Blatter., is commonly known as Mì Huā Dòu, Xiǎo Dòu Huā, or Sān Yè Jī Xuè Ténɡ. It is a plant of the Spatholobus Hassk genus, the Leguminosae family (Fabaceae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. A woody climbing lianas, shrubby when young., length is up to tens of meters. When the old stem is cut, there are several circles of eccentric strap, and chicken blood-like liquid exudates from the circle. Trifoliolate compound leaves are alternate; apical lobules (folioles) are broadly oval, 12~20 cm long, 7~15 cm wide, apex is sharp-pointed, base is circular or nearly cordate, the upper surface is sparely covered with hirsutes, there are yellow short beard hairs grow in veins on the under surface, the base of lateral lobule (foliole) is oblique, petiolule is about 6 mm long; stipel (stipellum) is acicular (aciform).
Panicles are axillary, or apical on branchlets, big, many flowers and dense, up to 50 cm long, inflorescence axis and pedicels are covered with yellow pubescence; flowers are about 10 mm long; calyx is succulent and tube-shape, 5-teeth, the upper 2 teeth connate, both surfaces have yellow pubescence; corolla is white, succulent, vexilla is orbicular, with claws, alae (winged stem) and tropis (carina) are averagely about 7 mm long, with claws and auricle; 10 stamens, in 2 groups, 10 anthers, 5 anthers are big, other 5 anthers are small; ovary has white hirsutes.
Legumes(pods) are ligulate (liguliform), 8~10 cm long, has yellow pubescence; 1 seed, grows on the front end of the legume. Its flowering period is from June to July, the fruiting period is from August to December.
Ecological Environment: Spatholobus suberectus Dunn grows in open forest or valley of dense forest or bush, in the mountains at altitudes of 800~1,700 meters above sea level. It is distributed in the Zhujiang river area of China.
Characters of herbs: The stem is a flat cylinder (flat cylindrical), slightly curved, 2~7 cm in diameter. The surface is taupe brown (grayish brown), sometimes there are visible ash gray colored patches, and where the cork bark falls off are reddish brown, with conspicuous longitudinal grooves and small punctate lenticels. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, difficult to break, and the fracture surface is irregularly splintery. The slices are elliptic, long rectangular-circular, oblong, or irregular oblique slices, 3~10 mm thick. The xylem (wood part) of the slice is reddish-brown or black-brown, with many catheter holes arranged irregularly, and there are resinous secretions on the cortex, which are reddish-brown to black-brown, and arranged alternately with the xylem (wood part) into 3~10 eccentric semicircles or circular rings. The pith part is small, leaning to one side. The herb has a light odor, it tastes puckery. The herb of a better grade has many resinous secretions.
Pharmacological actions: ①.obvious effect against atherosclerosis, can increase erythrocyte, increase hemoglobin; ②.therapeutic effect on anemia in experimental rabbit; ③.increase the experimental animal femoral arterial blood flow; ④.reducing vascular resistance.
Medicinal efficacy: Invigorate blood, activating blood circulation, nourishing blood, regulate the menstrual function, free collaterals and relax tendons. It is indicated for irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), amenorrhea, blood deficiency and dull complexion (yellow complexion), numbness of hand and foot, numbness and paralysis, rheumatic arthralgia pain, aching pain of waist and knees, etc.
Administration of Caulis Spatholobi (Jī Xuè Ténɡ):
Administration Guide of Caulis Spatholobi (Jī Xuè Ténɡ)
①.Internally: 9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams), big dosage up to 1 liang (about 30 grams), or infusing in wine; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams, big dosage could be up to 30 grams, or infusing in wine.
Botanical description: Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutcher is commonly known as Bái Huā Yóu Má Téng, or Hé Qiǎo Huā. It is a plant of the Mucuna Adans genus, the Leguminosae family (Fabaceae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. An evergreen, large wood vine, the plant grows up to 10 meters long. The outer cortex of the old stem is taupe brown (grayish brown), with a reddish-brown cross-section, and there are 3~4 eccentric concentric circles. Young stems are longitudinally grooved, lenticels are brown, raised, glabrous, or internode velveteen. Trifoliolate compound leaves, alternate, 3~5 lobules (folioles), coriaceous; petiolule is covered with sparse pilose; stipule (peraphyllum) is oval (egg-shaped), caducous; leaf blades are ovate-elliptic or elliptic, 8~13 cm long, 4~6 cm wide, apex is long acuminate or shortly caudate acuminate, base is wide cuneate or orbicular, the base of lateral lobules (folioles) is slanting, both surfaces are glabrous or are covered with sparse hairs.
Racemes are axillary, or grow on old stems or in the leaf axil, 20~38 cm long, have 20~30 flowers, fasciculate; Calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), 5 calyx teeth, upper 2 teeth connate, 1 lower tooth is longer, covered with sparse brown long hirsutes; papilionaceous corolla, light green-white, stretch beyond the calyx, flowers are 7.5~8.5 cm long; 10 stamens, disomic, anther is allotypic, 5 anthers are oblong, 5 anthers are round; the ovary is densely covered with rust-colored pubescence, style is filamentary, recurved.
Legumes (pods) are ligneous, long strip-shaped, up to 40 cm long, covered with brown pubescence, has sharp wings along the dorsal ventral line, slightly constricted between seeds. Seeds are in 5~10 grains, reniform, black. Its flowering period is from April to September, the fruiting period is from May to October.
Ecological Environment: Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutcher grows in the woods of the valley, or in bushes, on the sunny side of the mountain, on roadsides, and streamsides, often climbing up trees and shrubs, in areas at altitudes of 400~500 meters above sea level. The plant is mainly distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, southwest, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: The plant Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutcher., prefers a warm and humid climate, is resistant to shade and drought, fear of cold.
Characters of herbs: The dried stem of Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutcher, is flat cylindrical, slightly curved, 1.7~2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is taupe (dust color), very coarse, and the part where cork bark falls off is reddish-brown, with obvious longitudinal grooves and fine transverse ring grain (fringes), many verrucous protuberant lenticels, slight protrusions at nodes, and sometimes there are branch marks. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, not easily broken, and flaky when broken. The phloem of the cross-section has resinoid secretion substance, the phloem is a reddish-brown to brownish-black or dark brown (black brown) ring, and the outer part of the phloem is a concentric semi-ring with alternately arranged xylem and phloem, xylem is sallow (grayish yellow) or reddish-brown, tracheae is hole-like, arranged in radial patterns orderly, phloem and xylem arrange alternatively into several layers of concentric rings, the pith part is fine and small. The herb has a mild odor, it tastes slightly puckery and sweet. When fresh, there is bright red juice flowing out of the brown annular part, and it is shaped like chicken blood. After the juice is dried, it condenses into bright black colloidal silk spots. The herb of a better grade has even strips, reddish-brown beds on the cut surface, and exudates.
(3).Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.
Botanical description: Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels is also known as Millettia champutongeasis Hu., commonly known as Xiāng Huā Yá Dòu Téng. It is a plant of the Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus, the Leguminosae family (Fabaceae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. A woody vine, it grows up to 2~5 meters long; Branches are covered with brown short hairs, and branchlets are piliferous or glabrate (glabrescent). Leaves are alternate, odd-pinnate compound leaves, 15~30 cm long; petioles are 5~12 cm long; stipules (peraphyllum) are linear, about 3 mm long; 5 leaflet blades, coriaceous, with short stipitate; leaf blades are oblong oval to lanceolate, sometimes are oval (egg-shaped), 4~15 cm long, 2~3 cm wide, the apex is blunt and acuminate, the base is obtuse or circular, the upper surface is glabrous, the under surface is slightly pubescent or glabrous, retiform veins are dense and conspicuous.
Racemes are apical or axillary, compose panicles, up to 15 cm long, densely covered with tawny (yellow-brown) fuzz; bracts are small, oval (egg-shaped), small pedicels are about 5 mm long, covered with fuzz; flowers are dense; calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), 5-lobed, densely covered with rust-coloured fuzz; flower is white outside, densely covered with rust-colored fuzz, interior surface of flower is modena (dark purple), corolla is papilionaceous; 10 stamens, disomic; ovary is linear, style is recurved.
Legumes (pods) are narrowly oblong oval (narrowly elliptic), slightly oblate, 7~12 cm long, 14~25 mm wide, nearly woody, and densely covered with rust-colored fuzz. Seeds are 1~5 grains, flat long elliptic. Its flowering period is from May to August, the fruiting period is from October to November.
Ecological Environment: The plant grows in shaw (holt or miscellaneous wood forest) on hillsides or mountain slopes, bushes, shady rock sides, stone gaps, and forest edge. The plant is native to China, it is distributed in the central area, southwest, and southeast areas of China.
Characters of herbs: The dried rattan stem of Millettia dielsiana Harms is cylindrical, 1.5~2.0 cm in diameter, the surface is taupe (dust color), coarse, cork bark is scaly, lenticels are elliptic, longitudinally cracks. The commodity prepared herb is oblong oval oblique slices, the cortex part shares about 1/4~1/3 semidiameter of the cross-section, the outside is pale yellow, the interior secretion substance is black-brown; the xylem (wood part) is pale yellow, the tracheae are hole-like, arrange in a radial pattern and rotate; pith is small and in the center. The herb has a mild odor, it tastes slightly puckery. The herb of a better grade has grayish-brown outer bark, light-yellow inner color, and five layers of circles.
(4).Millettia nitida Benth.
Botanical description: Millettia nitida Benth is also known as Millettia kueichowensis Hu., commonly known as Guāng Yè Yá Dòu Téng. It is a plant of the Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus, the Leguminosae family (Fabaceae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. A woody vine or climbing shrub. Fresh twigs are covered with rust-colored pubescence, and gradually turn glabrescent. Leaves are alternate, odd-pinnate compound leaves, 5~11 cm long, petiolate; 5 lobules (folioles), chartaceous (papery), leaf blades are lanceolate or oval (egg-shaped), 5~11 cm long, 2~3.5 cm wide, the apex is blunt or acuminate, the base is rounded or obtuse, the upper surface is glabrous, the under surface has white pilose, luculent (glossy), retiform veins are conspicuous.
Racemes are apical or axillary, stout, 10~20 cm long, the general rachides and branches have threadlike hairs; calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), covered with threadlike hairs, 5 sepals (calyx lobes); corolla is papilionaceous, purple, the base of vexilla has two callocarous appendage; 10 stamens, disomic, ovary is linear, style is recurved.
Legumes (pods) are striped oblong, oblate, 5~15 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, have rust-colored fluff, nearly woody, and easily cracks. Seeds are 3~5 grains, brown, flat circular shape, about 1 cm in diameter. Its flowering period is from May to August, the fruiting period is from October to November.
Ecological Environment: Millettia nitida Benth grows in bushes on hillsides or mountain slopes, or at rocks in mountain regions. It is mainly distributed in the Zhujiang river area, southeast and southwest areas, and Taiwan, in China.
Characters of herbs: The stem and vines are harvested and collected in summer and autumn, cut into slices, and dried in the sun. The dry stem is similar to the above species.
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1.Introduction of Ji Xue Teng:Suberect Spatholobus Stem or Caulis Spatholobi.