Introduction of Ji Xue Teng:Suberect Spatholobus Stem or Caulis Spatholobi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Suberect Spatholobus Stem, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Spatholobus suberectus Dunn., and other three usable plant species, ②.Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch., ③.Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels., ④.Millettia nitida Bent., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Suberect Spatholobus Stem, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem).

Caulis Spatholobi:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Jī Xuè Ténɡ.
 English Name: Suberect Spatholobus Stem.
 Latin Name: Caulis Spatholobi.
 Property and flavor: warm, bitter, slightly sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Caulis Spatholobi is the dried lianoid stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn(family Leguminosae), used to move and tonify the blood, regulate menstruation and unblock collateral meridians for the treatment of menstrual disorders due to blood deficiency together with blood stasis, inflammation of peripheral vessels or thrombosis, numbness of the body and limbs, and also effective for leucopenia. The herb is commonly known as Caulis Spatholobi, Suberect Spatholobus Stem, Jī Xuè Ténɡ(literally it means chicken-blood vine).

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem) as the dried lianoid stem of the species (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. It is a plant of the Spatholobus Hassk genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem) as the dried lianoid stem of the species (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn., (2). Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.(Mucuna Adans genus), (3). Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.(Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus), (4). Millettia nitida Bent.(Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus). They are plants of the Mucuna Adans or Millettia Wight et Arn genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Thus, in a strict sense, only the dried lianoid stem of (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. is the officially identified botanical origin. These 1 herbal classic book defined species and other 3 usable species in certain areas are introduced as:

(1).Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.


 Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.:flowering tree Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Mì Huā Dòu. It is a plant of the Spatholobus Hassk genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Climbing vine, shrubby when young. Leaflets are papery or nearly leathery, abnormity, the bilateral symmetry, elliptic, obovate to suborbicular, 9~19 cm long, 5~14 cm wide, apex short caudate snap-back, tip obtuse, base broadly cuneate, lateral asymmetry of both sides, and the apical lobule, such as big or slightly narrower, base broadly cuneate or rounded, both sides are nearly glabrous or slightly hairy, often have beard between vein axils at lower part; Lateral veins 6~8 pairs, slightly curved; Petiole 5~8 mm long, puberulent or glabrous; Stipules small, subulate, 3~6 mm long.

 Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.:growing tree Inflorescences are axillary or apical to branchlets, up to 50 cm long, inflorescence axis, pedicels yellow-brown pubescent, bracts and bracteoles linear, persistent; Calyx short, 3.5~4 mm long, calyx teeth 2~3 times shorter than calyx tube, lower 3 tooth apex is rounded or slightly obtuse, less than 1 mm long, upper 2 teeth are slightly longer, somewhat connate, densely russet pubescent outside, inner hairs silver-gray, longer; Petals are white, flag oblate, 4~4.5 mm long, 5~5.5 mm wide, the apex is slightly concave, the base is broadly cuneate, petiole 2~2.5 mm long; Wings wedge oblong, 3.5~4 mm long, base one side with a short pointed earlobe, flap stalk 3~3.5 mm long; Keel valves obovate, ca. 3 mm long, base one side with a short pointed earlobe, pedicle 3~3.5 mm long; Stamens are concealed, anthers globose, uniform or nearly uniform in size; Ovary subsessile, below hispid. Pod subsickle, 8~11 cm long, densely brown with short tomentose, base with a fruit neck 4~9 mm long; Seeds are oblong, about 2 cm long, about 1 cm wide, the seed coat is purple-brown, thin and crisp, bright. Its flowering period is in June, fruiting from November to December.

 Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.:flowering tree Ecological Environment: the plant grows in the sparse forest or dense forest gully or thicket in the mountains with an altitude of 800~1,700 meters. It distributes in the Zhujiang river area of China.

 Suberect Spatholobus Stem:herb photo Characters of herbs: The stem is flat cylindrical, slightly curved, with a diameter of 2~7 cm. The surface is gray-brown, sometimes there are gray-white spots can be seen, and where the cork bark falls off are reddish-brown, with obvious longitudinal grooves and small punctate lenticels. The texture of the herb is hard, hard to break, and the broken surface is irregularly split. The slice is an oval, oblong, or irregular oblique slice with a thickness of 3~10 mm. The wood part of the cutting section is reddish-brown or brown, with many catheter holes arranged irregularly, and there are resinous secretions on the cortex, which are reddish-brown to black-brown, and arranged alternately with the wood part into 3~10 eccentric semicircles or circular rings. The pith part is small, leaning to one side. The herb has a light odor, it tastes puckery. The herb of better grade has more resinous secretions.

 Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.:flowering tree Pharmacological actions: ①.obvious effect against atherosclerosis, can increase erythrocyte, increase hemoglobin; ②.therapeutic effect on anemia in experimental rabbit; ③.increase the experimental animal femoral arterial blood flow; ④.reducing vascular resistance.

 Medicinal efficacy: Invigorate blood, activating blood circulation, nourishing blood, regulate the menstrual function, free collaterals and relax tendons. It is indicated for irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain after menstruation), amenorrhea, blood deficiency and dull complexion(yellow complexion), numbness of hand and foot, numbness and paralysis, rheumatic arthralgia pain, aching pain of waist and knees, etc.

 Administration of Caulis Spatholobi(Jī Xuè Ténɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Caulis Spatholobi(Jī Xuè Ténɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams), big dosage up to 1 liang(about 30 grams), or infusing in wine;③.Internally:water decoction,10~15 grams, big dosage could be up to 30 grams, or infusing in wine.

(2).Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.(Mucuna Adans genus).


 Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.:flowering tree Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Bái Huā Yóu Má Téng, or Hé Qiǎo Huā. It is a plant of the Mucuna Adans genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Evergreen, large wood vine. The outer skin of the old stem is grayish brown, with reddish-brown cross-section, and there are 3~4 eccentric concentric circles. Young stems are longitudinally grooved, lenticels are brown, raised, glabrous, or internode velveteen. Pinnately compound leaves with 3 lobules, leaves 17~30 cm long; Stipules caducous; Petiole 8~20 cm long; Leaf axis 2~4 cm long; Lobular nearly leathery, apical lobule elliptic, ovate or obovate, usually long and narrow, 9~16 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, apex gradually point of 1.3~2 cm long, the base is rounded or slightly cuneate, lateral lobule deflection, 9~16 cm long, glabrous on both sides or scattered hair, lateral veins 3~5, midrib and lateral veins, a net vein in two convex; Stipules absent; Petiole 4~8 mm long, with sparse short hairs.

  Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.:flowering tree Raceme is growing on old branch or in leaf axil, long 20~38 centimeters, have 20~30 flowers, often show fasciculate; Bracts are ovate, ca. 2 mm long, caducous; Pedicels 1~1.5 cm long, with sparse or dense dark brown inflorescence; Bracteoles caducous; Calyx inner surface and outer surface is densely covered with light brown hair, outside by reddish brown off coarse bristles, calyx tube wide cup shape, 1~1.5 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, 2 side teeth triangular, 5-8 mm long, the lower teeth narrow triangle, 5~15 mm long, upper lip wide triangle, often as long as side teeth; Corolla is white or greenish white, flag 3.5~4.5 cm long, apex round, base ear 4 mm, wing lobe 6.2~7.1 cm long, apex is round, valve stalk 8 mm long, densely with light brown short hair, ear 5 mm long, keel flap 7.5~8.7 cm long, base flap stalk 7~8 mm long, ear is less than 1 mm long, densely with brown short hair; Stamen tube length 5.5~6.5 cm; Ovary densely covered with erect dark brown short hairs.

 Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.:flowering tree Fruit woody, zone like, 30~45 cm long, 3.5~4.5 cm wide, 1~1.5 cm thick, nearly moniliform, densely covered with reddish-brown short villi, young fruit is often covered with reddish-brown exfoliated setae, along the dorsal and abdominal suture with 3~5 mm wide woody narrow wings, longitudinal groove, between the seeds there is a woody septum, up to 4 mm thick; 5~13 seeds, deep purple-black, nearly kidney-shaped, about 2.8 cm long, about 2 cm wide, 8~10 mm thick, often lustrous, seed umbilicus for the seed circumference of 1/2~3/4. Its flowering period is from April to June, fruiting from June to November.

 Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.:flowering tree Ecological Environment: the plant grows in 800~2,500 meters above sea level in the mountain sun side, roadside, streamside, often climbing trees, shrubs. The plant mainly distributes in Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, and other areas of China. It prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to shade and drought, fear of cold.

 Characters of herbs: The dried stem of Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch is flat cylindrical, slightly curved, about 40 cm long, about 4.5 cm long, and about 3 cm short. The surface is grayish-brown, and the part where cork bark falls off is reddish-brown, with obvious longitudinal grooves and transverse lenticels, slight protrusions at nodes, and sometimes there are branch marks. An eccentric small pith part is found in the center of the cross-section (the central pith is extremely rare), the xylem is reddish-brown, the phloem is a reddish-brown to brownish-black ring, and the outer part of the phloem is a concentric semi-ring with alternately arranged xylem and phloem. When fresh, there is bright red juice flowing out of the brown annular part, and it is shaped like chicken blood. After the juice is dried, it condenses into bright black colloidal silk spots. The texture of the herb is hard and firm, flaky when broken. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes puckery. The herb of better grade has even strips, reddish-brown beds on the cut surface, and exudates.

(3).Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.


 Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.:flowering tree Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Xiāng Huā Yá Dòu Téng. It is a plant of the Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Woody vine, 2~5 m long; Branchlets are hairy or nearly bald. 5 Leaflets, leathery, shortly stalked, ovate, rectangular to lanceolate, 4~15 cm long. Apex shortly acuminate and obtuse, base obtuse or rounded, upper bald, back slightly shortly hairy; Stipules small, conical. Panicles terminal, densely covered with brownish yellow fuzz, up to 15 cm. Bracts small, ovate, flowers shortly stipitate, pink, calyx campanulate, ca. 5 mm long. Densely rust-colored fuzz, below-lobed teeth ovate-lanceolate, other ovate. Corolla 12~15 mm long. Flag densely rusted fuzz, it is flowering in August. The pod is circular, 7~12 cm long. 1. 4~2.5 cm. Near a wood, covered with rust-colored fuzz.

 Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.:flowering tree Seeds are flat, round or slightly triangular, ca. 1 cm long. Soil retention for germination. Hypocotyl ca. 4~4.5 cm long, 1~2 mm in diameter, green, pubescent. With 4~5 primary undeveloped leaves, scaly. Leaves odd-pinnate compound with 3 small leaves, middle leaflets are larger, ovate, ca. 2 cm long, 1 cm wide, apex acuminate, base is rounded, entire, stipitate, hairy glands; Left and right lobules are smaller, with short stipitate, pinnately veined, veins protruding on the back. Hypocotyl extremely short, taproots ca. 7~8 cm long, 2 mm in diameter, light brown, lateral roots are fine, oblique.

 Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.:flowering tree Ecological Environment: the plant grows in the stone gap, rock edge, forest edge, hillside, shrub, and hilly mountain. It is harvested annually. The plant is native to China, distributes in the central area, southwest, and southeast area of China.

 Characters of herbs: The dried rattan stem of Millettia dielsiana is cylindrical, with a grayish-brown surface and longitudinal stripes. The cortex part of the cross-section accounts for 1/4 of the radius, densely covered with reddish-brown colloidal spots, gradually thinning outward, the xylem is yellow, and the vessel is micropore-shaped. The texture of the herb is firm and solid. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has grayish-brown outer bark, light-yellow inner color, and five-layer circles.

(4).Millettia nitida Bent.


 Millettia nitida Bent.:flowering tree Botanical description: It is commonly known as Guāng Yè Yá Dòu Téng. It is a plant of the Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Climbing shrubs. The morphology is similar to that of the above species. The young branches have fine hair, smooth later. Lobules lanceolate or ovate, 5~8 cm long, shiny on both sides. Panicles are terminal, 6~10 cm long; Flowers ca. 2 cm long; Calyx campanulate, densely sericulate; Corolla is purple, flag outer white, sericulate, base with 2 corpus callosum appendages. The pod is circular, 10~14 cm long, tomentose. 4~5 seeds.

 Millettia nitida Bent.:flowering tree Ecological Environment: the plant grows at streamside, valley thin forest. It mainly distributes in the Zhujiang river area of China.

 Characters of herbs: Dry stem is similar to the above species.
 
herbs regulating blood conditions,herbs activating blood and resolving stasis.

 Introduction: Herbs activating blood and resolving stasis: also known as blood-activating and stasis-resolving herbs, an agent or substance herbs that promotes blood flow and removes stagnant blood, also known as blood-activating and stasis-dispelling herbs, or blood-activating herbs and stasis-resolving herbs.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Ji Xue Teng:Suberect Spatholobus Stem or Caulis Spatholobi.

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