Introduction of San Leng:Common Burreed Tuber or Rhizoma Sparganii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common Burreed Tuber, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham., and other two usable plant species, ②.Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim., ③.Sparganium simplex Huds., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Common Burreed Tuber, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Sparganii(Common Burreed Tuber).

Rhizoma Sparganii:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Sān Lénɡ.
 English Name: Common Burreed Tuber.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Sparganii.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Sparganii is the peeled and dried tuber of Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham., used to break blood stasis and eliminate masses for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, and abdominal masses. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Sparganii, Common Burreed Tuber, Sān Lénɡ.

 Botanical source: The official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Sparganii(Common Burreed Tuber) as the peeled and dried tuber of the species (1). Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Sparganii(Common Burreed Tuber) as the peeled and dried tuber of the species (1). Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham, or (2). Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim., or (3). Sparganium simplex Huds. They are plants of the Sparganium L. genus, the Sparganiaceae family of the Typhales order. This 1 herbal classic book defined species and the other 2 usable species are introduced:

(1).Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.

 Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant, Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham., is commonly known as Hēi Sān Léng. A perennial herb, it grows up to 50–100 cm high. Rhizomes are amphitropous, thick and short stem tuber grows under the rhizome. The stem is upright, cylindrical, and smooth. Leaves are cespitose (tufty), in 2 rows; Leaf blades are linear, 60–95 cm long, about 2 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is amplexicaular (amplexicaul or stem-clasping), with 1 longitudinal ridge below.

 Scapes (flower stalks) grow out from leaf clusters, simple, sometimes are branched; flowers are unisexual, monoecious, accumulated to capitulum (flower head), have phyllary (leafy bracts); male inflorescences grow at the upper part of female inflorescences, about 10 mm in diameter, usually 2~10; Female inflorescences are 12 mm or more in diameter, usually 1~3; male flower has 3~4 tepals (perianth lobes), oblanceolate, 3 stamens; female flower has 1 pistil, rarely 2, ovary is fusiform (spindle-shaped), style is long, stigma is narrow-lanceolate.

 Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.:drawing of plant parts Syncarp(collective fruit) is about 2 cm in diameter, drupe is obovate-conical, 6~10 mm long, and 4~5 mm in diameter, the apex is pointed, the perianth is persistent. Its flowering period is from June to July, and the fruiting period is from July to August.

 Ecological Environment: The plant grows in ponds and marshes, ditches, etc. It is mainly distributed in the northern and eastern areas, the northwest and southwest, and other areas of China.

 Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.:flowering plant Growth characteristics: The plant, Sparganium stoloniferum prefers a warm and moist climate, and grows in a sunny and low-humidity environment. Its soil requirements are not strict, the plant can be planted in ditches, shallow water places of ponds, it can also be planted in irrigated fields.

 Characters of herbs: The tuber root is conical or obovate, slightly flat, rounded at the top and pointed at the bottom, slightly curved at the lower end, 2~6 cm or 2~10 cm long, and 2~4 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-white or sallow (grayish yellow), and has shaving marks, and stem marks on the top; The fibrous root marks are punctate (dotted), slightly arranged in a transverse circinal arrangement, and bilateral fibrous root marks are thicker. The herb is heavy, and the texture of the herb is solid and firm, making it difficult to break, and sink into the water. The surface of the broken section is sallow (grayish yellow) or light brown, slightly flat, with many scattered dots and strip-shaped transverse striation. The herb has a slight odor, tastes slightly bitter and puckery, and is slightly spicy. The herb of a better grade is heavy, and the texture of the herb is firm and solid, yellow and white.

 Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.:flowering plant Pharmacological actions: ①.influence on small intestine and uterus; ②.influence on blood: effect of inhibiting platelet aggregation, prolonging thrombosis time, shortening thrombosis, reducing whole blood viscosity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Break blood stasis, regulate Qi circulation, removing Qi stagnation or food retention, relieve pain. It is indicated for abdominal mass and a lump in the abdomen, stagnation of Qi and blood, pain in heart and abdomen, thoracic obstruction and pain in the heart (chest discomfort, heartache), distention and pain below the costal region, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), amenorrhea, amenorrhea of blood stasis, postpartum abdominal pain of blood stasis, distension and pain of dyspepsia, traumatic injury, sore swelling, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Sparganii(Sān Lénɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Sparganii(Sān Lénɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Sparganii should forbidden using during pregnancy, should avoid using during pregnancy, amenorrhea due to blood depletion, Qi deficiency and physical weakness. The herb should not be combined with Natrii Sulfas, Natrii Sulfas Exsiccatus.

(2).Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim.

 Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim.:drawing Botanical description: The plant, Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim., is also known as Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim. ex Meinsh., is commonly known as Xì Yè Hēi Sān Léng, or Xiá Yè Hēi Sān Léng. The differences from the above species are: the plant is small and low, the rhizomes are short, and the tuber is small. The stem is upright, and slender. Leaf blades are narrow strip-shaped, up to 65 cm long, 2.5~4 mm wide, midrib (mid vein) is conspicuous. 1~2 (or 3) female inflorescence, sessile, spheric shape (globular), about 8 mm in diameter, female flowers are dense, tepals (perianth lobes) are membranous, obovate or narrowly obovate, 1.5~2.5 mm long, pistil is about 3.5 mm long, ovary is long and narrow, the upper part turns thin to style, stigma is narrow oblong; Male inflorescences are usually about 7, grow on the tip of stem or branches, male flowers are dense, 3 tepals, membranous, narrowly spatulate or spatulate-strip, 1.5~2 mm long, 3 stamens, 2~3 mm long, has long filaments.

 Ecological Environment: The plant grows in swamps. It is distributed in the northern area and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is similar to the tuber of Sparganium stoloniferum, but the tuber is smaller.

(3).Sparganium simplex Huds.

 Sparganium simplex Huds.:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant, Sparganium simplex Huds., is commonly known as Xiǎo Hēi Sān Léng, or Dān Zhī Hēi Sān Léng. The differences from the first two species are: the stem is unbranched and usually has no rhizome, and the tuber is smaller. The leaf blade is narrow strip-shaped, up to 60 cm long, 5~8 mm wide, and the midvein is conspicuous. 2~4 or 6 female inflorescences, the lowest 1~2 inflorescences are pedunculate, spheric shape (globular), about 8 mm in diameter, male flowers are dense, 3~4 tepals, narrowly spatulate, irregular denticular, the pistil is fusiform (spindle-shaped), about 5 mm long; style is about 2 mm long; stigma is subulate; 5~7 male inflorescences, male flowers are dense, tepals are membranous, nearly narrow strip-shaped, about 3 mm long; male flowers are up to 5 mm long. Syncarp (collective fruit) is about 1.5 cm in diameter; the fruit is fusiform, the apex is attenuate, and it has persistent tapels (perianth lobes).

 Ecological Environment: The plant grows in ponds, marshes, and ditches. It is distributed in the northern area of China.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is similar to the tuber of Sparganium stoloniferum, but the tuber is smaller.
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