Introduction of San Leng:Common Burreed Tuber or Rhizoma Sparganii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common Burreed Tuber, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham., and other two usable plant species, ②.Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim., ③.Sparganium simplex Huds., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Common Burreed Tuber, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Sparganii(Common Burreed Tuber).

Rhizoma Sparganii:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Sān Lénɡ.
 English Name: Common Burreed Tuber.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Sparganii.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Sparganii is the peeled and dried tuber of Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham., used to break blood stasis and eliminate masses for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, and abdominal masses. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Sparganii, Common Burreed Tuber, Sān Lénɡ.

 Botanical source: The official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Sparganii(Common Burreed Tuber) as the peeled and dried tuber of the species (1). Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Sparganii(Common Burreed Tuber) as the peeled and dried tuber of the species (1). Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham, or (2). Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim., or (3). Sparganium simplex Huds. They are plants of the Sparganium L. genus, the Sparganiaceae family of the Typhales order. This 1 herbal classic book defined species and the other 2 usable species are introduced:

(1).Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.


 Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Hēi Sān Léng. Perennial herb, it grows up to 50~100 cm high. Rhizomes are transverse, giving rise to thick short tubers. The stem is upright, cylindrical, smooth. Leaves are clustered, 2 rows; Leaf blade is linear, 60~95 cm long, ca. 2 cm wide, apex gradually lost, base trailing stem, lower mask 1 longitudinal. Flower stems drawn from leaves, simple, sometimes branched; Flowers are unisexual, monoecious, integrated head, leaf-like bracts; Male inflorescence grows at the upper part of female inflorescence, ca. 10 mm in diameter, usually 2~10; Female inflorescence is 12 mm or more in diameter, usually 1~3; 3~4 male tepals, inverted shape, 3 stamens; 1 female flowers' pistil, rarely 2, ovary is spindle-shaped, style is long, stigma is narrowly lanceolate. Polycarp is ca. 2 cm in diameter, drupe is obovate-conical, 6~10 mm long, 4~5 mm in diameter, apex is pointed, perianth persistent. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from July to August.

 Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.:drawing of plant parts Ecological Environment: The plant grows in ponds, marshes, ditches, etc. It is mainly distributed in the north and east area, northwest area and southwest, and other areas of China.

 Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.:flowering plant Growth characteristics: The plant prefers to warm and humid climate, and grow in a sunny and low humidity environment. Its soil requirements are not strict, can be planted in ditches, ponds in shallow water, it also can be planted in the paddy field.

 Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham.:flowering plant Characters of herbs: The tuber root is conical or obovate, slightly flat, rounded at the top and pointed at the bottom, slightly curved at the lower end, 2~6 cm or 2~10 cm long, and 2~4 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-white or grayish-yellow, with knife cut marks and stem marks on the top; The fibrous root marks are punctate, slightly arranged in a transverse ring shape, and the fibrous root waves on both sides are thicker. The herb is heavy, the texture of the herb is solid and firm, hard to break, sinking into the water. The surface of the broken section is grayish-yellow or light brown, slightly flat, with many scattered dots and strip-shaped root lines. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter and slightly spicy, and pungent. The herb of better grade is heavy, the texture of the herb is firm and solid, yellow and white.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.influence on small intestine and uterus; ②.influence on blood: effect of inhibiting platelet aggregation, prolonging thrombosis time, shortening thrombosis, reducing whole blood viscosity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Break blood stasis, regulate Qi circulation, removing Qi stagnation or food retention, relieve pain. It is indicated for abdominal mass and a lump in the abdomen, stagnation of Qi and blood, pain in heart and abdomen, thoracic obstruction and pain in the heart (chest discomfort, heartache), distention and pain below the costal region, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), amenorrhea, amenorrhea of blood stasis, postpartum abdominal pain of blood stasis, distension and pain of dyspepsia, traumatic injury, sore swelling, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Sparganii(Sān Lénɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Sparganii(Sān Lénɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Sparganii should forbidden using during pregnancy, should avoid using during pregnancy, amenorrhea due to blood depletion, Qi deficiency and physical weakness. The herb should not be combined with Natrii Sulfas, Natrii Sulfas Exsiccatus.

(2).Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim.


 Sparganium stenophyllum Maxim.:drawing Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Xì Yè Hēi Sān Léng. The difference from the above species is that the plant is with small, short rhizomes and tubers, the stem is upright, slender, leaf bar, 65 cm long, 2.5~4 mm wide, midrib is obvious female flowers 1~2 (or 3), no mold, globose, ca. 8 mm diameter, female flowers are dense, perianth lobes are membranous, obovate or narrowly obovate, 1.5~2.5 mm long, pistil is ca. 3.5 mm long, ovary is long and narrow, the upper, in floral note stigma elongated round; Male inflorescence is usually 7 or so, stem or branch preportion this month, whose flowers are dense, 3 tepals, membranous, narrowly spatulate or spatulate strip 1.5~2 mm, 3 stamens, long 2~3 mm, with long filaments.

 Ecological Environment: The plant grows in swamps. It is distributed in the north area, mainly in north area, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is similar to the tuber of Sparganium stoloniferum, but the tuber is smaller.

(3).Sparganium simplex Huds.


 Sparganium simplex Huds.:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Xiǎo Hēi Sān Léng. The main differences between this species and the first two species are: the stem is not branch, usually no rhizome, the block looks smaller. Leaf-blade is narrowly striate, up to 60 cm long, 5~8 mm wide, midvein is conspicuous. Female inflorescence 2~4(~6), 1~2 on the most face, prostrate, spherical, diameter about 8 mm, female flowers are densely stored, 3~4 tepals, narrowly spatulate, irregular petiole teeth, pistil lines outward hammer-shaped, the length is about 5 mm, style is about 2 mm, stigma is subulate; 5~7 male inflorescences, male flowers are dense, tepals are membranous, nearly narrow table, the length is about 3 mm, male flowers is 5 mm. Polycarp's diameter is about 1.5 cm; Fruit fusiform, apex attenuate, with persistent perianth segments.

 Ecological Environment: The plant grows in ponds, marshes and ditches. It is distributed in the north area of China.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is similar to the tuber of Sparganium stoloniferum, but the tuber is smaller.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of San Leng:Common Burreed Tuber or Rhizoma Sparganii.

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