Introduction of Di Yu:Garden Burnet Root or Radix Sanguisorbae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Garden Burnet Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Sanguisorba officinalis L., ②.Sanguisorba officinalis L.var.longifolia (Bertol.) Yü et Li., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Garden Burnet Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Sanguisorbae(Garden Burnet Root).

dried brownish herb segments of Radix Sanguisorbae Pin Yin Name: Dì Yú.
 English Name: Garden Burnet Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Sanguisorbae.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Sanguisorbae is the dried root of Sanguisorba officinalis L. or Sanguisorba officinalis L.var.longifolia (Bertol.) Yü et Li., used as a blood-cooling hemostatic for treating various kinds of hemorrhage such as hematemesis, hemoptysis, epistaxis, hematochezia, metrorrhagia, and also used as an important agent for treating burns. The herb is commonly known as Radix Sanguisorbae, garden burnet root, Dì Yú.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Sanguisorbae (Garden Burnet Root) as the dried root of the species (1).Sanguisorba officinalis L., or (2). Sanguisorba officinalis L.var.longifolia (Bertol.) Yü et Li. They are plants of the Sanguisorba genus, the Rosaceae family (rose family) of the Rosales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Sanguisorba officinalis L.

 flowering plants of Sanguisorba officinalis L. with red flower grows in grass Botanical description: Sanguisorba officinalis L is commonly known as Dì Yú (means ground elm). A perennial herb, it grows up to 30–120 cm tall. The root is stout, fusiform (spindle-shaped), or thin cylindraceous; the surface is tan (chocolate brown) or puce (purplish brown), has longitudinal wrinkles and transverse cracks; the surface of the cross-section is yellow-white or purplish red, flatter.

 Stems are upright, have ridges, are glabrous, or have sparse glandular hairs at the base. Basal leaves are pinnately compound leaves, with 4–6 pairs of lobules (folioles); petioles are glabrous, or the base has sparse glandular hairs; Leaflets are short stipitate; stipule (peraphyllum) is membraneous, brown, outside is glabrous or is covered with sparse glandular hairs; Leaflets are oval (egg-shaped) or oblong, 1~7 cm long, 0.5~3 cm wide, the apex is obtuse and sparsely sharp-pointed, the base is cordate to shallowly cordate, the edge has many coarse and big, obtuse crenature, both surfaces are green and glabrous; Cauline leaves are fewer, leaflets are sessile, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, elongate, the base is slightly cordate to rounded, the apex is sharp-pointed, stipules (peraphyllum) are big, herbaceous, semiovoid, edge of the outside is sharply serrate; stipules of basal leaves are membranous, brown, glabrous or sparsely glandular, stipules of cauline leaves are large, herbaceous, semiovoid, lateral margin is sharply serrate.

 a colorful drawing of Sanguisorba officinalis L.,with root and stems,green leaves and red flowers Spica is elliptic, cylindrical or ovoid, upright, usually 1~3 cm or 4 cm long, 0.5~1 cm in diameter, purple to dark purple, opening downwards from the tip of the inflorescence; peduncle is smooth or occasionally sparsely glandular-hairy; 2 bracts, bracts are membranous, lanceolate, the apex is acuminate to cuspidate, shorter than sepals or nearly equal length, the back surface and margin is pilose; 4 sepals (calyx lobes), elliptic to broadly ovate, the apex is often mucronate, violet red; 4 stamens, filaments are threadlike (filiform), not enlarged, subequal or slightly shorter than sepals; Ovary outside is glabrous or basally slightly piliferous, stigma is apically enlarged, disc shape, margin with a fringed nipple.

 Achenes are enveloped in a persistent calyx tube, obovate-oblong or orbicular, with 4 ridges outside. Its flowering period is from July to October, and the fruiting period is from September to November.

 flowering plants of Sanguisorba officinalis L with red flowers grow in field Ecological Environment: The plant grows in grasslands, meadows, grasslands on hillsides or mountain slopes, thickets, or under open forests, in areas at altitudes of 30–3,000 meters above sea level. The plant is mainly distributed in the northwest, eastern, southwest, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Sanguisorba officinalis prefers a warm and moist climate, resistant to cold, young plants do not need a cover in winter in the northern area. The growing season is from April to November, and the fastest growth period is in July and August. It is appropriate to choose rich humus, sandy loam, loam, and clay loam for cultivation.

 dried brown herb slices of Garden Burnet Root are piled together Characters of herbs: The root is cylindrical, slightly twisted, and bent, 18–22 cm long, or 5–25 cm long, and 0.5–2 cm in diameter. Sometimes lateral rootlets or rootlet marks are visible. The surface is tan (chocolate brown), with conspicuous longitudinal wrinkles. There is a cylindrical rhizome or its residue at the top. The texture of the herb is firm and slightly crisp, and the fracture surface is flat, and slightly powdery. The cambium ring on the cross-section is conspicuous, the cortex is primrose yellow (faint yellow), the xylem (wood part) is brown or pinkish, and it is arranged in a remarkable radial pattern. The herb has a weak odor, and tastes slightly bitter and puckery. The herb of a better grade has thick strips, the texture is firm, and the fracture surface is pinkish.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.contractile blood vessels; ②.shorten the time of coagulation; ③.anti-inflammatory; ④.inhibition effect on Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Bacillus proteus, Bacillus typhi, Bacillus paratyphosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus comma, and so on; ⑤.anti-emetic; ⑥.anti-diarrhea; ⑦.anti-ulcer; ⑧.anti-oxidation, and other functions.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cool blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), clear heat, detoxify, detumescence (reduce swelling), and collect sores. It is indicated for hememesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria (blood in urine), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), hemorrhoids, dysentery with bloody stool, uterine bleeding, hemorrhoidal hamorrhage, leukorrhea with reddish discharge, anal fistula, burn due to hot liquid or fire, eczema, pruritus vulvae (genital itching), incised (metal-inflicted) wound, burns or scald, carbuncle swelling sore, snake and insect bites.

 Administration of Radix Sanguisorbae (Dì Yú): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Sanguisorbae (Dì Yú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, and smear stick at the affected area; ②.Internally: water decoction,2~3 qian (about 6~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: extract juice or prepare to ground herb powder and apply sprinkle; ③.Internally: water decoction, 6~15 grams, fresh herb up to 30~120 grams; or prepared to pill, powder, or extract the juice and take. Externally: proper amount, smear with water decoction or extract juice, or prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply sprinkle or mashed and apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Sanguisorbae should avoid using in conditions during pregnancy, metrorrhagia, metrorrhagia and leukorrhagia, it hurt stomach and mistakenly use mostly lead to lockjaw and could not take food.

(2).Sanguisorba officinalis L.var.longifolia (Bertol.) Yü et Li.

 plants of Sanguisorba officinalis L.var.longifolia Bertol. Yü et Li. grow in field Botanical description: Sanguisorba officinalis L.var.longifolia (Bertol.) Yü et Li is commonly known as Cháng Yè Dì Yú (means long-leaf ground elm). The main differences between this varietas and Sanguisorba Officinalis L. are: basal leaves and lobules are banded oblong to band-lanceolate, base is slightly cordate, round cordate to wide cuneate; Cauline leaves are many, similar to basal leaves, but longer and narrower. Spica (spikes) are long cylindrical, 2~6 cm long, and 0.5~1 cm in diameter; The stamens are nearly equal in length as the sepals. Its flowering and fruiting periods are from August to November.

 shrub of Sanguisorba officinalis L.var.longifolia Bertol. Yü et Li. with small green leaves Ecological Environment: The plant grows in grassland, streamside, thicket, marshes, and open forests, in areas at altitudes of 100–3,000 meters above sea level. It is distributed in the eastern, central, southern, and southwest areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The root of the herb is cylindrical or long cylindrical, often curved, 15–26 cm long, and 0.5–2 cm in diameter. Sometimes, there are many rootlets, the surface is brown, reddish-brown, or brownish purple, with fine longitudinal lines, the texture of the herb is firm and tough, not easy to break. The fracture surface is fine and piliferous, and many fibers are visible. The cambium ring on the cross-section is inconspicuous, the cortex is yellow, and the xylem (wood part) is faint yellow (pale yellow). Not arranged radially. The herb has a weak odor, it tastes slightly bitter and puckery. The herb of a better grade has thick strips, the texture is firm, and the fracture surface is pinkish.



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  • 1.Introduction of Di Yu:Garden Burnet Root or Radix Sanguisorbae.

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