Introduction of Di Yu:Garden Burnet Root or Radix Sanguisorbae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Garden Burnet Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Sanguisorba officinalis L., ②.Sanguisorba officinalis var.longifolia(Bert.) Yu et Li., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Garden Burnet Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Sanguisorbae(Garden Burnet Root).

Radix Sanguisorbae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Dì Yú.
 English Name: Garden Burnet Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Sanguisorbae.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Sanguisorbae is the dried root of Sanguisorba officinalis L. or Sanguisorba officinalis var.longifolia(Bert.) Yu et Li, used as a blood-cooling hemostatic for treating various kinds of hemorrhage such as hematemesis, hemoptysis, epistaxis, hematochezia, metrorrhagia, and also used as an important agent for treating burns. The herb is commonly known as Radix Sanguisorbae, garden burnet root, Dì Yú.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Sanguisorbae(Garden Burnet Root) as the dried root of the species (1).Sanguisorba officinalis L., or (2). Sanguisorba officinalis var.longifolia(Bert.) Yu et Li. They are plants of the Sanguisorba genus, the Rosaceae family (rose family) of the Rosales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Sanguisorba officinalis L.

 Sanguisorba officinalis L.:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Dì Yú (literally it means "ground elm"). Perennial herb, it grows up to 30~120 cm tall. The root is thick and strong, show spindle shape more, thin cylinder shape, the surface is brown or purplish brown, have longitudinal wrinkle and transverse crack, cross-section surface is yellow-white or purplish red, flatter.

 Stems are upright, arrowed, glabrous or sparsely glandular at base. Basal leaves are pinnately compound, with 4-6 pairs of lobules, petiole is glabrous, or base with sparse glandular hairs. Leaf-blade is short stipitate, ovate or oblong-ovate, 1~7 cm long, 0.5~3 cm wide, the apex is obtuse and sparsely pointed, base is cordate to shallow cordate, margin with most coarsely obtuse and sparsely pointed serrate, green on both sides, glabrous; Cauline leaves are fewer, small leaves are sessile, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, elongate, base slightly cordate to rounded, apex is pointed; Basal leaf stipules are membranous, brown, glabrous or sparsely glandular, cauline stipules large, grassy, semiovate, lateral margin sharply serrate.

 Sanguisorba officinalis L.:drawing of whole plant Inflorescences are elliptic, cylindrical or ovoid, upright, usually 1~3 cm long, 0.5~1 cm transverse, opening downwards from the top of the inflorescence, peduncle is smooth or occasionally sparsely glandular-hairy; Bracts are membranous, lanceolate, apically acuminate to caudate apex, shorter than sepals or subequal, abaxially and margin pilose; 4 sepals, purplish red, elliptic to broadly ovate, abaxially sparsely pilose, slightly longitudinally ridged in the center, apex is often shortly pointed; 4 stamens, filaments are filamentous, not enlarged, subequal or slightly shorter than sepals; Ovary outside is glabrous or basally slightly hairy, stigma is apically enlarged, discoid, margin with a fringed nipple. The fruit is enclosed in a persistent calyx tube with a bucket outside. Its flowering period is from July to October.

 Sanguisorba officinalis L.:flowers Ecological Environment: The plant grows in grasslands, meadows, hillside grasslands, thickets, or under sparse forests with an altitude of 30~3,000 meters. The plant is mainly distributed in the northwest, east, southwest, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Sanguisorba officinalis prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to cold, young plants do not need to cover in winter in the north area. The growing season is from April to November, with the fastest growth in July and August. It is better to cultivate in sandy loam, loam, and clay loam with rich humus.

 Garden Burnet Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The root is cylindrical, slightly twisted, and bent, with a length of 18~22 cm or 5~25 cm and a diameter of 0.5~2 cm. Sometimes lateral branch roots or branch root marks can be seen. The surface is brown, with obvious longitudinal wrinkles. There is a cylindrical rhizome or its residue at the top. The texture of the herb is firm, slightly brittle, the fracture surface is flat, slightly powdery. The cambium ring on the cross-section is obvious, the cortex is pale yellow, the wood part is brown or pinkish, and it is arranged in a remarkable radial pattern. The herb has a weak odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has thick strip, the texture is firm, the fracture surface is pink.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.contractile blood vessels; ②.shorten the time of coagulation; ③.anti-inflammatory; ④.inhibition effect on Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Bacillus proteus, Bacillus typhi, Bacillus paratyphosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus comma, and so on; ⑤.anti-emetic; ⑥.anti-diarrhea; ⑦.anti-ulcer; ⑧.anti-oxidation, and other functions.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cool blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), clear heat, detoxify, detumescence (reduce swelling), and collect sores. It is indicated for hememesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria (blood in urine), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), hemorrhoids, dysentery with bloody stool, uterine bleeding, hemorrhoidal hamorrhage, leukorrhea with reddish discharge, anal fistula, burn due to hot liquid or fire, eczema, pruritus vulvae (genital itching), incised (metal-inflicted) wound, burns or scald, carbuncle swelling sore, snake and insect bites.

 Administration of Radix Sanguisorbae (Dì Yú): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Sanguisorbae (Dì Yú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, and smear stick at the affected area; ②.Internally: water decoction,2~3 qian (about 6~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: extract juice or prepare to ground herb powder and apply sprinkle; ③.Internally: water decoction, 6~15 grams, fresh herb up to 30~120 grams; or prepared to pill, powder, or extract the juice and take. Externally: proper amount, smear with water decoction or extract juice, or prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply sprinkle or mashed and apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Sanguisorbae should avoid using in conditions during pregnancy, metrorrhagia, metrorrhagia and leukorrhagia, it hurt stomach and mistakenly use mostly lead to lockjaw and could not take food.

(2).Sanguisorba officinalis var.longifolia(Bert.) Yu et Li.

 Sanguisorba officinalis var.longifolia Bert.Yu et Li.:growing plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Cháng Yè Dì Yú (literally means long-leaf ground elm). The main differences between this varietas and the Sanguisorba Officinalis L. are: basal leaf lobules are banded oblong to banded lanceolate, base is slightly cordate, round is cordate to wide cuneate; Stem leaves are numerous, similar to basal leaves, but longer and narrower. Spikelets are cylindrical, 2~6 cm long, 0.5~1 cm in diameter; The stamens are nearly as long as the sepals. Its flowering and fruiting period is from August to November.

 Sanguisorba officinalis var.longifolia Bert.Yu et Li.:growing plant Ecological Environment: The plant grows in grassland, streamside, thicket, wet grassland, and sparse forest of 100~3,000 meters above sea level. It is distributed in the east, central, and south, southwest area of China.

 Characters of herbs: The root of the herb is cylindrical or long cylindrical, often curved, 15~26 cm long, and 0.5~2 cm in diameter. Sometimes, there are many branches, the surface is brown, reddish-brown, or brownish purple, with fine longitudinal lines, the texture of the herb is tough and not easy to break. The fracture surface is fine and hairy, and many fibers can be seen. The cambium ring of the cross-section is not obvious, the cortex is yellow, and the wood part is light yellow. Not arranged radially. The herb has a weak odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has thick strip, the texture is firm, the fracture surface is pink.
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