Introduction of Zhu Ma:Ramie Root or Radix Boehmeriae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Ramie Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Ramie Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Boehmeriae(Ramie Root).

light brownish dried herb root slices and segments of Radix Boehmeriae are piled together Pin Yin Name: Zhù Má.
 English Name: Ramie Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Boehmeriae.
 Property and flavor: cold, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Boehmeriae is the dried root of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud., used to stop bleeding and prevent miscarriage for the treatment of bleeding in cases of threatened abortion and menorrhagia. The herb is commonly known as Radix Boehmeriae, Ramie Root, Zhù Má.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Boehmeriae (Ramie Root) as the dried root or rhizome of the species (1). Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. It is a plant of the Boehmeria Jacq genus, the Urticaceae family (nettle family) of the Urticales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.

 plant of Boehmeria nivea L.Gaud with green leaves and reddish brown root slices Botanical description: Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud is also known as Urtica nivea L., commonly known as Zhù Má. A perennial subshrub, the plant grows up to 0.5–1.5 meters high, or 1~2 meters high; The stem is upright, cylindrical, many-branched, bluish brown, densely covered with coarse pilose and appressed short strigose.

 Leaves are alternate; petioles are 2~11 cm long; 2 stipules (peraphyllum), separated, caducous; Leaf blades are herbaceous, usually broad-ovate or oval (egg-shaped), rarely ovate, 6~15 cm long, 4~12 cm wide, the apex is acuminate to nearly caudate (nearly caudiform), the base is truncate or broadly cuneate, the edge is densely dentate, the upper surface is green, coarse, and sparsely pubescent, the under surface is densely covered with white pilose, 3 basal veins.

 plants of Boehmeria nivea L.Gaud with green leaves Flowers are unisexual, and usually monoecious; Inflorescences are panicles, axillary, 5~10 cm long, male inflorescences are usually under female inflorescences; the male flower is small, impedicellate, yellowish white, has 4 tepals (perianth lobes), 4 stamens, and has a pistillode; female flowers are pea green (pale green), cluster spherical, about 2 mm in diameter, the perianth is fistuliform (tubulose), persistent, and has 1 style.

 Achenes are small, elliptic, densely pubescent, wrapped by a persistent perianth, and contain 1 seed inside. Its flowering period is in September, and the fruiting period is in October.

 shrubs of Boehmeria nivea L.Gaud with many leaves grow in field Ecological Environment: The plant grows on the edge of a valley forest or grassy slopes, mountains, gentle slopes, hilly soil, or plain soil, in areas at altitudes of 200~1,700 meters above sea level. It is widely cultivated in the southwest, northwest, the Zhujiang river area, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. It is also distributed in Laos and other areas of Southeast Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Boehmeria nivea prefers a warm and moist climate, the suitable temperature for germination is 22–25 °C (Celsius, or 71.6–77 degrees Fahrenheit), the most suitable temperature for growth is 23–30 °C (Celsius, or 73.4–86 degrees Fahrenheit), young seedlings stop growing at a temperature lower than 8 °C (Celsius, or 46.4 degrees Fahrenheit), seedlings easily freeze to death at a temperature below 0 °C (Celsius, or 32 degrees Fahrenheit). An annual precipitation of 800~1,000 mm and a relative humidity (RH) of 80% are appropriate. Afraid of the wind, avoid waterlogging. It has a strong adaptability to the soil, and it is appropriate to choose a field with deep soil layers, fertile and loose, humus-rich, sandy loam or clay loam with good drainage, and a soil pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) of 5.5-6.5 for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome is irregularly cylindrical, slightly curved, 4~30 cm long, and 0.4~5 cm in diameter; The surface is taupe brown (grayish brown), with longitudinal striation and many lenticels, and many verrucous protrusions and residual fibrous roots. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, not easy to break, the fracture surface is fibrous, the cortex part is brown, the xylem (wood part) is light brown, some have several concentric rings in the center, and the center has a pith or is hollow. The root is slightly fusiform (spindle-shaped), about 10 cm long, and 1~1.3 cm in diameter; The surface is taupe brown (grayish brown), with longitudinal striation and elongated lenticels, and the fracture surface is powdery. The herb has a slight odor, a mild taste, and is viscous. The herb of a better grade is taupe brown (grayish brown) and not hollow in the center.

 Ramie prepared from Boehmeria nivea L.Gaud Ramie is a unique Chinese crop that is mainly used for textiles. China's ramie production accounts for more than 90% of the world's ramie production. Ramie stem fiber is long and thin, tough, white, and shiny, and has good tensile strength, moisture resistance, rich elasticity, and insulation, can be woven into aircraft wing cloth, rubber industry interlining, wire covering, incandescent lamp yarn, fishing nets, artificial silk, artificial cotton, and wool, a cotton blend can be used for high-grade clothing; and staple fiber can be used as raw material for high-grade paper, rayon, carpet, gunny bag, etc.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.shorten the coagulation time; ②.hemostatic effect; ③.miscarriage prevention; ④.resistant to radiation.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat, cool blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), detoxify, diuretic, eliminating stasis to activate blood circulation, miscarriage prevention. It is indicated for fever with great thirst, great mania, bloody stranguria(stranguria complicated by hematuria), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), uterine bleeding, purpura (hemokelidosis), threatened abortion, threatened abortion (vaginal bleeding during pregnancy), hemopyretic bleeding lead to hememesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), red and white vaginal discharge, dripping discharge of urine, retention of urine, erysipelas, ulcerative carbuncle, traumatic injury, snake and insect bites.

 Administration of Radix Boehmeriae (Zhù Má): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Boehmeriae (Zhù Má)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:water decoction,1.5~5 qian (about 4.5~15 grams),or extract juice.Externally:mashed and apply stick,or wash with water decoction; ②.Internally:water decoction, 5~30 grams;or extract juice.Externally:proper amount,mashed fresh herb and apply stick,or fumigation wash with water decoction.




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