Introduction of Zhu Ma:Ramie Root or Radix Boehmeriae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Ramie Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Boehmeria nivea(L.)Gaud., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Ramie Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Radix Boehmeriae(Ramie Root).
Pin Yin Name: Zhù Má.
English Name: Ramie Root.
Latin Name: Radix Boehmeriae.
Property and flavor: cold, sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Radix Boehmeriae is the dried root of Boehmeria nivea(L.) Gaud., used to stop bleeding and prevent miscarriage for the treatment of bleeding in cases of threatened abortion and menorrhagia. The herb is commonly known as Radix Boehmeriae, Ramie Root, Zhù Má.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Boehmeriae(Ramie Root) as the dried root or rhizome of the species (1). Boehmeria nivea(L.) Gaud. It is a plant of the Boehmeria Jacq genus, the Urticaceae family (nettle family) of the Urticales order. This commonly used species is introduced:
Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Zhù Má. Subshrubs or shrubs, the plant grows up to 0.5~1.5 meters high; Stem upper and petiole densely spreading long hirsute and subspreading and appressed short strigose.
Leaves are alternate; Leaf blade is grassy, usually round ovate or broadly ovate, rarely ovate, 6~15 cm long, 4~11 cm wide, apex is abruptly pointed, base is sub truncate or broadly cuneate, margin dentate above base, slightly scabrous above, sparsely pubescent, underside densely covered with snowy white felted hair, lateral veins ca. 3 pairs; Petiole is 2.5~9.5 cm; Stipules meristem, subulate lanceolate, 7~11 mm long, abaxially hairy.
Panicles are axillary, or female at upper part, male at lower part, or all-female of the same plant, 2~9 cm long; Male inflorescence is 1~3 mm in diameter, with a few male flowers; Female inflorescence is 0.5~2 mm in diameter, with most dense female flowers. Male flowers: 4 perianth slices, narrowly elliptic, ca. 1.5 mm long, connate to the middle, apex is pointed, outside is sparsely pilose; 4 stamens, ca. 2 mm, anthers are ca. 0.6 mm; Pistil is narrowly obovoid, ca. 0.7 mm long, apex is with short stigma. Female flowers: perianth elliptic, 0.6~1 mm long, apex is with 2~3 denticulate, outside is pubescent, fruiting rhomboid oblanceolate, 0.8~1.2 mm long; Stigma is silk-shaped, 0.5~0.6 mm long.
Achene is subglobose, ca. 0.6 mm long, smooth, base is abruptly contracted into slender stipitate. Its flowering period is from August to October.
Ecological Environment: The plant grows in the edge of valley forest or grassy slope, mountain flat, gentle slope, hilly or plain impact soil, at area with altitude of 200~1,700 meters above sea level. It is widely cultivated in southwest, northwest, the Zhujiang river area, the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. It is also distributed in Laos and other area of Southeast Asia.
Growth characteristics: The plant Boehmeria nivea prefers a warm and humid climate, with annual precipitation of 800~1,000 mm and relative humidity of 80% or so. Afraid of the wind, avoid waterlogging. It has strong adaptability to the soil, and it is suitable to cultivate in sandy loam or clay loam with deep soil layer, loose and fertile soil, rich in humus, good drainage, and soil pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) is 5.5-6.5.
Characters of herbs: The rhizome and root is irregularly cylindrical, slightly curved, 4~30 cm long and 0.4~5 cm in diameter; The surface is gray-brown, with longitudinal stripes and many lenticels, and many verrucous protrusions and residues. The texture of the herb is hard, not easy to break, the fracture surface is fibrous, the cortex part is brown, the wood part is light brown, some have several concentric rings in the middle, and the center is pith part or hollow. The root is slightly spindle-shaped, about 10 cm long and 1~1.3 cm in diameter; The surface is gray-brown, with longitudinal wrinkles and transverse lenticels, the fracture surface is powdery. The herb has a slight odor, it has a mild taste, stickiness. The herb of better grade is gray-brown and has no hollowness.
Ramie is a unique Chinese crop mainly used for textiles. China's ramie production accounts for more than 90% of the world's ramie production. Ramie stem fiber is long and thin, tough, white, shiny, tensile strength, moisture resistance, rich elasticity, and insulation, can be woven into aircraft wing cloth, rubber industry interlining, wire covering, incandescent lamp yarn, fishing nets, artificial silk, artificial cotton, and wool, cotton blend can be used for high-grade clothing; Staple fiber can be used as raw material for high-grade paper, rayon, carpet, gunny bag, etc.
Pharmacological actions: ①.shorten the coagulation time; ②.hemostatic effect; ③.miscarriage prevention; ④.resistant to radiation.
Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat, cool blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), detoxify, diuretic, eliminating stasis to activate blood circulation, miscarriage prevention. It is indicated for fever with great thirst, great mania, bloody stranguria(stranguria complicated by hematuria), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), uterine bleeding, purpura (hemokelidosis), threatened abortion, threatened abortion (vaginal bleeding during pregnancy), hemopyretic bleeding lead to hememesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), red and white vaginal discharge, dripping discharge of urine, retention of urine, erysipelas, ulcerative carbuncle, traumatic injury, snake and insect bites.
Administration of Radix Boehmeriae (Zhù Má):
Administration Guide of Radix Boehmeriae (Zhù Má)
①.Internally:water decoction,1.5~5 qian (about 4.5~15 grams),or extract juice.Externally:mashed and apply stick,or wash with water decoction; ②.Internally:water decoction,5~30 grams;or extract juice.Externally:proper amount,mashed fresh herb and apply stick,or fumigation wash with water decoction.
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1.Introduction of Zhu Ma:Ramie Root or Radix Boehmeriae.