Introduction of Ji Cai:Shepherd's Purse or Herba Capsellae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Shepherd's Purse, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Shepherd's Purse, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Capsellae(Shepherd's Purse).

several collected fresh green herbs of Herba Capsellae Pin Yin Name: Jì Cài.
 English Name: Shepherd's Purse.
 Latin Name: Herba Capsellae.
 Property and flavor: cool, sweet, tasteless.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Capsellae is the dried entire plant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic., used (1).as a blood-cooling hemostatic for treating menorrhagia, postpartum hemorrhage and hematuria, and (2).as a diuretic for treating nephritic edema and hypertension. The herb is commonly known as Herba Capsellae, Shepherd's Purse, Jì Cài.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Capsellae(Shepherd's Purse) as the dried entire plant of the species (1). Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. It is a plant of the Capsella Medic. Genus, the Brassicaceae family (Cruciferae, mustard family) of the Capparales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.

 a shrub of Capsella bursa-pastoris L.Medic. grow in field Botanical description: Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic is also known as Thlaspi bursa-pastoris L., commonly known as Jì Cài. An annual or biennial herb, the plant grows up to 20~50 cm high. Taproots are cylindrical or conical, some are branched, and 4–10 cm long; Its surface is white or pale brown, with many bearded lateral roots, bent or partially broken, pale brown or milky white; Stems are upright, branched, slightly have branched hairs or simple hairs. Basal leaves are tufty, rosette, with long petioles, 5~40 mm long; leaf blades are lyrated, up to 12 cm long, and 2.5 cm wide, apical lobes are bigger, oval (egg-shaped) to ovate-oblong, 5~30 mm long, lateral lobes are 2~20 mm wide, lobes are in 3~8 pairs, smaller, long and narrow, round to oval (egg-shaped), the apex is acuminate, shallowly lobed or irregularly coarsely serrated; cauline leaves are narrow-lanceolate, 1~2 cm long, 2~15 mm wide, the base is arrow-shaped and amplexicaul (stem-clasping), the edge is incised or serrate, both surfaces have fuzz or are glabrous.

 two flowering plants of Capsella bursa-pastoris L.Medic.grow in field Racemes are apical or axillary, extended to 20 cm long in the fruiting period; sepals (calyx lobes) are oblong; flower petals are white, spatulate or oval (egg-shaped), 2~3 mm long, with short claws.

 Silicles (silicules) are obovate-triangular or obcordate-triangular, 5~8 mm long, 4~7 mm wide, oblate, glabrous, apex is emarginate (slightly concave), lobes have reticulate veins, with a short style remnant; Style is about 0.5 mm long; Pedicle is 5~15 mm long. Seeds are finely obovate, grow on false septa, in 2 rows, are oblong, about 1 mm long, and sandy beige (light brown). Its flowering and fruiting periods are from April to June.

 several shrubs of Capsella bursa-pastoris L.Medic. grow in a field Ecological Environment: The plant originated in Asia Minor and Eastern Europe, today, it is distributed throughout the earth. The plant is now mainly distributed in temperate regions of the world and prefers warm temperatures, but has strong cold resistance. It grows in the wild, on hillsides or mountain slopes, fields, and roadsides, but it is also cultivated.

 dried herb segments of Shepherd Purse Characters of herbs: The taproot (main root) is cylindrical or conical, some of which are branched, and 4~10 cm long; The surface is off-white or hazel, with many whisker-like lateral roots. The stem is slender, yellowish-green, and easily broken. The root leaf is pinnate (pinnately divided), mostly curled, lanceolate after flattening, with large apical lobes, and the edges are coarsely serrate; The surface is celadon (sage green) or withered-yellow (dull yellow), some are tan (chocolate brown), chartaceous (papery), and fragile; The cauline leaves are oblong or linear-lanceolate, and the base is auriform and amplexicaul (stem-clasping). The fruit is obtriangular (inverted triangle), flat, and the tip is emarginate (slightly concave), with a remnant short style. Seeds are tiny and obovate, inserted on the false septum (pseudoseptum), and arranged in 2 rows. The herb has a faint scent and a mild taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.shorten the bleeding time; ②.induce a transient hypotensive effect in experimental animals; ③.exciting effect on the animal uterus and can strengthen uterine contraction; ④.anti-inflammatory; ⑤.anti-ulcer; ⑥.diuretic; ⑦.coronary artery dilation; ⑧.antipyretic effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Harmonize the spleen, alleviate water retention, cool the liver, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), calm the liver, brighten the eyes, clearing heat and promoting diuresis. It is indicated for the treatment of dysentery, edema, gonorrhea, chyluria, epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), emptysis, hematemesis (spitting blood), hematuria (blood in urine), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), flooding, profuse menstruation, red and white dysentery, nephritis and edema, red eye and pain, fundus hemorrhage, hypertension, etc.

 Administration of Herba Capsellae (Jì Cài): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Capsellae (Jì Cài)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams),fresh herb 1~2 liang (about 30~60 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally: prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick, mashed and apply stick, or extract juice and eye dropping; ②.Internally:water decoction, 15~30 grams, fresh herb 60~120 grams, or prepare to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount, extract juice and eye dropping.




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