Introduction of Shi Di:Persimmon Calyx or Calyx Kaki.
✵The article gives records of the herb Persimmon Calyx, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Diospyros kaki Thunb., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Persimmon Calyx, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Calyx Kaki(Persimmon Calyx).
Pin Yin Name: Shì Dì.
English Name: Persimmon Calyx.
Latin Name: Calyx Kaki.
Property and flavor: neutral in nature, bitter, puckery.
Brief introduction: The herb Calyx Kaki is the dried persistent calyx of Diospuros kaki L.f., used to direct Qi downward for stopping hiccups. The herb is commonly known as Calyx Kaki, Persimmon Calyx, Shì Dì.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Calyx Kaki (Persimmon Calyx) as the dried persistent calyx of the species (1).Diospyros kaki Thunb. It is a plant of the Diospyros Linn genus, the Ebenaceae family (the persimmon or ebony family) of the Ebenales order. This commonly defined species is introduced:
(1).Diospyros kaki Thunb.
Botanical description: Diospyros kaki Thunb is commonly known as Shì. A deciduous large tree (megaphanerophyte), usually grows up to 10~14 meters or above, Dbh (diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground) grows up to 65 cm, old trees grow up to 27 meters high; Bark is charcoal gray (dark gray) to grayish black, or yellowish-grey-brown to brown, rectangle crack; Crown is spherical or oblong, an old crown is up to 10~13 meters in diameter, grows up to 18 meters high.
Branches are explanate, greenish to brown, glabrous, has scattered oblong or narrow oblong dark brown lenticels; Young shoots are initially arrowed, brown pilose or tomentose or glabrous. Winter buds are small, ovate, 2~3 mm long, the apex is obtuse.
Simple leaves are alternate, chartaceous (papery); petioles are 8~20 mm long, glabrous, with shallow grooves; leaf blades are ovate-elliptic to obovate or suborbicular, oval (egg-shaped) and usually larger, 5~18 cm long, 2.8~9 cm wide, the apex is acuminate or obtuse, the base is broadly cuneate, blunt, rarely cordate, entire, the upper surface is dark green, the main vein is covered with pilose, the under surface is pea green (pale green), pubescent, densely covered with brown fluff along leaf veins.
Flowers are polygamous, male flowers form cymes, female flowers are solitary and grow in leaf axils; peduncles are about 5 mm long, have bracteoles (bractlets); the lower part of the calyx is short tube-shape (short terete), 4-lobed, inner surface is piliferous; corolla is yellowish white, campanulate (bell-shaped), 4-lobed; the male flower has 16 stamens, the hermaphrodite flower has 8~16 stamens, the female flower has 8 staminodes; ovary is superior, 8-loculed, style grows separate from base.
Fruit berries are in various shapes, mostly ovoid, 3.5~8 cm in diameter, orange-yellow or canary-yellow (bright yellow), and the base has persistent sepal (calyx lobe). Seeds are brown and elliptic. Its flowering period is in May, the fruiting period is from September to October.
The persimmon tree is a deep-rooted tree species, a positive tree species, it prefers a warm climate, sufficient sunshine, and deep, fertile, moist, good drainage soil, suitable for neutral soil, able to bear cold, able to bear barren, drought resistance, not resistant to salt and alkali soil. Most varieties of persimmon trees begin to bear fruit 3~4 years after grafting and reach the full fruiting stage 10~12 years later, while the tree begin to bear fruit at 5~7 years old and the fruiting age is over 100 years.
Ecological environment: The tree was native to the Yangtze River basin of China, now it is distributed alongside the Great Wall through the southern Gansu province, into the southwest area, in the south of the line, east to Taiwan, are cultivated. It is also introduced and cultivated in other areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania, France, the USA (the United States of America), and other areas.
Growth characteristics: Diospyros kaki has a strong adaptability, and it can be planted on hillsides and idle plots. Because Diospyros kaki has deep taproot distribution and few fibrous roots, it is appropriate to choose a field with deep soil layers, and weak acid sandy loam for planting. Generally, a courtyard with good moisture, fertility, and light conditions is often selected for planting. The small terrain and a gentle hillside can be chosen, as long as the soil layer is deep and there are conditions for irrigation. The appropriate plantation size is 10~50 mu, which can improve the management level. For planting in a fixed planting ditch, the planting ditch runs north and south, which is conducive to making full use of light and ventilation.
Characters of herbs: The persistent calyx of the herb is nearly discoid (nearly disc-shaped), or oblate, the apex is 4-lobed, the lobes are wide triangular, mostly are outward reflexed or broken and not intact, has longitudinal veins, the calyx tube is thickening, explanate, nearly square, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, the surface is reddish brown, covered with sparse short hairs, there are short carpopodium (fruit stalks) or circular concave fruit stalk mark in the center. The inner surface is yellowish-brown, densely covered with rust-colored short fluff, radially arranged, and glossy, and the center has a round protuberant scar after fruits fall off. The lobes are crisp and easily broken, and the calyx tube is firm, hard, and woody. The herb is light, has a slight odor, and tastes puckery. The herb of better grade is big and thick, and the texture of the herb is hard, and tawny (yellow-brown).
Pharmacological actions: The extract of the herb Calyx Kaki can resist the mouse ventricular fibrillation and the rat arrhythmia, and has sedative, hypnotic, and anti-rabbit fertility effects.
Medicinal efficacy: Calm the adverse-rising energy, down bear Qi. It is indicated for hiccups, retching, ructation, regurgitation.
Administration of Calyx Kaki (Shì Dì):
Administration Guide of Calyx Kaki (Shì Dì)
①.Internally:4.5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~4 qian (about 6~12 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, prepared to powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to ground herb powder, sprinkle apply.
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1.Introduction of Shi Di:Persimmon Calyx or Calyx Kaki.