Introduction of Chuan Lian Zi:Szechwan Chinaberry or Fructus Toosendan.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Szechwan Chinaberry, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Szechwan Chinaberry, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Toosendan(Szechwan Chinaberry).

Fructus Toosendan:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Chuān Liàn Zǐ.
 English Name: Szechwan Chinaberry.
 Latin Name: Fructus Toosendan.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Toosendan is the dried ripe fruit of Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc.(family Meliaceae), used to move Qi for relieving hypochondriac, epigastric and abdominal pain, and (2).to kill parasitic worms in cases of enterobiasis and scabies. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Toosendan, Szechwan Chinaberry, Szechwan Chinaberry Fruit, Chuān Liàn Zǐ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Toosendan(Szechwan Chinaberry) as the dried ripe fruit of the species (1).Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc. It is a plant of the Melia Linn. Genus, the Meliaceae family of the Rutales order. This commonly defined species is introduced as:

(1).Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc.


 Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc.:fruiting tree Botanical description: The tree is commonly known as Chuān Liàn. Trees, it grows up to more than 10 meters high; Young branches are densely covered with brown stellate scales, none when old, dark red, lenticellate, leaf markings are conspicuous. 2 gyri feathery compound leaf length 35~45 cm, each feather has 4~5 pairs of lobules; With a long handle; Leaflets are opposite, shortly sessile or subsessile, membranous, elliptic-lanceolate, 4~10 cm long, 2~4.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate or subrounded, both surfaces are glabrous, entire or with inconspicuous obtuse teeth, lateral veins 12~14 pairs. Panicles clustered in leaf axils on top of branchlets, about 1/2 the length of a leaf, densely covered with grayish-brown stellate scales; Flowers are pedicellate, denser; Sepals are oblong to lanceolate, ca. 3 mm long, both surfaces are pilose, outer denser; Petals are mauve, spatulate, 9~13 mm long, sparsely pilose outside; Stamen tube is terete, purple, glabrous and veined, apex with 10 3-lobed teeth, anthers are oblong, glabrous, ca. 1.5 mm long, slightly protruding from the tube; Disk is subcupped; Ovary subglobose, glabrous, 6-8 locules, style subterete, glabrous, stigma inconspicuously 6-toothed, enclosed in a staminal tube. Drupes are large, elliptic, spherical, about 3 cm long, about 2.5 cm wide, the peel is thin, yellow when cooked; Nucleus are slightly harder, 6~8 cells. Its flowering period is from March to April, the fruiting period is from October to November.

 Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc.:drawing Ecological environment: The tree is often cultivated near the village or along the highway in the miscellaneous wood and thin forest or the flat dam and hilly area. It distributes in the northwest, southwest, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. It prefers a warm and humid climate, like the sun, not resistant to shade, can grow at an area with an altitude below 1,000 meters above sea level. To choose sufficient sunshine, deep soil layer, loose fertile sandy soil for cultivation.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Melia toosendan prefers a warm and humid climate, like the sun, can not tolerate shade, it can grow in the area at an altitude below 1000 meters above sea level. Better to choose sufficient sunshine, a deep soil layer, loose and fertile sandy soil for cultivation.

 Szechwan Chinaberry:herb photo Characters of herbs: The drupe of the herb is round or spherical, with a diameter of 2~3.2 cm. The surface is golden-yellow to brownish-yellow, slightly shiny, shriveled, or slightly sunken, with dark brown dots. There are vestiges of style at the top, concave at the base, with fruit stalk marks. The exocarp is leathery and often has gaps with the pulp; The pulp is soft, light yellow, and sticky when wet with water. The kernel is spherical or oval, the texture is hard, truncated at both ends, with 6~8 longitudinal alignments, divided into 6~8 chambers, each of which contains 1 black-brown oblong seed. The herb has a special odor, it tastes sour and bitter. The herb of better grade is big, full, golden pericarp and yellow-white pulp.

 Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc.:fruiting tree Pharmacological actions: ①.choleretic effect; ②.obvious killing effect on ascaris suum and leeches(bloodsucker); ③.bactericidal effect in vitro; ④.antibacterial; ⑤.anti-inflammatory; ⑥.anti-tumor, and other effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Soothe liver and discharge heat, remove dampness and heat, regulate Qi and relieve pain, kill parasites. It is indicated for liver depression forming fire(fire from the stagnation of liver-Qi), pyretic syncope and cardiodynia(heat syncope and heartache), epigastric distended pain, ache and pain in abdomen hypochondria and lateral thorax, colic pain(pain from hernia), tinea capitis(scald head), enterozoic abdominalgia(abdominal pain due to parasitic infestation), etc.

 Administration of Fructus Toosendan(Chuān Liàn Zǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Toosendan(Chuān Liàn Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~10 grams. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply smear;②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams, prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to ground herb powder and apply smear. Better use fried herb for activating Qi circulation and relieve pain, better use raw herb for kill parasites.

 
Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.

 Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Chuan Lian Zi:Szechwan Chinaberry or Fructus Toosendan.

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