Introduction of Xiang Fu:Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome or Rhizoma Cyperi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.

 
Rhizoma Cyperi(Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome).

Rhizoma Cyperi Pin Yin Name: Xiānɡ Fù.
 English Name: Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Cyperi.
 Property and flavor: neutral,pungent,slight bitter,sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Cyperi is the dried tuber of Cyperus rotundus L.(family Cyperaceae), used to soothe liver Qi, regulate menstruation and alleviate pain for treating chest and abdominal distension with pain, amenorrhea, and dysmenorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Cyperi, Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome, Xiānɡ Fù.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Cyperi(Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome) as the dried tuber of the species (1). Cyperus rotundus L. It is a plant of the Cyperus Linn genus, the Cyperaceae family of the Cyperales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Cyperus rotundus L. (1).Cyperus rotundus L.:
 Botanical description: The Cyperus rotundus L., is a plant of the Cyperaceae(sedge family) family and Cyperus genus, it is commonly known as "Cyperus rotundus", or "Cyperus Root", or "Suō Cǎo". Perennial herb, spindle-shaped tubers are attached to elongated rhizomes. The stalk is solitary and has three sharp edges. Leaves are basal, narrowly linear, apex acute, shorter than the rod, the base sheath is brown, often fissile into fibrous, leaf sheath closed to stalk.

 Inflorescences repetitive, 3~6 in stalks arranged in an umbrella shape. 2~4 pieces of a leafy total scorpion, several as long as inflorescence or longer than inflorescence; spikelets are broadly linear, 2 scales, ovate, membranous, purple-red on both sides, 1 flower per scale.

 Cyperus rotundus L. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from July to November. Nutlets are obovately obovate, trigonous, ca. 1/2 length, with fine spots on the surface.

 Cyperus rotundus L. Characters of herbs: The rhizome is spindle-shaped, or slightly curved, 2~3.5 cm long and 0.5~1 cm in diameter. The surface is brown or dark brown, with irregular longitudinal wrinkles, and there are 6~10 obvious and slightly raised links. There are many unfinished dark brown hairs and root marks on the knot; the net hair is smoother. There are fine vertical ridges. The quality is hard, the keratin is horny, brown or brownish red; the face of the sun-dried herb is powdery, white-like, the endothelium is obvious, the middle column is dark, and the vascular bundle is scattered. It is fragrant and tastes bitter. It is better to have a large, solid, brown and aroma smells. In China, there are many native names of the Rhizoma Cyperi: "Xiang Fu, Xiang Tou Cao, Que Tou Xiang, Sha Cao Gen, Xiang Fu Zi, Lei Gong Tou, Xiang Fu Mi, San Leng Cao Gen, etc."

 Cyperus rotundus L. Ecological environment: The Cyperus rotundus L., grows in wet fields, wasteland, roadside, ditch, or fields in the sun. It is one of the most vicious weeds in the world and is not easy to remove. Geographical distribution: This species widely distributes throughout the world, in China, it mainly distributes in the south of the Qinling Mountains, north, central south, northwest, southwest areas, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb Rhizoma Cyperi can inhibit the smooth muscle of the animal uterus and ileum in vitro. The alcohol extract of Rhizoma Cyperi has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, inhibitory center, and antipyretic effects. The water decoction of the herb Rhizoma Cyperi can reduce intestinal tension and antagonize acetylcholine, promote bile secretion. The volatile oil of the herb has a mild estrogen-like effect. The herb also has a cardiotonic effect, antihypertensive effect, bacteriostatic, and other effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Regulating Qi and dispel melancholy, regulates menstruation and stops pain, miscarriage prevention. It is indicated for liver stagnation and Qi stagnation, Qi stagnation and discomfort, liver-stomach disharmony, epigastric and abdominal distension and pain, distending pain in hypochondrium chest and abdomen, stuffiness and chest congestion, phlegm and retained fluid and stuffiness in chest and abdomen, dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, cold hernia and abdominal pain, breast distending pain, irregular menstruation, menoschesis and dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain after menstruation), uterine bleeding and morbid leukorrhea, threatened abortion, hernia pain(colic pain), etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Cyperi(Xiānɡ Fù): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Cyperi(Xiānɡ Fù)
TCM Books: Internally:6~9 grams(CP), Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:grinded into fine powder and sprinkle, apply stick or prepare as a cake, heat and iron(DCTM), or water decoction, 1.5~6 grams, big dosage could be 15~30 grams; grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xiang Fu:Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome or Rhizoma Cyperi.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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