Introduction of Xiang Fu:Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome or Rhizoma Cyperi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cyperus rotundus L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Cyperi(Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome).

brownish dried herb of Rhizoma Cyperi Pin Yin Name: Xiānɡ Fù.
 English Name: Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Cyperi.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature,pungent,slight bitter,sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Cyperi is the dried tuber of Cyperus rotundus L., used to soothe liver Qi, regulate menstruation and alleviate pain for treating chest and abdominal distension with pain, amenorrhea, and dysmenorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Cyperi, Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome, Xiānɡ Fù.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Rhizoma Cyperi (Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome) as the dried tuber of the species (1). Cyperus rotundus L. It is a plant of the Cyperus Linn genus, the Cyperaceae family (sedge family) of the Cyperales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cyperus rotundus L.

 a drawing of Cyperus rotundus L.,flowering plants with small flowers and root Botanical description: Cyperus rotundus L is a plant of the Cyperaceae family (sedge family) and Cyperus genus, it is commonly known as Cyperus rotundus, Shā Cǎo, or Suō Cǎo. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 15~95 cm tall. The stem is upright and trigonous; the rhizome is procumbent and extended, the part is enlarged as fusiform (spindle-shaped), and sometimes several rhizomes are connected. The stalk is solitary and has three sharp edges. Leaves are tufty and grow at the base of stems, leaf sheath closed and amplexicaular (stem-clasping); leaf blades are linear, 20~60 cm long, 2~5 mm wide, the apex is pointed, entire, have parallel veins, main vein protuberate.

 flowering plants of Cyperus rotundus L. with small flower spikes Inflorescences are compound spikes, 3~6 are arranged in an umbrella shape on the stem tip, each inflorescence has 3~10 spicules (spikelet), linear, 1~3 cm long, about 1.5 mm wide; glumes are in 2 rows (columns), densely arranged, oval (egg-shaped) to oblong, about 3 mm long, membraneous, both sides are prunus (violet red) and have several veins. The base has 2~4 phyllary (foliate involucres), the same length as inflorescence or exceeds; each glume has one flower, 3 stamens; 3 styles, and filiform (filamentose).

 Nucules (nutlets) are oblong-obovate, prismatic (trigonous), has fine spots on the surface. Its flowering period is from May to August, the fruiting period is from July to November.

 brownish flowering spikes of Cyperus rotundus L. Ecological environment: Cyperus rotundus L grows in grassland on hillsides or mountain slopes, cultivated land, moist fields near roadsides and water, ditch, or fields in the sun. It is one of the most vicious weeds in the world and is not easy to remove. This species is widely distributed throughout the world, in China, it is mainly distributed in the south of the Qinling Mountains, north, central south, northwest, and southwest areas, Taiwan, and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: Cyperus rotundus L., prefers a warm and moist climate, and damp environment, it is tolerant to coldness. It is appropriate to choose fields with loose sandy loam for cultivation.

 dried brownish herbs of Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome are piled together Characters of herbs: The rhizome of the herb is mostly fusiform (spindle-shaped), some are slightly curved, 2~3.5 cm long, and 0.5~1 cm in diameter. The surface is tan (chocolate brown) or dark brown, has irregular longitudinal wrinkles, and has 6~10 conspicuous and slightly raised annular nodes, and there are many dark brown hairs and fibrous root marks on the joints. The rhizomes are smooth after hairs are removed, and have fine and dense longitudinal ridge lines. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, the fracture surface is corneous after steaming, yellowish-brown or red brown; the fracture surface of the sun-dried rhizome is powdery, off-white, with conspicuous endothelial rings, the stele is dark and has scattered punctate vascular bundles. The herb has an aromatic odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade is big, with a solid and firm texture, tan (chocolate brown), and a strong fragrance.

 a colorful drawing of Cyperus rotundus L,whole plant,rhizome,small flowers Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibit the smooth muscle of the animal uterus and ileum in vitro; ②.anti-inflammatory; ③.analgesic; ④.inhibitory center; ⑤.antipyretic effects, and other effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Regulating Qi and dispel melancholy, regulates menstruation and stops pain, miscarriage prevention. It is indicated for liver stagnation and Qi stagnation, Qi stagnation and discomfort, liver-stomach disharmony, epigastric and abdominal distension and pain, distending pain in hypochondrium chest and abdomen, stuffiness and chest congestion, phlegm and retained fluid and stuffiness in chest and abdomen, dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, cold hernia and abdominal pain, breast distending pain, irregular menstruation, menoschesis and dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), uterine bleeding and morbid leukorrhea, threatened abortion, hernia pain (colic pain), etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Cyperi (Xiānɡ Fù): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Cyperi (Xiānɡ Fù)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 6~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and sprinkle, apply stick or prepare as a cake, heat and iron; ③.or water decoction, 1.5~6 grams, big dosage could be 15~30 grams; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:Should forbidden using the herb Rhizoma Cyperi in conditions advanced menstruation due to blood heat.




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