Introduction of Zi Su Geng:Perilla Stem or Caulis Perillae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Perilla Stem, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., ②.Perilla furtescens (L.) Britt.var.purpurascens(Hayata )H.W.Li., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Perilla Stem, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Caulis Perillae(Perilla Stem).

Caulis Perillae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Sū Gěnɡ.
 English Name: Perilla Stem.
 Latin Name: Caulis Perillae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Caulis Perillae is the dried stem of Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., used to regulate the flow of Qi, relieve pain, and calm the fetus for the treatment of stuffiness in the chest, epigastric pain, eructation, vomiting and threatened abortion. The herb is commonly known as Caulis Perillae, Perilla Stem, Zǐ Sū Gěnɡ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Caulis Perillae(Perilla Stem) as the dried stem of the species (1).Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., or (2).Perilla furtescens (L.) Britt.var.purpurascens(Hayata )H.W.Li. They are plants of the Perilla Linn genus, the Lamiaceae family (Labiatae, mint family) of the Lamiales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.:growing plants Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Zǐ Sū. Annual herb, it grows up to 30~200 cm tall. It has a special fragrance. The stem is upright, much-branched, purple, greenish-purple or green, obtuse tetraphenous, densely villous. Leaves are opposite; Petiole is 3~5 cm long, purplish-red or green, covered with long serrate hairs; Leaf blade is broadly ovate, round or oval, triangle, oval 4~13 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, apex is acuminate or acuminate, sometimes in short caudate, base is rounded or broadly cuneate, margin is coarsely serrate, sometimes serrate deep or shallow crack, purple or purple at lower part, only both sides are sparse hairs, along the veins of relatively dense, the leaf has a fine point oil gland; Lateral veins 7~8 pairs, lower slightly proximate, obliquely ascending. Inflorescences are rosette, 2-flowered to one side into pseudoracemes, terminal and axillary, inflorescence is densely villous; Bracts are ovate, ovate-triangular or lanceolate, entire, ciliate, glandular, margin membranous; Pedicels are 1~1.5 mm long, densely pilose; Calyx campanulate, ca. 3 mm long, 10 veined, outer densely pilose and with yellow glandular points, apical 5 teeth, 2 lips, upper lip is broad, 3 teeth, lower lip 2 teeth, sometimes enlarged, base is saccate; Corolla lip, 3~4 mm long, white or purplish red, corolla tube with hair rings, outside pilose, upper lip is slightly concave, lower lip is 3-lobed, lobes are nearly round, middle lobes are larger; 4 stamens, 2-strong, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, scarcely extending out of the corolla, anthers are 2-loculed; Disk is distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary is 4-lobed, style is subbasal, stigma is 2-loculed; Disk distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary is 4-lobed, style is basal, stigma is 2-lobed. Nutlets are subglobose, grayish-brown or brown, 1~1.3 mm in diameter, reticulated, calyx ca. 10 mm. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.:drawing of plant Ecological environment: Perilla is very adaptable, not strict to the soil requirements, good drainage, sandy soil, loam, clay loam, house front and back, ditch side, fertile soil cultivation, growth is good. The former crop prefers vegetables. It can be planted under young trees.

 Perilla Stem:herb photo Characters of herbs: The stem is square-column-shaped, four edges are blunt and round, with different lengths and diameters of 0.5~1.5 cm. The surface is purple-brown or dark purple, with longitudinal grooves and fine longitudinal lines on all sides, slightly enlarged nodes, there are opposite branch marks and leaf marks. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard and brittle, the fracture surface is splintery. The slice is 2~5 mm thick, often oblique rectangle, the wood part is yellow and white, with radial fine rays, the pith is white, loose, or separated from the wood part to form a cavity. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes mild. The herb of better grade has a purple-brown outer skin, with fragrance.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.:drawing of plant Pharmacological actions: ①.progesterone-like effect; ②.interferon induction effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Regulate Qi and remove the obstruction, relieve melancholy, relieve pain, miscarriage prevention, and harmonize the blood. It is indicated for Chest and diaphragm distension, epigastric fullness and distention, epigastric pain, spleen and stomach Qi stagnation, belching and vomiting, Qi stagnation, food stagnation or indigestion, edema, beriberi, hemoptysis and epistasis (vomiting blood, nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), threatened abortion.

 Administration of Caulis Perillae (Zǐ Sū Gěnɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Caulis Perillae (Zǐ Sū Gěnɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams); ③.Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams,prepared to powder.

(2).Perilla furtescens (L.)Britt.var.purpurascens(Hayata )H.W.Li.

 Perilla furtescens L.Britt.var.purpurascensHayataH.W.Li.:growing plants Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yě Zǐ Sū, or Wild Perilla. The difference of the varieties and the Perilla frutescens: Calyx is small, 4~5.5 mm long, sparsely pilose below, glandular; Stem is pubescent; Leaves are smaller, ovate, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 2.8~5 cm wide, sparsely pilose on both sides. Nuts are small, khaki, 1~1.5 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Perilla furtescens L.Britt.var.purpurascensHayataH.W.Li.:growing plants Characters of herbs: The stem surface is yellowish-brown. The other features are the same as the stem of the perilla. The herb of better grade has a purple-brown outer skin, with fragrance.
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