Introduction of Zi Su Geng:Perilla Stem or Caulis Perillae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Perilla Stem, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt., ②.Perilla furtescens (L.) Britt.var.purpurascens (Hayata ) H.W.Li., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Perilla Stem, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Caulis Perillae(Perilla Stem).

dried herb segments of Caulis Perillae Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Sū Gěnɡ.
 English Name: Perilla Stem.
 Latin Name: Caulis Perillae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Caulis Perillae is the dried stem of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt., used to regulate the flow of Qi, relieve pain, and calm the fetus for the treatment of stuffiness in the chest, epigastric pain, eructation, vomiting and threatened abortion. The herb is commonly known as Caulis Perillae, Perilla Stem, Zǐ Sū Gěnɡ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Caulis Perillae (Perilla Stem) as the dried stem of the species (1).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt., or (2).Perilla furtescens (L.) Britt.var.purpurascens (Hayata) H.W.Li. They are plants of the Perilla Linn genus, the Lamiaceae family (Labiatae, mint family) of the Lamiales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.

 growing plants of Perilla frutescensL.Britt with purple leaves Botanical description: The plant is also known as Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Var.crispa (Thumb.) Hand.-Mand.-Mazz. Annual herbs, the plant grows up to 30~200 cm tall. It has a special fragrance. Stems are upright, many-branched, purple, greenish-purple or green, obtuse prismatic, and densely pilose. Leaves are opposite; Petiole is 3~5 cm long, purplish-red or green, covered with long hairs; Leaf blade is broadly ovate, ovoid or ovate-triangular, 4~13 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, the apex is tapering or acuminate, sometimes in short caudate, the base is rounded or broadly cuneate, the margin is coarsely serrate, sometimes serrate deep or shallow crack, both surfaces are purple, or only the under surface is purple, both surfaces have sparse pubescence, relatively dense along the veins, the under surface of the leaf has fine point oil glands; Lateral veins are 7–8 pairs, veins at lower part slightly approach, obliquely ascending.

 a colorful drawing of Perilla frutescensL.Britt. plant,with green leaves,flower spikes Verticillaster, 2 flowers cluster to one side and form false raceme, terminal and axillary, inflorescence are densely pilose; Bracts are oval (egg-shaped), ovate-triangular or lanceolate, entire, ciliate, glandular points on outside, margin is membranous; Pedicels are 1~1.5 mm long, densely pilose; Calyx is campanulate, about 3 mm long, 10 veins, the lower part of outer surface is densely pilose and with yellow glandular points, apical end has 5 teeth, 2 lips (bilobate), upper lip is broad and big, 3 teeth, lower lip has 2 teeth, enlarged during fruiting period, base is saccate; Corolla is labiate (labiated), 3~4 mm long, white or purplish red, corolla tube has hair rings inside, outside is pubescent, upper lip is slightly concave, lower lip is 3-lobed, lobes are orbicular(subrotund), middle lobes are larger; 4 stamens, 2-strong, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, scarcely extending out of the corolla, anthers are 2-loculed; floral disc is distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary is 4-lobed, style is subbasal, stigma is 2-loculed;

 a colorful drawing of Perilla frutescensL.Britt.,flowering plant with small white flowers Nutlets are subsphaeroidal (subglobular), grayish-brown or brown, 1~1.3 mm in diameter, reticulated, and the fruit calyx is about 10 mm long. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Ecological environment: Perilla frutescens grows in the mountain, roadside, village edge, or wasteland, also cultivated. The plant is distributed in the east, south, northwest, north, and southwest areas, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 dried herb segments of Perilla Stem Characters of herbs: The stem is square or rectangular (square column-shaped), and four ridges are blunt, different in lengths, and 0.5~1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is purple brown or dark purple, with longitudinal grooves and fine longitudinal lines on four sides, slightly enlarged nodes, there are opposite branch marks and leaf marks. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard and crisp, and the fracture surface is splintery. The slice is 2~5 mm thick, often an oblique rectangle, the xylem (wood part) is yellowish white, with fine and dense radial rays, and the pith is white, loose, or separated from the xylem (wood part) to form a hollow space. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes mild. The herb of a better grade has a purple-brown outer cortex, with fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.progesterone-like effect; ②.interferon induction effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Regulate Qi and remove the obstruction, relieve melancholy, relieve pain, miscarriage prevention, and harmonize the blood. It is indicated for Chest and diaphragm distension, epigastric fullness and distention, epigastric pain, spleen and stomach Qi stagnation, belching and vomiting, Qi stagnation, food stagnation or indigestion, edema, beriberi, hemoptysis and epistasis (vomiting blood, nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), threatened abortion.

 Administration of Caulis Perillae (Zǐ Sū Gěnɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Caulis Perillae (Zǐ Sū Gěnɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams); ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams,prepared to powder.

(2).Perilla furtescens (L.) Britt.var.purpurascens (Hayata ) H.W.Li.

 growing plants of Perilla furtescens L.Britt.var.purpurascensHayataH.W.Li. with purple leaves Botanical description: The plant is also known as the wild perilla. This variety is distinguished from perilla by the fact that: the fruit calyx is small, 4~5.5 mm long, the under surface is sparsely pilose, with glandular points; the stem is pubescent; the leaves are smaller, oval, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 2.8~5 cm wide, both surfaces are sparsely pilose. Nutlet is small, khaki, 1~1.5 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from July to September.

 growing plants of Perilla furtescens L.Britt.var.purpurascensHayataH.W.Li. with many leaves Characters of herbs: The stem surface is fallow (light yellowish-brown). The other features are the same as the stem of the perilla. The herb of a better grade has a purple-brown outer cortex, with fragrance.



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