Introduction of Rhodiola Crenulata and other Rhodiola:Big Flower Rhodiola Root,Sakhalin Rhodiola,Sacred-land Rhodiola,Tangut Rhodiola.
✵The article gives records of the herb Rhodiola Crenulata and other Rhodiola, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source four plant species, ①.Rhodiola crenulata(HK. f. et Thoms.)H.Ohba., ②.Rhodiola sachalinensis A.Bor.,③.Rhodiola sacra (Prain ex Hamet) S.H.Fu., ④.Rhodiola algida (Ledeb.) Fisch.et Mey.var.tangutica(Maxim.) S.H.Fu., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Rhodiola Crenulata and other Rhodiola, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Rhodiola Crenulata and other Rhodiola(Big Flower Rhodiola Root).
English Name: Rhodiola Crenulata and other Rhodiola.
Latin Name: Rhodiola crenulata(HK. f. et Thoms.)H.Ohba.,and other Rhodiola species.
Common Names: Rhodiola crenulata, Big Flower Rhodiola Root, Full Petals Rhodiola, Sakhalin Rhodiola, Sacred-land Rhodiola, Tangut Rhodiola,etc.
Property and flavor: cold in nature, tastes sweet and puckery.
Brief introduction: Rhodiola crenulata is also known as Big-Flower Rhodiola Root or Full Petals Rhodiola, it increases the activity of SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) in erythrocytes and liver of rats, and reduces the content of LPO (Lipid Hydroperoxide) in plasma, myocardium, and brain tissue. Other Rhodiola herbs such as Sakhalin Rhodiola herb, Sacred-land Rhodiola herb, and Tangut Rhodiola herb are also used.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Rhodiola crenulata as the dried root of the species (1).Rhodiola crenulata(HK. f. et Thoms.)H.Ohba. It is a plant species of the Rhodiola genus, the Crassulaceae family(orpine, stonecrop family). The dried root is used medicinally. Common herbal classics defined the herb Kirilow Rhodiola as the dried root of the species (2).Rhodiola sachalinensis A.Bor., (3).Rhodiola sacra (Prain ex Hamet) S.H.Fu, (4).Rhodiola algida (Ledeb.) Fisch.et Mey.var.tangutica(Maxim.) S.H.Fu. They are plant species of the Rhodiola genus, the Crassulaceae family(orpine, stonecrop family). The dried root is used medicinally. These commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Rhodiola crenulata(HK. f. et Thoms.)H.Ohba.
Botanical description: The Rhodiola crenulata (Hook.f.et Thoms.)H.Ohba. is a plant species of the Rhodiola genus, the Crassulaceae family (orpine, stonecrop family), it is commonly known as "Rhodiola crenulata", "Quanban Hongjingtian", or "Full Petals Rhodiola", or Big Flower Rhodiola, it is a perennial herb. The roots above the ground are short, with a few remaining flower branches and stems, black, 5~20 cm high. The sterile branches are upright, 5~17 cm high, with dense leaves at the apex, the leaves are broadly obovate, 1~3 cm long; the flower stems are numerous, upright or fan-shaped, 5~20 cm high, rice stalk color to red. The leaves have a short pseudostalk, the leaves are elliptic-oblong or suborbicular, 1.2~3 cm long, 1~2.2 cm wide, entire-edge, wavy, or crenate.
Corymbs, many flowers, with bracts; flowers are large, with long stems, dioecious; male sepals 5, narrowly triangular to lanceolate; petals 5, red, oblanceolate, with long claws; stamens 10, as long as the petals; scales 5, nearly square to oblong, the apex is emarginate; carpels 5, lanceolate, sterile; female follicles 5, upright. Seeds are obovate, winged at both ends. The flowering period is June to July, and the fruiting period is July to August.
Ecological environment: Rhodiola crenulata grows in the hillside grasslands, shrubs, and rock crevices at an altitude of 2,800~5,600 meters, in Tibet the plant normally grows at an altitude of more than 4,500 meters in areas of severe cold, hypoxia, strong sunlight, and no pollution. It is distributed in west plateau areas of China, it also spread to other areas near China including Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. The roots are excavated from September to October, washed, sliced, and sun-dried. It has the reputation of "Plateau Ginseng".
(2).Rhodiola sachalinensis A.Bor.
Botanical description: The Rhodiola sachalinensis A.Bor. is a plant species of the Rhodiola genus, the Crassulaceae family (orpine, stonecrop family), its synonym is Sedum sachalinensis (A.Bor.) Vorosh., is commonly known as "Rhodiola sachalinensis", "Kuye Hongjingtian", or "Sakhalin Rhodiola", this name might relate to the geographic finding location of Sakhalin. It is a perennial herb. The root crown is stout, branched, and usually upright, few are sprawl; the rhizome is stubby, and the apex is covered with mostly membranous scale-like leaves. Flower vine grows 6~30 cm high. The lower leaves are smaller and sparse, the upper leaves are larger and dense, the leaves are oblong spoon-shaped, oblong-rhombic form or oblong-lanceolate, 7~40 mm long, 4~9 mm wide, the apex is sharp to tapering, the stem is wedge-shaped, with coarse teeth on the upper part of the margin and nearly entire-edge on the lower part.
Cymes are corymbose, terminal, flowers are dense, dioecious; sepals 4, lanceolate linear, 1~3 mm long; petals 4, sparsely 5, yellow or yellow-green, linear oblanceolate or long round, 2~6 mm long; male flowers have 8 stamens, longer than petals, with immature carpels; female flowers have central bark 4, style is curved outwards; scales 4, oblong, the apex is emarginate. Follicles, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, upright, 6~8 mm long, the beak is about 1 mm long. Seeds are oblong to lanceolate, 2 mm long and 0.6 mm wide. The flowering period is from April to June, and the fruiting period is from July to September.
Ecological environment: The Rhodiola sachalinensis A.Bor., grows in areas of altitude 1,600~2,500 meters above sea level on hillside grass or forest, gravel beaches, and alpine tundra. This species is mainly distributed in China's Changbai Mountain area and other areas of the northeast Asia continent, such as Sakhalin Island, etc.
(3).Rhodiola sacra (Prain ex Hamet) S.H.Fu.
Botanical description: The Rhodiola sacra (Prain ex Hamet) S.H.Fu. is a plant species of the Rhodiola genus, the Crassulaceae family (orpine, stonecrop family), its synonym is Sedum sacra Prain ex Hamet, it is commonly known as "Rhodiola sacra", or "Shengdi Hongjingtian", or "Sacred-land Rhodiola". It is a perennial herb, 10~20 cm tall. The root is stout, cylindrical, fleshy, brownish-yellow, and branched; the root crown is short and covered with many lanceolate triangular scales. Flowering stems are few, upright, unbranched, rice straw-colored, and papillary when old. Leaves are alternate, almost sessile; the leaf blade is fleshy, obovate or obovate-oblong, 8~11 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, the apex is sharp, the base is cuneate, margin with 4~5 lobes.
Corymbs, terminal, flowers are bisexual; sepals 5, lanceolate-triangular, 3~5 mm long, 1.2 mm wide; petals 5, white, narrowly ovate, 10~11 mm long, 1.2~2 mm wide; stamens 10, anthers are purple; scales 5, nearly square; carpels 5, narrowly lanceolate, flower branches are thin. Follicles, about 6 mm long. Seeds are oblong-lanceolate and brown. The plant flowering period is in August, and fruiting in September.
Ecological environment: The Rhodiola sacra (Prain ex Hamet) S.H.Fu. grows in areas of altitude 2,700~4,600 meters above sea level in grass and rock seams. This species is mainly distributed in China's west-south provinces Tibet province and northwestern Yunnan.
The whole herb can be harvested in spring and autumn. In autumn, the withered stems and leaves on the ground are removed, the whole plant is excavated, and the large rhizomes are used for seeding, removing soil and mud, dried in sun or dried by heat below 70 °C (Celsius, or 158 degrees Fahrenheit).
Botanical description: The Rhodiola algida (Ledeb.) Fisch.et Mey.var.tangutica(Maxim.)S.H.Fu. is a plant species of the Rhodiola genus, the Crassulaceae family (orpine, stonecrop family), it is commonly known as "Rhodiola algida", or "Tanggute Hongjingtian", or "Tangut Rhodiola", the Tangut is an ancient name of northwest and north area of the China Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and mainly plain area. It is a perennial herb, the plant grows up to 10~30 cm tall. The main root is thick and long, with branches, the root neck has no residual old branch, and the apex is covered with triangular scales. Flower stems are numerous, and clustered; leaves on flower stems are alternate and sessile; the leaf blade is linear, 1~1.5 cm long, about 1 mm wide, and the apex is obtuse and tapering.
The inflorescence is compact, corymbose, and dioecious; the male flower stem is 10~17 cm high, with bracts under inflorescence; sepals 5, linear-oblong, the apex is obtuse; petals 5, pink, oblong-lanceolate; stamens 10, 2 whorls, the length of the opposite petals is about 2.5 mm, and the length of the opposite calyx is about 4.5 mm; scales 5, square, apex is emarginate; carpels 5, narrowly lanceolate, sterile; flower stem height of the female plant is 15~30 cm; calyx, petals, scales are the same as male flowers, carpel develops into 5 follicles, about 1 cm long, purple-red, the beak is about 1 mm long, upright or slightly curved. Seeds are numerous, reticulated, winged, and light brown. The flowering period is from May to August, and the fruiting period is in August.
Ecological environment: The Rhodiola algida (Ledeb.) Fisch.et Mey.var.tangutica(Maxim.)S.H.Fu. grows in area of altitude 2,000~4,700 meters alpine rock crevices, alpine gravel belt or near the water. This species is mainly distributed in China's west north and west south provinces, and other areas.
Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-anoxia, anti-fatigue; ②.antibacterial effect; ③.anti-radiation effect; ④.anti-aging effect; ⑤.bidirectional regulation of the endocrine system; ⑥.Cardiotonic effect; ⑦.Cerebrovascular protection.
Anti-anoxia, anti-fatigue: Rhodiola herb can rapidly improve the binding capacity of hemoglobin and oxygen, increase blood oxygen saturation and reduce the body's oxygen consumption, and increased exercise tolerance, and fatigue after exercise.
Antibacterial effect: Rhodiola herb contains antibacterial anti-inflammatory ingredients; the herb is rich in tannin content, convergence, plays a protective role in the mucosal surface, curbs excessive secretion, stops excessive bleeding, for increased cough, lung inflammation, sputum.
Anti-radiation effect: Rhodiola herb inhibits radiation-induced heart and liver LPO (Lipid Hydroperoxide) generation of lipids and membrane protective effects.
Anti-aging effect: Rhodiola herb significantly improves the body's SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity, free radical scavenging, and inhibition of lipid peroxide formation.
Bidirectional regulation of the endocrine system: Rhodiola herb has two-way regulate the secretion of adrenal hormones and sex hormones.
The alcoholic extract of Rhodiola crenulata can increase the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) in erythrocytes and the liver of rats, and reduce the content of LPO (Lipid Hydroperoxide) in plasma, myocardium, and brain tissue.
Rhodiola crenulata is distributed in the plateau area, and it is naturally self-growing and cannot be cultivated. Its active constituents are salidroside and volatile oil, flavonoids, sterols, organic acids, trace elements, etc., and are often used as a tonic in folk medicine as a roborant, to treat heart failure, fatigue, weakness, diabetes, chronic liver disease in the elderly. Rhodiola crenulata herb can enhance memory and attention, and restore the heart that accelerating the frequency of contractions to normal.
Cardiotonic effect: Rhodiola crenulata herb is rich in flavonoids, these active substances can effectively remove lipids in the blood, reduce blood viscosity, prevent arteriosclerosis, expand coronary blood flow, and improve heart function.
Cerebrovascular protection: Rhodiola crenulata herb can increase the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, increase the blood flow rate, improve the blood oxygen supply of the cerebral blood, improve blood stasis, resist thrombosis, speed up the recovery of cerebral infarction, long-term use can prevent and slow down the occurrence of cerebral apoplexy.
Rhodiola sachalinensis herb is a precious and rare medicinal plant. In addition to the main medicinal components salidroside and tyrosol, it is also rich in other glycosides, amino acids, trace elements, volatile oils, and polysaccharides, and other components. Studies have shown that it has various effects such as immune regulation, antivirus, anti-hypoxia, hypoglycemic, neural cell protection, liver protection, increased intelligence, anti-oxidation, radiation protection, etc.
Medicinal efficacy: Rhodiola crenulata herb functions to clear the lungs; invigorate Qi. The herb is indicated for tuberculosis cough, hemoptysis, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Recommended dosage as water decoction, 9~12 grams.
Administration of Rhodiola Crenulata (Big Flower Rhodiola Root).:
Administration Guide of Rhodiola Crenulata (Big Flower Rhodiola Root).
Rhodiola crenulata herb is recommended internally as water decoction, 3~9 grams. Externally proper amount, mashed, and apply as a coating.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: 1.Pregnant and child should avoid the Rhodiola herb: Rhodiola herb functions activating blood circulation, it is not suitable for a pregnant lady, or will lead to symptoms of abortion, not good for the fetus; Child should not take Rhodiola herb, or will observe symptoms of digestive discomfort; 2.Should not overdose: Rhodiola herb should not be taken too much or over the recommended dosage, the biggest dosage for an adult is Not over 50 grams daily, overdose of the Rhodiola herb will lead to symptoms including insomnia, allergy, palpitation, serious cases will lead to shock. 3.Rhodiola herb has certain level toxicity, many individuals will experience negative symptoms after taking it, such as a dry mouth and dry throat, serious conditions may include stomach discomfort or gastralgia(stomach-ache), better take small dose first, then take the recommended dosage if No discomfort or negative effects are observed.
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1.Introduction of Rhodiola Crenulata and other Rhodiola:Big Flower Rhodiola Root,Sakhalin Rhodiola,Sacred-land Rhodiola,Tangut Rhodiola.