Introduction of Dang Gui:Dong Quai, Chinese Angelica Root or Radix Angelicae Sinensis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chinese Angelica, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Angelica sinensis (Oliv.)Diels., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Chinese Angelica, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Angelicae Sinensis(Chinese Angelica).

Radix Angelicae Sinensis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Dānɡ Guī.
 English Name: Chinese Angelica, Chinese Angelica Root, Dong Quai
 Latin Name: Radix Angelicae Sinensis.
 Property and flavor: warm in nature, tastes pungent, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Radix Angelicae Sinensis is the dried root of Angelica sinensis(Oliv.)Diels, used (1).to nourish the blood for treating blood deficiency of the heart and liver, (2).activate the blood flow and regulate menstruation for treating menstrual disorders, and (3).as an emollient and laxative for treating chronic constipation in the aged and debilitated. The herb is commonly known as Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Chinese Angelica Root, Dānɡ Guī.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Angelicae Sinensis(Chinese Angelica) as the dried root of the species (1).Angelica sinensis (Oliv.)Diels., It is a species of the Angelica L. genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) of the Apiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Angelica sinensis (Oliv.)Diels.

 Angelica sinensis seedlings grow in field Botanical description: It is commonly known as Angelica sinensis, Chinese Angelica, Dānɡ Guī, Dong Quai, or Tang Kuei, which consists of the root of the plant Angelica polymorpha Maxim. var sinensis Oliv., also known as A. sinensis(Oliv.) Diels, a member of the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family). The herb is mildly laxative, although it is used primarily for its uterine tonic, antispasmodic, and alterative (blood purifying) effects.

 Angelica sinensis seedlings grow in field The Chinese species, Angelica Sinensis, which grows at the east part of the Asia-Euro continent, grows high to about 1 meter by 0.7 meter. It is in flower from August to September, and the seeds mature from September to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both stamen and gynoecia) and are pollinated by insects. The plant is self-fertile. The plant can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

 Angelica sinensis seedlings grow in field The herb is the root of Angelica sinensis(Oliv.)Diels, a perennial aromatic plant, of the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family). Herbs are perennial, the plant grows up to 0.4~1 meter tall. Roots are terete, branched, with most fleshy fibrous roots, yellowish-brown, with a strong aroma. Stem is upright, greenish-white or purplish, deeply furrowed, smooth glabrous.

 Angelica sinensis seedlings grow in field Leaf: three split type 2 to 3 back to pinnate, petioles are 3~11 cm long, base expanded into tubular membrane sheath, purple or green, leaf and stem the lower leaf are outline to ovate, 8~18 cm long, 15~20 cm wide, small leaves to 3, lower 1 small petiole is 0.5~1.5 cm, nearly at the top of the 1 to sessile, lobes are ovate or lanceolate, oval at the end of the 1~2 cm long, 5~15 mm wide, 2-3 shallow crack, margin incision serrate, teeth endpoint; Underleaf surface and margin is covered with sparsely papillary white fine hairs; The upper leaves of the stem are reduced to saclike sheaths and pinnately divided leaves.

 Flowers: compound umbel, peduncle is 4~7 cm long, densely pilose; Umbrella spoke September 30; 2 involucral bracts, linear, or absent; Inflorescence cymose with flowers 13~36; Involucral bracts 2~4, linear; Flowers are white, flower stalks are densely pilose; 5 calyx teeth, ovate; Petals are long ovate, apex is narrowly apical, inflexed; Style is short, stylopodium is conical. Its flowering period is from June to July.

 Fruit: fruit is elliptic to ovate, 4~6 mm long, 3~4 mm wide, dorsal prismatic, raised, lateral ribs turn into wide and thin wings, as wide or slightly wide as the fruit body, wing margin is mauve, ribbed with tubing 1, confluent surface tubing 2. Fruit period is from July to September.

 Angelica Sinensis Seedlings Shrub Grow in Field Ecological Environment: The plant is native to East part of the Europe-Asia continent, it grows on the highland area, and in cool and damp areas of western and northwestern parts of China. The wild species of Chinese Angelica grow at untraversed mountains and forests of Zhang county, Zhouqu County of Gansu province, China. The cultivated Chinese angelica need to grow at area with elevation of 2,000 meters, and now is produced mainly in several counties at south-east of the Gansu province, such as Min County, Tuochang county, Weiyuan county, Zhang county, Wudu county, Wen county, Zhuoni county, Lin county, etc, the Chinese Angelica root from Gansu provinces has big size and its quality is good, used widely in domestic and also exported, the herb is also cultivated in other provinces at northwest to southwest of China. The Min county and Tuochang county are the 2 most famous cultivation areas of the Chinese Angelica Root.

 Growth characteristics: The plant is a crop of low-temperature and long-sunshine, it bears cold and cool climate, could be planted in the area at an altitude of 1,500~3,000 meters above sea level. In the area of lower altitudes, the cultivation rate is mossy high, not easy to cross the summer. In the seedling stage, it likes shade, the transmittance is 10%, avoid the hot and direct sun shining; Adult plants can withstand the strong light. It is suitable to cultivate in sandy loam with a deep soil layer, loose soil, good drainage, and rich humus. It is not suitable to plant in low-lying water or easily-hardened clay and barren sandy soil.

 Angelica Sinensis Root in whole Characters of herbs: The dry root can be divided into three parts: the head of the root is called "Dānɡ Guī Tóu" (literally it means root head of the Chinese Angelica), the taproot is called "Dānɡ Guī Shēn" (literally it means body root of the Chinese Angelica), and the fiber root and root tip are called "Dānɡ Guī Wěi" (literally it means tail root of the Chinese Angelica). The root head and taproot are short and thick, slightly cylindrical, with 3~5 or more branch roots in the lower part, 15~25 cm long. The surface is light brown to chocolate-brown, with longitudinal wrinkles and transverse long lenticel-like protrusion. The root head (angelica root head) is 1.5~3 cm in diameter or 1.5~4 cm in diameter, with ring pattern, the upper end is blunt, or there are several protruding root stem marks, with purple or yellow-green stem and leaf sheath residues; The surface of the taproot (angelica root body) is uneven; The branch root (angelica root tail) is 0.3~1 cm in diameter, the upper part is thick, and the lower part is thin, mostly are twisted, with a few fibrous root marks. The texture of the herb is soft and flexible, the fracture surface is yellowish-white or light yellowish-brown, the cortex or bark is thick, there are cracks and many brown punctate secretory cavities, the wood part is light, and the cambium ring is yellowish-brown. The herb has a strong aromatic fragrance, it tastes sweet, spicy, and slightly bitter. The herb of better grade has a thick and long taproot, oily or oleosus, the bark is brown, the root is full, the fracture surface is yellow and white, strong aromatic fragrance. The herb of inferior grade is woody, dry and no oil, or its fracture surface is green-brown, which can not be used for medicine.

 Angelica Sinensis Root in whole 02 The taproot of better grade is with big size, long, branch root is less, cross-section is yellow and white, the strong smell. The taproot of inferior quality is short, the branch root is many, the smell is weak and the cross-section turns red-brown.

 Chinese Angelica Root:herb photo of cultivated root The herb Angelica Sinensis is dug out in the late autumn. After getting rid of the rootlets and drying slightly by evaporation, the roots are tied up in bundles, placed on the frame, baked and dried over a slow fire, sliced and used unprepared or stir-baked with wine.

 Chinese angelica root is classified into Wine Chinese Angelica, Whole Chinese Angelica, Chinese Angelica Body, Chinese Angelica Tail or Chinese Angelica Rootlet.

 Chinese Angelica Root:herb photo of wild rootChinese Angelica Root:herb photo of wild root Dong Quai, the root of Angelica sinensis, is also known as Chinese Angelica, has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine. It remains one of the most popular herbs in Chinese medicine and is used primarily for the health conditions of women. Dong Quai has been called "Female Ginseng", based on its uses for gynecologic disorders such as painful menstruation or pelvic pain, recovery from childbirth or illness, and fatigue or low vitality. It is also indicated for strengthening the blood, for cardiovascular conditions and high blood pressure, inflammation, headache, infections, and neuropathic pain.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.The volatile oil has a bidirectional effect on uterine smooth muscle and can inhibit the contraction of uterine smooth muscle caused by various mechanisms, reduce blood pressure, improve myocardial ischemia, anti-arrhythmia, and has antiasthmatic, inhibit the central nervous system, improve the immune function of the body, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and other pharmacological effects; ②.Chinese Angelica Root and its effective components have lowering blood lipid effect and resistant experimental atherosclerosis, inhibit platelet aggregation, antithrombotic effect, affect the hematopoietic system, there is a very significant hemopoietic function, immune enhancement effect, hepatoprotective effect (liver protective effect); ③.anti-tumor effect; ④.anti-radiation effect; ⑤.anti-inflammatory effect; ⑥.inhibition of the central nervous system; ⑦.antibacterial effect (Chinese Angelica Root has antibacterial effect on in vitro Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus paratyphosus, escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Vibrio cholerae and hemolytic streptococcus A, B, etc); ⑧.anti-asthmatic effect, has certain protective effect to the kidney, effect on substance metabolism (angelica root has the function of lowering blood lipid in hyperlipidemia, reducing the affinity of hemoglobin and oxygen, promoting the release of oxygen in the tissue of oxygenated hemoglobin, thus increasing the function of transporting oxygen in red blood cells); ⑨.antioxidant and scavenging free radicals, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Replenishing blood and invigorate the circulation of blood, replenishing blood and harmonizing blood, regulating menstruation and relieving pain, moisturizing dryness syndrome and laxative, relaxing bowel. It is indicated for syndromes of blood deficiency, blood deficiency and sallow complexion (blood deficiency and looks yellowing), blood deficiency and cephalea (blood deficiency and headache), dizziness, dizziness and palpitation, menoxenia(irregular menstruation), menischesis, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), menischesis and abdominal pain, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis (uterine bleeding), asthenia cold abdominalgia (deficiency cold and abdominal pain), abdominal mass and accumulation, Wei Bi (limb can not move or numbness and lose sensation), rheumatic arthralgia pain, skin and muscle numbness, constipation due to intestinal dryness, red dysentery and tneesmus (dysentery characterized by blood in the stool), carbuncle, gangrene and sore, injury from falling down. Yellow rice wine prepare Angelica root functions invigorate the circulation of blood, restoring menstrual flow, indicated for menischesis, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), rheumatic arthralgia pain, injury from falling down.

 Administration of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dānɡ Guī): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dānɡ Guī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams);infusing in wine, prepare ointment, or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction,6~12 grams;or prepared to pill, powder;or infusing in wine;or prepare to ointment and apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Angelicae Sinensis should not be combined with sweet sedge, seaweed, fresh ginger.

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