Introduction of Jinɡ Jie:Herba Schizonepetae or Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb, Fineleaf Schizonepeta Spike, Carbonized Fineleaf Schizonepeta, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq., and ②.Schizonepaeta multifida (L.)Briq., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Schizonepetae(Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb).

Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb Pin Yin Name: Jīnɡ Jiè.
 English Name: Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Schizonepetae.
 Property and flavor: light warm, pungent, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Schizonepetae is the dried aerial part of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq., used (1).to release the superficies and disperse wind in cases of wind-cold affliction, (2).to promote eruption for treating measles, and (3).to dispel wind for urticaria. The herb is commonly known as Herba Schizonepetae, Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb, Jīnɡ Jiè.

 Botanical source: The herb Herba Schizonepetae(Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb) is the dried aerial part of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. It is also known as Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb, Herb of Fineleaf Schizonepeta.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Schizonepetae as the dried aerial part of (1).Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dried aerial part of species of the same family:(1).Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq., (2).Schizonepaeta multifida (L.)Briq. They are plant species of the Nepeta Linn. Genus, Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) of the Lamiales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq.


 Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq:color picture Botanical description: The plant is also known as Nepeta tenuifolia Bent., or Lie Ye Jing Jie. Annual herbs, the plant grows up to 60~100 cm high. Strong fragrant aroma. The stem is upright and prismatic, the upper part is much-branched, and the base is brownish-purple. The whole plant is covered with gray-white pubescent. Leaves are opposite; the leaf on the stem base is sessile or nearly sessile, pinnately parted, 5 lobes, leaves on the middle and upper stem are sessile, pinnately parted, 3~5 lobes, 1~3.5 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, the apex is sharp or willow-leaf shape, the base is cuneate and gradually narrow, extend downward to petiole, lobes are lanceolate, entire, the upper surface is dark green, the under surface is sage green (grey-green), both surfaces are glabrous, veins and edge are close, have a glandular point. Flowers are verticillaster, multi-rounds of flowers grow densely at the branch end, form spike, 3~13 cm long; Bracts are leaflike, 4~17 mm long; Bractlet are linear, smaller; Flowers are small, the calyx is funnelform obconical, about 3 mm long, about 1.2 mm in diameter, covered with gray pilose and yellow-green glandular points, the apex is 5-fissure, lobes are ovate-triangular; The corolla is light red purple, bilabiate, about 4 mm long, the upper lip apex is 2-lobed, the lower lip is 3-lobed, the middle lobe is largest. 4 stamens, 2-strong; Ovary is 4-lobed, the style is basal, stigma is 2-lobed. 4 nutlets, oblong triangular, about 1.5 mm long, about 0.7 mm in diameter, tan, the surface is smooth. Its flowering period is from July to September, the fruiting period is from September to November.

 Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq:plant and flower Ecological environment: This species grows on hillsides by roadsides or in valleys, or on forest edges. The altitude of its distribution area is between 540 and 2,700 meters above sea level. The plant is distributed in northwest, southwest, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers the warm and humid climate, seedlings can withstand low temperatures around 0 °C (Celsius, or 32 degrees Fahrenheit), and frost damage at a temperature below -2 °C (Celsius, or 28.4 degrees Fahrenheit). It likes enough sunshine, afraid of drought, and avoids water logging. It is advisable to cultivate with loose and fertile sandy loam, oil sandy soil, and sandy soil with good drainage. Avoid continuous cropping.

 Characters of herbs: The stem of the herb is a square column, with branches at the upper part, 50~80 cm in length and 0.2~0.4 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish green or purplish brown, covered with white pubescent; Light, and crisp, the fracture surface is fibrous, yellow-white, and there is a white loose pith in the center. Leaves are opposite, mostly detached, leaves 3-5 pinnately divided, lobes are slender and long. Spike verticillaster inflorescence grows terminally, 3~13 cm long, and about 0.7 cm in diameter. The corolla is deciduous, the persistent calyx is campanulate or bell-shaped, yellow-green, fragile and easily broken, and contains brown-black nutlet. It smells aromatic and tastes slightly astringent, pungent and cool. The herb of better grade is light yellow-green, and the spike is dense and long, with a strong fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antipyretic and analgesic effect; ②.Antiviral effect: antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus diphtheria in vitro, inhibitory effect on Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus B, Bacilli typhoid, Bacillus dysentery, Pseudomonas aerustris, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; ③.Hemostatic effect; ④.Anti-cancer effect: weak inhibition of cancer cells in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind, relieving exterior syndrome, promoting eruption, stanch bleeding. Indicated for fever of cold, cephalea (headache), itching of the eye, cough, swelling and pain in throat, measles, carbuncle swelling, scabies, epistaxis, hematemesis, hematochezia, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis (uterine bleeding), postpartum anemic fainting, etc.

 Administration of Herba Schizonepetae(Jīnɡ Jiè): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Schizonepetae(Jīnɡ Jiè)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams; ②.1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), water decoction, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, mashed and apply stick, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick, or wash with water decoction; ③.water decoction, 3~10 grams, or prepare to pill, powder.Externally: fumigation wash with water decoction, smashed and apply, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply.

(2).Schizonepaeta multifida (L.)Briq.


 Schizonepaeta multifida Briq:plant and flower 01 Botanical description: The plant is also known as Nepeta multifida L., or Duo Lie Ye Jing Jie. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 40~50 cm tall. The stem base is lignified, and the upper part is prismatic, covered with white pilose. Leaves are opposite; Petiole is about 1.5 cm long; Leaves are pinnately parted or divided, sometimes lobed to entire, lobes are oval (egg-shaped) or ovate-lanceolate, entire or sparsely serrated, 2~3.4 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, the apex is sharp, the base is truncate to cordate, the upper surface is dark green, slightly pilose, the undersurface is white yellow, covered with white short bristles, veins and margin have lashes, glandular points. Most of the verticillaster form a terminal spike, 6~12 cm long. Bracts are leafy, partite or entire, oval (egg-shaped), about 1 cm long; Bractlets are ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, purplish, slightly longer or as long as flowers; Calyx is purplish, about 5 mm long, 15 veins, externally sparsely pubescent, the apex is 5-dentate, triangular; Corolla is 2-lipped, blue-purple, light yellow after drying, 8 mm long, pilose, the upper lip is 2-lobed, the lower lip is 3-lobed, the middle lobe is largest; 4 stamens, anthers are mauve (lilac), style is slender and long, stigma is 2-lobed. 4 nutlets, flat oblong, its abdomen part is slightly ribbed, about 1.6 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, brown. Its flowering period is from July to September, the fruiting period is after September.

 Schizonepaeta multifida Briq:plant and flower 02 Ecological environment: The plant grows on the edge of pine forest, hillside grass, or wet grassland, in areas at altitudes of 1,300~2,000 meters above sea level. It grows in the north, northwest, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The herb of Schizonepaeta multifida is the stems and branches, the surface is purplish red, pubescent; The herb is light and brittle, easily broken, the fracture surface is fibrous. Leaf lobes are wider, ovate or ovate-lanceolate. Verticillaster are continuous and rarely interrupted; Calyx teeth are sharp. The herb has fragrant aroma, the taste is slight astringent, but spicy cool.
 
Spica Schizonepetae (Fineleaf Schizonepeta Spike).

Fineleaf Schizonepeta Spike:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Jīnɡ Jiè Suì.
 English Name: Fineleaf Schizonepeta Spike.
 Latin Name: Spica Schizonepetae.
 Property and flavor: light warm, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Spica Schizonepetae is the seed-bearing part of schizonepeta, it is used similarly as Herba Schizonepetae, fineleaf schizonepeta herb, with stronger actions.
 
Herba Schizonepetae Carbonisata (Carbonized Fineleaf Schizonepeta).

Carbonized Fineleaf Schizonepeta:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Jīnɡ Jiè Tàn.
 English Name: Carbonized Fineleaf Schizonepeta.
 Latin Name: Herba Schizonepetae Carbonisata.
 Property and flavor: light warm, pungent, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herba Schizonepetae Carbonisata is the carbonized schizonepeta, it is used as a hemostatic for treating functional uterine bleeding and hematochezia.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Jinɡ Jie:Herba Schizonepetae or Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb.

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