Introduction of Jinɡ Jie:Herba Schizonepetae or Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon01 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.

 
Herba Schizonepetae(Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb).

Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb Pin Yin Name: Jīnɡ Jiè.
 English Name: Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Schizonepetae.
 Property and flavor: light warm, pungent, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Schizonepetae is the dried aerial part of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq.(family Labiatae), used (1).to release the superficies and disperse wind in cases of wind-cold affliction, (2).to promote eruption for treating measles, and (3).to dispel wind for urticaria. The herb is commonly known as Herba Schizonepetae, Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb, Jīnɡ Jiè.

 Botanical source: The herb Herba Schizonepetae(Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb) is the dried aerial part of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. It is also known as Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb, Herb of Fineleaf Schizonepeta.

 Common official herbal classics defined the herb Herba Schizonepetae(Jīnɡ Jiè) as the dried aerial part of (1).Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dried aerial part of species of the same family:(1).Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq., (2).Schizonepaeta multifida (L.)Briq. They are plant species of the Nepeta Linn. Genus, Labiatae family of the Lamiales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq (1).Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq.:
 Botanical description: The plant is also known as Nepeta tenuifolia Bent., or Lie Ye Jing Jie. Annual herbs, 60~100 cm high. Strong aroma. Stem erect, prismatic, upper part is much-branched, base brownish-purple. The whole plant is covered with pale pubescent. Leaves are opposite; Stem base of leaf sessile or nearly sessile, pinnate deep cleft, 5 lobes, middle and upper leaves sessile, pinnate deep cleft, 3~5 lobes, 1~3.5 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, apex lancet, base cuneate and gradually narrow the postponement of petiole, lobes lanceolate, margin entire, the dark green, sage green below, both surfaces glabrous, veins and edge is close, have a poof gland. Flowers for the inflorescence, multi-wheelel dense at the branch end, form spike, 3-13 cm long; Bracts are leaflike, 4~17 mm long; Bracteoles linear, smaller; Flowers small, calyx funnelform obconical, ca. 3 mm long, ca. 1.2 mm in diameter, gray pilose and yellow-green glandular points, apex 5-dentate, lobes ovate-triangular; The upper lip apex 2-lobed, 3-lobed, middle lobe is largest. 4 stamens, 2-strong; Ovary 4-lobed, stylopodium, stigma 2-lobed. 4 nutlets, oblong triangular, ca. 1.5 mm long, ca. 0.7 mm in diameter, tan, smooth. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from September to November.

 Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq Ecological environment:  this species grows on hillsides by roadsides or in valleys. The altitude is between 540 and 2,700 meters above sea level. It distributes in northwest, southwest, the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, and other provinces of China. Mainly produced in Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, and other provinces.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers to warm and humid climate, seedlings can withstand low temperature around 0℃, frost damage at a temperature below -2℃. It likes enough sunshine, afraid of drought, avoid water logging. It is advisable to cultivate with loose and fertile sandy loam, oil sandy soil, and sandy soil with good drainage. Avoid continuous cropping.

 Characters of herbs: the herb of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. is a branch with a flower spike. Stem square columnar, upper branched, 50~80 cm long, 0.2~0.4 cm in diameter; Surface is yellow-green or purple-brown, white pubescent; Light, crisp, broken face fibrous, yellow and white, with white loose pulp in the center. Leaves are opposite, mostly deciduous, 3~5 pinnately divided, lobes are slender. Inflorescence terminal, 3~13 cm long, ca. 7 mm in diameter. Corolla is much shed, host calyx is yellow-green, bell-shaped, quality is brittle, inside the small nut of brown-black. The smell is fragrant, the taste is slight acerbity but spicy cool. The herb which color light yellow-green, spike dense and long, fragrant is good.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antipyretic and analgesic effect: Herba Schizonepetae decoction has an antipyretic and analgesic effect. D-menthol is the main component of analgesia in the herb, and 3-methyl cyclohexanone also has an analgesic effect. ②.Antiviral effect: Herba Schizonepetae decoction has a strong antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus diphtheria in vitro, and has a certain inhibitory effect on Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus B, Bacilli typhoid, Bacillus dysentery, Pseudomonas aerustris, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ③.Hemostatic effect: charred schizonepeta herb has a hemostatic effect. ④.Anti-cancer effect: Herba Schizonepetae showed weak inhibition of cancer cells in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind, relieving exterior syndrome, promoting eruption, stanch bleeding. Indicated for fever of cold, cephalea(headache), itching of the eye, cough, swelling and pain in throat, measles, carbuncle swelling, scabies, epistaxis, hematemesis, hematochezia, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis(uterine bleeding), postpartum anemic fainting, etc.

 Administration of Herba Schizonepetae(Jīnɡ Jiè): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Schizonepetae(Jīnɡ Jiè)
TCM Books: Internally:4.5~9 grams(CP), or 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), water decoction, or grinded to a fine powder and prepared to pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, mashed and apply stick, grinded into a fine powder and apply stick, or wash with water decoction(DCTM), or water decoction, 3~10 grams, or prepare to pill, powder.Externally: fumigation wash with water decoction, smashed and apply, or grinded to a fine powder and apply(CHMM).


 Schizonepaeta multifida Briq (2).Schizonepaeta multifida (L.)Briq.:
 Botanical description: The plant is also known as Nepeta multifida L., or Duo Lie Ye Jing Jie. Perennial herb, up to 40~50 cm tall. Stem base lignified, upper part Four-edge shape, white villous. Leaves are opposite; Petiole about 1.5 cm long; Leaves feathery deeply divided or divided, sometimes lobed to entire, lobes ovate or ovate-lanceolate, entire or sparsely toothed, 2~3.4 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, apex acute, base sub truncate to cordate, dark green at upper part, slightly pilose, white yellow below, white short bristles, veins upper and margin lashes, glandular. Most of the inflorescences are form a terminal spike, 6~12 cm long. Bracts leafy, deep or entire, ovate, ca. 1 cm long; Bracteoles ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, purplish, slightly longer as long as flowers; Calyx purplish, ca. 5 mm long, 15 veined, externally sparsely pubescent, apex 5-dentate, triangular; Corolla 2-lipped, blue-purple, pale yellow after drying, ca. 8 mm long, pilose, upper lip 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe is largest; 4 stamens, anthers mauve, style slender, stigma 2-lobed. 4 nutlets, oblong, slightly ribbed, ca. 1.6 mm long, ca. 0.6 mm wide, brown. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting after September.

 Schizonepaeta multifida Briq Ecological environment:  this species grows on the edge of pine forest, hillside grass, or wet grassland at an altitude of 1,300~2,000 meters above sea level. It distributes in the north, northwest area, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: the herb of Schizonepaeta multifida is the stems and branches, purplish red, pubescent; Light and brittle, easy to break, cross-section is fibrous. Leaf lobes are wider, ovate or ovate-lanceolate. Inflorescences are continuous and rarely interrupted; Calyx teeth acute. The smell is fragrant, the taste is slight acerbity but spicy cool.
 
Spica Schizonepetae(Fineleaf Schizonepeta Spike).

Fineleaf Schizonepeta Spike Pin Yin Name: Jīnɡ Jiè Suì.
 English Name: Fineleaf Schizonepeta Spike.
 Latin Name: Spica Schizonepetae.
 Property and flavor: light warm, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Spica Schizonepetae is the seed-bearing part of schizonepeta, it is used similarly as Herba Schizonepetae, fineleaf schizonepeta herb, with stronger actions.
 
Herba Schizonepetae Carbonisata(Carbonized Fineleaf Schizonepeta).

Carbonized Fineleaf Schizonepeta Pin Yin Name: Jīnɡ Jiè Tàn.
 English Name: Carbonized Fineleaf Schizonepeta.
 Latin Name: Herba Schizonepetae Carbonisata.
 Property and flavor: light warm, pungent, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herba Schizonepetae Carbonisata is the carbonized schizonepeta, it is used as a hemostatic for treating functional uterine bleeding and hematochezia.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Jinɡ Jie:Herba Schizonepetae or Fineleaf Schizonepeta Herb.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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