Introduction of Zi Su Ye:Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Perilla Leaf, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt., and ②.Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Perilla Leaf, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf).

Perilla Leaf  Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Sū Yè.
 English Name: Perilla Leaf.
 Latin Name: Folium Perillae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Folium Perillae is the dried leaf of Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., used (1).to induce sweating for treating wind-cold affliction, (2).to stop vomiting, and (3).as an antidote for fish and crab poisoning. The herb is commonly known as Perilla Leaf, Purple Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè.

 Botanical source: The herb Folium Perillae (Perilla Leaf) is the dry leaf of the Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., it is a plant of the Perilla L. genus, the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) of the Lamiales order.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Folium Perillae (Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè) as the dry leaf of (1).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dry leaf of species of the same family:(1).Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., (2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta (Thunb.) Kudo. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.


 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.crispa Botanical description: The plant is also known as Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Var.crispa (Thumb.) Hand.-Mand.-Mazz. Annual herbs, the plant grows up to 30~200 cm tall. It has a special fragrance. Stems are upright, many-branched, purple, greenish-purple or green, obtuse prismatic and densely pilose. Leaves are opposite; petioles are 3~5 cm long, prunus (violet red) or green, covered with long hairs; leaf blades are broadly ovate, ovoid or ovate-triangular, 4~13 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, the apex is tapering or acuminate, sometimes in short caudate, the base is rounded or broadly cuneate, the margin is coarsely serrate, sometimes deeply serrate or shallow crack, both surfaces are purple, or only the undersurface is purple, both surfaces have sparse pubescence, relatively dense along the veins, the undersurface of the leaf has fine point oil droplets; lateral veins are in 7–8 pairs, veins at lower part slightly approach, obliquely ascending.

 Verticillaster, 2 flowers cluster to one side and form false raceme, terminal and axillary, inflorescence are densely pilose; bracts are oval (egg-shaped), ovate-triangular or lanceolate, entire, ciliate, glandular points on outside, margin is membranous; pedicels are 1~1.5 mm long, densely pilose; the calyx is campanulate, about 3 mm long, 10 veins, the lower part of outer surface is densely pilose and has yellow glandular points, apical end has 5 teeth, bilabiate, upper lip is broad and big, 3 teeth, lower lip has 2 teeth, enlarged during fruiting period, base is saccate; corolla is labiate, 3~4 mm long, white or prunus (violet red), corolla tube has hair rings inside, outside is pubescent, upper lip is slightly concave, lower lip is 3-lobed, lobes are orbicular (subrotund), middle lobes are bigger; 4 stamens, didynamous, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, scarcely stretching out of the corolla, anthers are 2-loculed; the floral disc is enlarged anteriorly; 1 pistil, ovary is 4-lobed, style is subbasal, stigma is 2-loculed;

 Nutlets are subsphaeroidal (subglobular), grayish-brown or brown, 1~1.3 mm in diameter, reticulated, and the fruit calyx is about 10 mm long. Its flowering period is from June to August, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.crispa Ecological environment and distribution:  This species grows in the mountain, roadside, village edge, or wasteland, also cultivated. Resource distribution: The plant is distributed in the eastern, southern, northwest, northern, southwest, Taiwan and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant likes a warm and moist climate, and it grows vigorously in a sunny environment, a high yield. The loose, fertile soil with convenient drainage is appropriate for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The leaves of the herb are wrinkled, curled, and broken, and the intact ones are oval after flattening, with a length of 4~11 cm and a width of 2.5~9 cm. The apex is acuminate or pointed, the base is round or broadly cuneate, and the edge is crenate. The two surfaces are purple, or the upper surface is green, the undersurface is purple, with sparse gray-white hairs, and the undersurface has many concave glandular scales. The petiole is 2~5 cm long, purple or purplish green. The quality of the texture is crisp. For the herb with young branches (shoots), the branches are 2~5 mm in diameter, purplish green, and there is pith in the center of the fracture surface. It smells delicate and fragrant and tastes slight pungent. The herb of a better grade has intact leaves (complete leaves), purple, and a strong fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antimicrobial activity: inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus hominis, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum; ②.Effect on the gastrointestinal tract; ③.Effects on the coagulation system.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate cold and relieve the exterior syndrome, promoting the circulation of QI, reduce phlegm, miscarriage prevention, detoxification poison of fish and crab, indicated for exterior syndrome of wind-cold, cough with much phlegm, fullness in the chest and gastral cavity, nausea and vomit, abdominal pain and throw up or diarrhea, unharmonized of fetus Qi (with symptons nausea, vomiting, and edema of legs during pregnancy), hyperemesis gravidarum, food poisoning of fish and crab.

 Administration of Folium Perillae (Zǐ Sū Yè): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Folium Perillae (Zǐ Sū Yè)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.2~3 qian (about 6~9 grams), water decoction,Externally:mashed and apply stick or wash with water decoction;③.water decoction, 5~10 grams, Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick, prepare to finely ground herb powder and smear, or wash with water decoction,or 5~10 grams, water decoction (do not be over-boiled), up to 30~60 grams for poison of fish and crab; Externally:mashed and apply, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply, or wash with water decoction.


Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.acuta Thunb.Kudo. Pin Yin Name: Yě Zǐ Sū Yè.
 English Name: Wild Perilla Leaf.
 Latin Name: Folium Perillae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

(2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo.


 Botanical description: The plant is also known as the wild perilla. This variety is distinguished from perilla by the fact that: the fruit calyx is small, 4~5.5 mm long, the under surface is sparsely pilose, with glandular points; the stem is pubescent; the leaves are smaller, oval, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 2.8~5 cm wide, both surfaces are sparsely pilose. Nutlets are small, khaki, 1~1.5 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to August, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Characters of herbs: The whole leaves of the wild purple perilla are oval when flattening, 4~7 cm long, and 2.5~5 cm wide. Leaves are green, dark green, or purplish on both surfaces, the edge is crenate. The herb of a better grade has intact leaves, purple, and a strong fragrance.
 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Zi Su Ye:Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf.

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