Introduction of Zi Si Ye:Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf.
✵The article gives records of the herb Perilla Leaf, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt., and ②.Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Perilla Leaf, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf).
Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Sū Yè.
English Name: Perilla Leaf.
Latin Name: Folium Perillae.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent.
Brief introduction: The herb Folium Perillae is the dried leaf of Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., used (1).to induce sweating for treating wind-cold affliction, (2).to stop vomiting, and (3).as an antidote for fish and crab poisoning. The herb is commonly known as Perilla Leaf, Purple Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè.
Botanical source: The herb Folium Perillae (Perilla Leaf) is the dry leaf of the Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., it is a plant of the Perilla L. genus, the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) of the Lamiales order.
Herbal classic book defined the herb Folium Perillae (Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè) as the dry leaf of (1).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dry leaf of species of the same family:(1).Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., (2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:
Botanical description: The plant is also known as Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt. Var.crispa (Thumb.) Hand.-Mand.-Mazz. Annual herbs, the plant grows up to 30~200 cm tall. It has a special fragrance. Stems are upright, much-branched, purple, greenish-purple or green, obtuse prismatic, and densely pilose. Leaves are opposite; Petiole is 3~5 cm long, purplish-red or green, covered with long hairs; Leaf blade is broadly ovate, ovoid or ovate-triangular, 4~13 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, the apex is tapering or acuminate, sometimes in short caudate, the base is rounded or broadly cuneate, the margin is coarsely serrate, sometimes serrate deep or shallow crack, both surfaces are purple, or only the under surface is purple, both surfaces have sparse pubescence, relatively dense along the veins, the under surface of the leaf has fine point oil glands; Lateral veins are 7–8 pairs, veins at lower part slightly approach, obliquely ascending. Verticillaster, 2 flowers cluster to one side and form false raceme, terminal and axillary, inflorescence are densely pilose; Bracts are oval (egg-shaped), ovate-triangular or lanceolate, entire-edge, ciliate, glandular points on outside, margin is membranous; Pedicels are 1~1.5 mm long, densely pilose; Calyx is campanulate, about 3 mm long, 10 veins, the lower part of outer surface is densely pilose and with yellow glandular points, apical end has 5 teeth, 2 lips, upper lip is broad and big, 3 teeth, lower lip has 2 teeth, enlarged during fruiting period, base is saccate; Corolla is lip-shape, 3~4 mm long, white or purplish red, corolla tube has hair rings inside, outside is pubescent, upper lip is slightly concave, lower lip is 3-lobed, lobes are nearly round, middle lobes are larger; 4 stamens, 2-strong, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, scarcely extending out of the corolla, anthers are 2-locule; floral disc is distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary is 4-lobed, style is subbasal, stigma is 2-locule; Nutlets are subglobose, grayish-brown or brown, 1~1.3 mm in diameter, reticulated, fruit calyx is about 10 mm long. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from July to September.
Ecological environment and distribution: this species grows in the mountain, roadside, village edge, or wasteland, also cultivated. Resource distribution: The plant is distributed in the east, south, northwest, north, southwest, Taiwan, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: The plant likes a warm, humid climate, it grows vigorously in a sunny environment, a high yield. The loose, fertile, irrigation, and drainage convenient soil is appropriate for cultivation.
Characters of herbs: The leaves of the herb are wrinkled, curled, and broken, and the intact ones are oval after flattening, with a length of 4~11 cm and a width of 2.5~9 cm. The apex is acuminate or pointed, the base is round or broadly wedge-shaped, and the edge is crenate. The two surfaces are purple, or the upper surface is green, the under surface is purple, with sparse gray-white hairs, and the under surface has many concave glandular scales. The petiole is 2~5 cm long, purple or purplish green. The quality of the texture is crisp. For the herb with young branches, the branches are 2~5 mm in diameter, purplish green, and there is a pith in the middle of the fracture surface. It smells delicate and fragrant and tastes slightly pungent. The herb of better grade is with intact leaves, purple color, and a strong fragrance.
Pharmacological actions: ①.Antimicrobial activity: inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus hominis, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum; ②.Effect on the gastrointestinal tract; ③.Effects on the coagulation system.
Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate cold and relieve the exterior syndrome, promoting the circulation of QI, reduce phlegm, miscarriage prevention, detoxification poison of fish and crab, indicated for exterior syndrome of wind-cold, cough with much phlegm, fullness in the chest and gastral cavity, nausea and vomit, abdominal pain and throw up or diarrhea, unharmonized of fetus Qi (with symptons nausea, vomiting, and edema of legs during pregnancy), hyperemesis gravidarum, food poisoning of fish and crab.
Administration of Folium Perillae (Zǐ Sū Yè):
Administration Guide of Folium Perillae (Zǐ Sū Yè)
①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.2~3 qian (about 6~9 grams), water decoction,Externally:mashed and apply stick or wash with water decoction;③.water decoction, 5~10 grams, Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick, prepare to finely ground herb powder and smear, or wash with water decoction,or 5~10 grams, water decoction (do not be over-boiled), up to 30~60 grams for poison of fish and crab; Externally:mashed and apply, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply, or wash with water decoction.
Pin Yin Name: Yě Zǐ Sū Yè.
English Name: Wild Perilla Leaf.
Latin Name: Folium Perillae.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent.
Botanical description: The plant is also known as the wild perilla. This variety is distinguished from perilla by the fact that: the fruit calyx is small, 4~5.5 mm long, the undersurface is sparsely pilose, with glandular points; the stem is pubescent; the leaves are smaller, oval, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 2.8~5 cm wide, both surfaces are sparsely pilose. Nutlet is small, khaki, 1~1.5 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from July to September.
Characters of herbs: The whole leaves of the wild purple perilla are oval when flattening, 4~7 cm long, and 2.5~5 cm wide. Leaves are green, dark green, or purplish on both surfaces, the edge is crenate. The herb of better grade is with intact leaves, purple color, and strong fragrance.
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1.Introduction of Zi Si Ye:Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf.