Introduction of Zi Si Ye:Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Perilla Leaf, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt., and ②.Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Perilla Leaf, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf).

Perilla Leaf  Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Sū Yè.
 English Name: Perilla Leaf.
 Latin Name: Folium Perillae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Folium Perillae is the dried leaf of Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt.(family Labiatae), used (1).to induce sweating for treating wind-cold affliction, (2).to arrest vomiting, and (3) as an antidote for fish and crab poisoning. The herb is commonly known as Perilla Leaf, Purple Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè.

 Botanical source: The herb Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf) is the dry leaf of the Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., it is a plant of the Perilla L. genus, the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(the mint or deadnettle family) family of the Lamiales order.

 Common official herbal classics defined the herb Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè) as the dry leaf of (1).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dry leaf of species of the same family:(1).Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., (2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.crispa Botanical description: The plant is also known as Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt. Var.crispa (Thumb.) Hand.-Mand.-Mazz. Annual herbs, 30~200 cm tall. It has a special fragrance. Stem erect, much-branched, purple, greenish-purple or green, obtuse tetraphenous, densely villous. Leaves opposite; Petiole 3~5 cm long, purplish-red or green, covered with long serrate hairs; Leaf blade broadly ovate, round or oval, triangle, oval 4~13 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, apex acuminate or acuminate, sometimes in short caudate, base is rounded or broadly cuneate, margin coarsely serrate, sometimes serrate deep or shallow crack, purple or purple at lower part, only both sides are sparse hairs, along the veins of relatively dense, the leaf has a fine point oil glands; Lateral veins 7-8 pairs, lower slightly proximate, obliquely ascending. Inflorescences rosette, 2-flowered to one side into pseudo-racemes, terminal and axillary, inflorescence densely villous; Bracts ovate, ovate-triangular or lanceolate, entire, ciliate, glandular, margin membranous; Pedicels 1~1.5 mm long, densely pilose; Calyx campanulate, ca. 3 mm long, 10 veined, outer densely pilose and with yellow glandular points, apical 5 teeth, 2 lips, upper lip broad, 3 teeth, lower lip has 2 teeth, sometimes is enlarged, base saccate; Corolla lip, 3~4 mm long, white or purplish red, corolla tube with hair rings, outside pilose, upper lip slightly concave, lower lip 3-lobed, lobes are nearly round, middle lobes are larger; 4 stamens, 2-strong, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, scarcely extending out of the corolla, anthers 2-locule; Disk distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary 4-lobed, style subbasal, stigma 2-locule; Disk distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary 4-lobed, style basal, stigma 2-lobed. Nutlets subglobose, grayish-brown or brown, 1~1.3 mm in diameter, reticulated, calyx ca. 10 mm. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.crispa Ecological environment and distribution:  this species grows in the mountain, roadside, village edge, or wasteland, also cultivated. Resource distribution: The plant distributes in east, south, northwest, north, southwest, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant likes warm, humid climate, it grows vigorously in the sunny environment, high yield. The loose, fertile, irrigation, and drainage convenient soil is appropriate for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The leaves of the herb are wrinkled, curled and broken, and the intact ones are oval after flattening, with a length of 4 ~ 11 cm and a width of 2.5 ~ 9 cm. The apex is long or acute, the base is round or broadly wedge-shaped, and the edge is crenate. The two sides are purple, or the upper surface is green, the lower surface is purple, with sparse gray-white hairs, and the lower surface has many concave glandular scales. The petiole is 2 ~ 7 cm long, purple or purplish green. The quality is crisp. With young branches, the branches are 2 ~ 5 mm in diameter, purplish green and pith in the middle of the cross-section. It smells delicate fragrant and tastes slightly pungent. The herb with intact leaves, purple color, smells aromatic is good.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antimicrobial activity: inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus hominis, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum; ②.Effect on the gastrointestinal tract; ③.Effects on the coagulation system.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate cold and relieve the exterior syndrome, promoting the circulation of QI, reduce phlegm, miscarriage prevention, detoxification poison of fish and crab, indicated for exterior syndrome of wind-cold, cough with much phlegm, fullness in the chest and gastral cavity, nausea and vomit, abdominal pain and throw up or diarrhea, unharmonized of fetus Qi(nausea, vomiting, and edema of legs during pregnancy), hyperemesis gravidarum, food poisoning of fish and crab.

 Administration of Folium Perillae(Zǐ Sū Yè): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Folium Perillae(Zǐ Sū Yè)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.2~3 qian(about 6~9 grams), water decoction,Externally:mashed and apply stick or wash with water decoction;③.water decoction, 5~10 grams, Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick, grinded into fine powder and smear, or wash with water decoction,or 5~10 grams, water decoction(do not be over-boiled), up to 30~60 grams for poison of fish and crab;Externally:mashed and apply, grinded into fine powder and apply, or wash with water decoction.

Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.acuta Thunb.Kudo. Pin Yin Name: Yě Zǐ Sū Yè.
 English Name: Wild Perilla Leaf.
 Latin Name: Folium Perillae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

(2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo.

 Botanical description: The plant is also known as wild Perilla. This variety is distinguished from perilla by the fact that the calyx is small, 4~5.5 mm long, sparsely pilose at lower part, glandular; Stem pubescent; Leaves smaller, ovate, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 2.8~5 cm wide, sparsely pilose on both sides. Nuts small, khaki, 1~1.5 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Characters of herbs: the whole leaves of the wild purple perilla were oval after flattening, 4~7 cm long and 2.5~5 cm wide. Leaves are green, dark green or purplish on both surfaces, margin rounded serrate. The herb with leaves intact, color purple, smell aromatic is good.
Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.
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