Introduction of Yu Jin:Turmeric Root Tuber or Radix Curcumae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Turmeric Root Tuber, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source four plant species, ①.Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling., ②.Curcuma longa L., ③.Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang., ④.Curcuma phaeocaulis Val., and other two usable plant species, ⑤.Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., ⑥.Curcuma chuanyujin C.K.Hsieh et H.Zhang., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Turmeric Root Tuber, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Curcumae(Turmeric Root Tuber).

Radix Curcumae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Yù Jīn.
 English Name: Turmeric Root Tuber.
 Latin Name: Radix Curcumae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Curcumae is the steamed and dried tuberous root of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, or Curcuma longa L., or Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang, or Curcuma phaeocaulis Val., used (1).to activate blood and move Qi for relieving pain in the chest, abdomen, or coastal regions due to Qi stagnation and blood stasis, (2).to cool the blood for treating various types of hemorrhage due to upward perversion of Qi and fire, (3).to calm the mind in the treatment of delirium, mania and epilepsy, and (4).as a cholagogue for the treatment of jaundice. The herb is commonly known as Radix Curcumae, Turmeric Root Tuber, Yù Jīn.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Curcumae(Turmeric Root Tuber) as the dried tuberous root of the species (1).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling., (2).Curcuma longa L., (3).Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang., (4).Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Curcumae(Turmeric Root Tuber) as the dried tuberous root of the species (1).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling., (2).Curcuma longa L., (3).Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang., (5).Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., (6).Curcuma chuanyujin C.K.Hsieh et H.Zhang. They are species of the Curcuma L genus, the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family) of the Zingiberales order. The species (2).Curcuma longa L., and (3).Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang., and (5).Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. are introduced in the next entry "Rhizoma Curcumae Longae(Turmeric)", the other 3 species (1).Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling., (4).Curcuma phaeocaulis Val., and (6).Curcuma chuanyujin C.K.Hsieh et H.Zhang. are introduced:

(1).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling.


 Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling.:drawing of whole plant Botanical description: Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling is commonly known as Wēn Yù Jīn. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to about 80~160 cm high. The main rhizome is a peg-top shape, lateral rhizomes are fingerlike, and the inner surface is citreous. Fibrous roots are thin and long, the end part is often enlarged to a fusiform (spindle-shaped) root tuber, and the inner surface is white. 4~7 leaves arrange in 2 columns, petioles are short, length is not up to half of leaf blade; leaf blades are broadly elliptical, 35~75 cm long, 14~22 cm wide, apex is acuminate or shortly caudate acuminate, base is cuneate, decurrent to petiole, the undersurface is glabrous.

  Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling.:flowering plant Scape grows out alone from the rhizome, at the same time as leaves. Spica is cylindrical, grow out from rhizome before leaves, 20~30 cm long, 4~6 cm in diameter, ananthous flower bracts on the upper part are oblong oval, 5~7 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, rose-red, floriferous bracts in the middle and lower part are broadly ovate, 3~5 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, greenish-white; hypanthium floral tube) is white, the tip has unequal 3 teeth; corolla tube is funnel form, white, 3 lobes, membraneous, oblong oval, the lobe on the back end is bigger, the apex is slightly pocket-shaped, coarse hairs grow at the part near to tip; lateral staminodes are petaloid (petal-shaped), yellow, labellum is obovate, folded outside, yellow, apex is slightly emarginated; 1 fertile stamen, the base of the anther is calcarate (having a calcar); the ovary is covered with pilose, style is thin and long. Its flowering period is from April to June.

 Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The plant grows in deep sandy loam with good drainage. This species is distributed and mainly grows in Ruian of Zhejiang province, China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Curcuma wenyujin prefers a warm and moist climate, sufficient sunshine, abundant rainfall environment, afraid of cold and frost, afraid of drought and waterlogging. It is appropriate to choose a field with a deep soil layer, upper layer is loose, tight and dense lower layer, and sandy loam for cultivation. Avoid continuous cropping, often interplanting with long-stalked crops.

 Characters of herbs: The root tuber of Curcuma wenyujin is oblong or oval (egg-shaped), slightly flat, some are slightly curved, and both ends are acuminate. 3.5~7 cm long, and 1.2~2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is taupe (dust color or grayish-brown) or taupe brown, with irregular longitudinal wrinkles, and the wrinkle protruding area is shallow. The texture of the herb is firm and solid, the fracture surface is taupe brown or celadon (sage green), with waxy luster; the endothelial ring is conspicuous. The herb has a mild fragrance, it tastes slightly bitter.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.analgesic effect; ②.slow down the formation of aortic and coronary intima plaque and lipid deposition; ③.protective effect on the liver; ④.promotes bile secretion and excretion; ⑤.inhibitory effect on a variety of pathomycete.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activate circulation of Qi and remove blood stasis, activate circulation of Qi and dispel melancholy, clearing away the heart-fire and dispel melancholy, cool blood and break blood stasis, dispersing stagnated liver Qi for promoting bile flow, normalizing gallbladder to cure jaundice. It is indicated for dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, aberratio mensium, pain in chest abdomen and flank, chest and abdominal distention, stabbing pain, abdominal mass, hematemesis (spitting blood), epistasis(nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria (blood in urine), bloody stranguria (stranguria complicated by hematuria), stony stranguria, jaundice and red urine, febrile disease and coma (unconsciousness), frightened epilepsy, lost consciousness and mania, insanity, epilepsy and mania, etc.

 Administration of Radix Curcumae (Yù Jīn): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Curcumae (Yù Jīn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), extract juice or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Curcumae should be used cautiously during pregnancy. Should not be combined with Flos Caryophylli(clove), Fructus caryophylli.

(4).Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.


 Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.:growing plant Botanical description: Curcuma phaeocaulis Val is commonly known as Péng é Zhú. A perennial herb. The rhizome is an ovoid lump, lateral branches are terete and amphitropous, the root system is thin and long, and the end part is enlarged into an oval lump. Leaf blades are oblong-elliptic or narrowly ovate, 13~24 cm long, 7~11 cm wide, central veins are with purple halo; Petioles are about 1/3 length of the leaf blade, decurrent to sheath, the leaf is auriform (ear-shaped) and small.

 Terete spike, about 14 cm long, with peduncle, flowers are dense; flower bracts are ovoid, apical bracts are extended, shiny red, ananthous in axil; Calyx is white, has 3 crenas; 3 corolla lobes, 1 upper lobe is bigger, the apex is slightly pocket-shaped, labellum (flabs) is rounded, pale yellow, apex is 3-lobed, the apex of middle cleft lobe is emarginate.

 Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.:growing plant The capsular fruit is ovate-triangular, smooth. The seeds are oblong and have aril. The flowering period is from March to May.

 Ecological Environment: The plant grows wild in mountain or grass at village edge. It is mainly produced in the southwest. Besides, it is also distributed in the Zhujiang river area, the lower reaches of the Yangtze river, and other areas of China.

 Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.:growing plant Characters of herbs: The curcuma zedoary (green-silk turmeric) tuberous root is oval (egg-shaped) and thick, 1.5~3.5 cm long, and 1~1.2 cm in diameter. The surface is ash gray or brownish-black, and wrinkled. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, angular, slightly taupe brown, and the endoderm is obvious. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes mild.

(6).Curcuma chuanyujin C.K.Hsieh et H.Zhang.


 Curcuma chuanyujin C.K.Hsieh et H.Zhang.:flowering plant Botanical description: Curcuma chuanyujin C.K.Hsieh et H.Zhang., is commonly known as Chuān Yù Jīn. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 70~120 cm, or 70~150 cm tall. The tuberous root is fusiform (spindle-shaped), the fracture surface is pale yellowish white to white, aromatic; The main rhizome is peg-top shape, the lateral rhizome is finger-like, and the fracture surface is yellow. Leaves are in 2 columns, 4~7 leaves, petioles are 12~30 cm, about 1/4~1/3 length of leaf blade; Leaf blades are oblong or elliptic-oblong, the apex is sharp-pointed, the base is cuneate and decurrent to leaf stalk, the apex is caudate, both surfaces are covered with fuzz.

 Spikes are conical, grow out from rhizome, bracts on tossel is pinkish to light red, ananthous in axil, bracts in the middle and lower part is green, the upper surface is smooth, the back surface has fluff, there are several flowers in axils, has several bracteole (bractlets), bracteole is white, transparent; hypanthium (floral tube) has 3 teeth, outside is villous, white, membraneous; corolla tube is about 6.5 cm long, dense pilose grow at throat part, 3 lobes, slightly pink, lobe on the upper side is bigger, apex is curly; lateral staminodes are petaloid (petal-shaped), yellow, labellum is orbicular, apex is conspicuously 3-lobed; 1 fertile stamens, filaments are short and flat, anther is oblong, 5 mm long, base has calcar; style is thin and long, cross through anther cell, base has 2 rabdoids, ovary is inferior, outside is villous. Its flowering period is from April to June.

 Curcuma chuanyujin C.K.Hsieh et H.Zhang.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The plant grows at the riversides, in areas at altitudes of about 900 meters above sea level. It is mainly distributed in Sichuan, southwest Yunnan (Jinghong county) of China.

 Characters of herbs: The tuberous root of Curcuma chuanyujin (white-silk or yellow-white silk tumeric) is fusiform (spindle-shaped) or oblong, 1.7~5 cm long, and 1~1.2 cm in diameter, and its surface is stone yellow or dark yellowish brown. The fracture surface is corneous, with a waxy luster, light brown, or near white. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes pungent.
 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Yu Jin:Turmeric Root Tuber or Radix Curcumae.

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