Introduction of Jiang Huang,Pian Jiang Huang and E Shu:Turmeric or Rhizoma Curcumae Longae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Turmeric, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Curcuma longa L., and other usable plant species, ②.Curcuma aromatica Salisb., and its main varietas, ③.Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, ④.Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., ⑤.Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb.etc., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these five plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these five plant species, the features of the herb Turmeric, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Rhizoma Curcumae Longae(Turmeric).
Pin Yin Name: Jiānɡ Huánɡ.
English Name: Turmeric.
Latin Name: Rhizoma Curcumae Longae.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is the steamed and dried rhizome of Curcuma longa L., used to activate blood, move Qi, unblock meridians and relieve pain in cases of rheumatalgia, dysmenorrhea, epigastric, abdominal and costal pains, and traumatic injuries. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, Turmeric, Jiānɡ Huánɡ.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, or Turmeric as the dried rhizome of the Curcuma L genus, the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family), Zingiberales order plant species (1). Curcuma longa L. Other common herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, or Turmeric as the rhizome of the Zingiberaceae family plant species (1). Curcuma longa L., or (2). Curcuma aromatica Salisb. Officially the botanical source of the Rhizoma Curcumae Longae should be the dried rhizome of the species (1). Curcuma longa L. This commonly used species and the related species are introduced:
(1).Curcuma longa L.
Botanical description: The Curcuma longa L., is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family) and Curcuma genus, it is commonly known as "Curcuma longa", or "Jiang Huang", a perennial herb, the plant grows up to 1~1.5 meters tall. The rhizomes are well-developed and clustered, and the branches are elliptical or cylindrical, orange-yellow, and very fragrant; the roots are thick and the ends are enlarged into roots. Leaves, 5-7 sheets, 2 columns; petiole length is 20~45 cm; leaf blade is oblong or narrowly elliptic, 20~50 cm long, 5~15 cm wide, apex is acuminate, base is cuneate, decurrent to the petiole, yellow-green at the upper part, lower part is light green, glabrous. Calyx extracted from leaf sheaths, peduncle length is 12~20 cm, spikes are cylindrical, length is 12~18 cm; bracts without flowers are pink or reddish-purple, oblong, 4~6 cm in length, width 1~1.5 cm, sepals with flowers in the middle and lower part with tender green or greenish-white, ovate to suborbicular, 3~4 cm long; the calyx is simple green-white, with 3 teeth; corolla tube is funnel-shaped, ca. 1.5 cm, pale yellow, throat close densely pilose, 3 lobes; 1 fertile stamen, filaments are short and flat, anthers are oblong, base spur; ovary is subordinate, externally villous, style is slender, base with 2 club-shaped glands, stigma is slightly inflated, slightly lip-shaped. It is flowering in August.
Ecological Environment: The Curcuma longa L., grows wild or cultivated in plains, meadows, or bushes in the mountains. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, the Hanjiang river area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.
A perennial plant with roots or tubers are oblong, palmate, and deep orange inside; root-leaves are about 2 feet (60.96 cm) long, lanceolate, long, petioled, tapering at each end, smooth, of a uniform green; petioles sheathing spike, upright, central, oblong, green; flowers are dull yellow, three or five together are surrounded by bracteoles. It is propagated by cuttings from the root, when dry it is in curved cylindrical or oblong tubers 2 or 3 inches (5.08~7.62 centimeters) in length, and an inch in diameter, pointed or tapering at one end, yellowish externally, with transverse, parallel rings internally deep orange or reddish-brown, marked with shining points, dense, solid, short, granular fracture, forming a lemon yellow powder. It has a peculiarly fragrant odor and a bitterish, slightly acrid taste, like ginger, exciting warmth in the mouth, and coloring the saliva yellow. This plant yields its properties to water or alcohol.
As a culinary herb, the stimulating taste of Turmeric adds zip to foods. As a healthful herbal tonic, it provides warming, soothing benefits to the joints, liver, and stomach. Women also appreciate its calming benefits during periods of monthly discomfort.
Geographical distribution or Habitat: Cambodia, China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Malaysia. It is extensively cultivated in China, Thailand, and throughout the tropics.
Ethno-botanical information: Traditional use as antiflatulence and for the treatment of peptic ulcers, treatment of insect bite, treatment of wounds.
The root-tuber of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (aromatic turmeric), Curcuma longa L. (common turmeric), Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang (Kwangsi turmeric), or Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. (zedoary turmeric), a perennial plant, of the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family).
Curcuma grows on forest margins, in clearings, or on riverbanks and is adapted to withstand drought. It loses its leafy parts and survives the dry season as underground rhizomes. Some Curcuma species also produce tuberous roots, which act as an additional store of food and water.
Fruits ripen below ground. The leafy shoots maybe three to five meters tall, so that the leaves are high in the air. Curcuma has brightly colored flowers and slender flower tubes full of nectar. They are pollinated by butterflies. Flowers are short-lived, often lasting only a few hours.
In China, Curcuma is mainly produced in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River. Harvested after the stem leaves wither in winter, the root-tuber is picked up, fine roots are removed from it, then is steamed or boiled until the core shows, dried, sliced, or mashed for use when raw or after being parched with alum water.
Growth characteristics: The plant Curcuma longa prefers a warm and humid climate. Better to choose a deep soil layer, good drainage, loose fertile sandy loam for cultivation.
Characters of herbs: The herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is irregularly oval, cylindrical, or spindle-shaped, often curved, the surface is dark-yellow and coarse, with wrinkled texture and obvious nodes, round branch marks, and fibrous root marks. The texture of the herb is firm and solid, not easy to break, the fracture surface is brown-yellow to golden-yellow, keratose, and waxy luster. The endodermis has an obvious ring pattern, and vascular bundles are scattered in dots. The herb has a special odor, it tastes bitter and pungent. The herb of better grade has a firm and solid texture, the fracture surface is golden yellow, with a strong aromatic fragrance.
Pharmacological actions: ①.lowering blood lipid, increasing myocardial nutrient blood flow; ②.enhancing fibrinolytic enzyme activity; ③.inhibiting platelet aggregation; ④.increasing bile secretion; ⑤.exciting effect on the uterus and can enhance the paroxysms' contraction of the uterus.
Medicinal efficacy: It breaks blood stasis, regulates Qi, stimulates the menstrual flow, and relieves pain. It is indicated for stabbing pain in the chest and flank, distention fullness and pain in heart and abdomen, blood stasis and Qi stagnation, amenorrhea, blood stasis, dysmenorrhea, postpartum stagnation and abdominal pain, abdominal hypochondriac pain, abdominal mass, arm pain, rheumatic arm pain, rheumatic arthralgia and pain, carbuncle swelling, injury from falling, traumatic injury, swelling pain from fall and injury, etc.
Administration of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae (Jiānɡ Huánɡ):
Administration Guide of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae (Jiānɡ Huánɡ)
①.Internally:3~9 grams;Externally:proper amount; ②.Internally:water decoction,1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and mixed apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder and mixed apply stick.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae should avoid using during pregnancy, or should forbidden using.
(2).Curcuma aromatica Salisb.
Botanical description: The Curcuma aromatica Salisb., is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family) and Curcuma genus, it is commonly known as "Curcuma aromatica", or "Yu Jin", plant height is about 1 meter; roots are fleshy, hypertrophic, oval or oblong, yellow, aromatic; root enlargement is spindle-like. Leaves, blade oblong, 30~60 cm long, 10~20 cm wide, tip with fine tail, base attenuate, the leaf surface is glabrous, the leaf blade is abaxially pubescent; petiole is as long as the leaf blade.
The calyx is extracted from the rhizomes alone and leaves or leaves at the same time with the leaves. The spikes are cylindrical, about 15 cm long, and about 8 cm in diameter. The bracts with flowers are pale green, ovate, 4~5 cm long. The upper non-flowered sepals are narrow, oblong, white and reddish-tinged, often with small tips and coats on their tips; calyxes are puberulous, 0.8~1.5 cm long, 3-lobed apically; corolla tube is funnel-shaped, 2.3~2.5 cm long, coats throat, lobes are oblong, 1.5 cm long, white with pink, rear one larger, apically pointed, coats; lateral staminodes are yellowish, obovate annulus oblong, ca. 1.5 cm; yellow, obovate, 2.5 cm long, apically 2-lobed; ovary is villous. The flowering season is from April to June.
Ecological Environment: The Curcuma aromatica Salisb., grows wild or cultivated in the forest or woods. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in China from the southeast to the southwestern provinces; it is also distributed throughout Southeast Asia.
Growth habits: The Curcuma aromatica Salisb., prefer a warm and humid climate, plenty of sunshine, abundant rainfall, fear of frost and cold, afraid of drought water. It should be cultivated in sandy loam where the soil is deep, loose in the upper layer, and tight in the lower layer. Avoid continuous cropping, cultivation, and high stalk crop interplanting. Better cultivated in fertile, moist sunny slopes or fields, it is cultivated in multiple lines.
Definitions and Differences: Official herbal classics defined the herb Curcuma aromatica as the dried tuberous root of the species Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, or Curcuma longa L., or Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., or Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb., etc.
Another herb, Curcuma zedoaria, or Zedoary, or E Shu, is defined by common herbal classics as the dried rhizome of the species Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, or Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., or Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb., etc.
Thus, the herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is not the same as the herb Curcuma aromatica, and the herb Curcuma aromatica is also different from the herb Curcuma zedoaria.
Main varietas: The Curcuma aromatica Salisb., has 2 main varietas in China, and known as (2.1). Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, (2.2). Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., (2.3). Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb.etc.
(2.1).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling.
Botanical description: The Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling., is a varietas of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., it is commonly known as "Wen Yu Jin", the root is long oval, oval or spindle-shaped, length 4~8 cm, diameter 2.5~4.5 cm. The tip is long and the base is sharp or rounded. The surface is gray-brown to dark brown, rough, the upper part is convex, the base has depressed root marks, and the bud marks and lateral root marks are not obvious. There are knife marks. Heavily smashed, the cross-section is yellow-brown or yellow-gray, horny, spotted, or striped vascular bundles.
Ecosystem: The Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling., grows wild or cultivated in a sunny or humid field or ditch. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed and cultivated in the Ruian city, Zhejiang province of China.
(2.2).Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang.
Botanical description: The Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., is a varietas of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., it is commonly known as "Guangxi E Shu", Rhizome is ovoid, 4~5 cm long, 2.5~3.5 cm in diameter, with more or less striated nodes, with brownish, membranous leaf sheaths on the nodes, fresh white or light yellow. Scallops are slender and rooted, and the ends often swell into nearly spindle-shaped roots; the root diameter is 1.4~1.8 cm and the inside is milky white. Leaves are pumped in spring, leaves are basal, 2~5-foliolate, upright; leaf blade is elliptic-lanceolate, 14~39 cm long, 4.5~7~9.5 cm wide, apex is shortly acuminate to acuminate, tip pointed to ventral surface, base is attenuate, decurrent, pubescent on both surfaces; ligule is ca. 1.5 mm high, margin is villous; petiole is 2~11 cm long, pubescent; leaf sheath is ca. 11~33 cm, pubescent. Spikes are extracted from the rhizomes and separated from the vegetative stems with leaves; pedicels are 7~14 cm long, inflorescences are 15 cm, diameter is 7 m thick; bracts are broadly ovate below inflorescence, ca. 4 cm, apex is flat, light green, upper sepal is oblong, oblique, pale red; peanuts in the lower and central sepals; the calyx is white, ca. 1 cm, one side split to the middle, apex is with 3 blunt teeth; Corolla tube is 2 cm long, trumpet-shaped, throat densely villous, corolla lobes 3, ovate, ca. 1 cm, posterior one wide, ca. 9 mm wide, apex is pointed, slightly pocketed, bilateral slightly narrowed; lateral staminodes oblong, nearly as long as corolla lobes; lip is suborbicular, yellowish, apex 3 shallowly fissured, middle lobe is slightly longer, apex is 2-lobed; filaments are broadly flattened, anthers are narrow round, ca. 4 mm, rooms are close, base spaced; style is filiform, glabrous, stigma capitate, ciliate; ovary is villous. Its flowering period is from May to July.
Ecological Environment: The Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., grows in sunny, moist, thick soil ditch, forest edge, hillside ground, grasslands, and shrubs at an altitude of 700 meters. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed and is cultivated in southwest, the upper reaches of the Zhujiang river, and other areas of China. The Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., prefers to high temperature and high humidity environment, drought tolerance, fertility optimum temperature 23~30 °C (Celsius, or 73.4~86 degrees Fahrenheit), the leaves dry in winter when the low temperature, germinate new leaf growth in spring.
Characters of herbs: Tuberous root is oblong conical or circular, 2~6.5 cm long, 1~1.8 cm in diameter. The surface is dark brown or khaki, with thin light longitudinal and rough mesh texture. Qualitative hard. The cross-section is cutin, gray-brown to brown, more obvious endodermis. Light smell, taste slight pungent and bitter.
(2.3).Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb.
Botanical description: The Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb., is a varietas of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., it is commonly known as "é Zhú", a perennial plant, smooth and glabrous throughout. Leaves are elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 25~60 cm long, 10~15 cm wide, often purple class in the middle; the petiole is longer than the leaves. The stems are emitted from the rhizomes alone, often with leaves first; spikes are about 15 cm; sepals are numerous, green at the lower part, purple at hips; the calyx is white, apical is 3-lobed; corolla is yellow, 3 lobes, unequal; lateral degeneration stamens are small; yellow lobes, apical at apex; divergent bases with divergent moments. A wolf-shaped triangle. Its flowering period is from March to May.
The rhizome is conical, with a pointed upper end and a rounded bottom, 2~6 cm long, and 2~3 cm in diameter. The surface is light yellow, slightly crumpled, and there are obvious links. There are scale-like petiole residues on the section and dot-like root marks. Solid quality, the cross-section is yellow-green, round endothelia ring, the majority of the column. The odor is slightly fragrant, taste bitter and spicy. Dry rhizomes, oval or spindle-shaped, are solid and heavy, extremely difficult to break, open-faceted brown-to-yellowish green, keratinous, shiny, with a yellow-white ring and white veins. Slightly scented, applauding slightly bitter and pungent. It is better to use a herb in a uniform, solid, gray-brown cross-section.
Ecological Environment: The Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb., grows in the shade of valleys, streams, forests, etc. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed and is cultivated in southwest areas of China.
Characters of herbs: Tuberous roots are oblong, stout, 1.5~3.5 cm long, 1~1.2 cm in diameter, gray, wrinkled. Qualitative hard, cross-section horn debt, slightly show grayish brown, the inner cortex is more obvious. Slight smell, mild taste.
Pin Yin Name: Piàn Jiāng Huáng.
English Name: Wenyujin Concise Rhizome.
Latin Name: Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa is the dried rhizome of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, used to resolve blood stasis and relieve pain in cases of dysmenorrhea, rheumatalgia, shoulder pain, and traumatic injuries. It is commonly known as Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa, Wenyujin Concise Rhizome, Piàn Jiāng Huáng.
Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa(Wenyujin Concise Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of the species (1).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling. It is a plant of the Curcuma L genus, the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family) of the Zingiberales order. This commonly used species was introduced in the entry "Radix Curcumae(Turmeric Root Tuber)".
Characters of herbs: The herb is oblong or irregular slices in shape, with different sizes, 3~6 cm long, 1~3 cm wide and 0.1~0.4 cm thick. The cortex is grayish-yellow, coarse, and shriveled, and sometimes there are nodes and fibrous root marks can be seen. The cut surface is yellow-white to brown-yellow, with a circle of veins and many small tendons. The texture of the herb is crisp and firm. The fracture surface is gray-white to brown-yellow, slightly powdery. The herb has a special fragrance, it tastes slightly bitter, pungent, and cool.
Medicinal efficacy: Breaks blood stasis, activates the circulation of Qi, stimulates the menstrual flow, and relieve pain. It is indicated for amenorrhea due to stagnation of blood, abdominal pain during menstruation, piercing pain in chest and hypochondrium, rheumatic arthralgia pain, aching pain of shoulder and arm, injury from falling down, etc.
Administration of Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa (Piàn Jiāng Huáng):
Administration Guide of Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa (Piàn Jiāng Huáng)
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa should be used cautiously during pregnancy.
Rhizoma Curcumae(Zedoary Rhizome).
Pin Yin Name: é Shù.
English Name: Zedoary Rhizome.
Latin Name: Rhizoma Curcumae.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Curcumae is the steamed and dried rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc., Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton, or Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang or curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, used to relieve pain caused by retention of food and activate blood circulation and remove blood stasis for the treatment of abdominal mass and amenorrhea, also used as an anticancer agent, especially for cervical cancer of the uterus. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Curcumae, Zedoary Rhizome, é Shù.
Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Curcumae(Zedoary Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of the species (1).Curcuma phaeocaulis Val., or (2).Curcuma Kwangsiensis S. G.Lee et C. F. Liang., or (3).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Curcumae(Zedoary Rhizome) as the rhizome of the species (4).Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb. They are plants of the Curcuma L genus, the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family) of the Zingiberales order. These commonly used species were introduced in the entry "Radix Curcumae(Turmeric Root Tuber)" and the entry "Rhizoma Curcumae Longae(Turmeric)".
Characters of herbs: The rhizome is round-like, oval, oblong, with many blunt tips at the top, and the base is round, 2~5 cm long, and 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is khaki to grayish-yellow, the nodes on the upper part are obvious, and there is a row of sunken bud marks and round lateral root marks on both sides. The herb is heavy, the texture of the herb is firm and solid, the fracture surface is dark green-yellow to brown, often attached by brown powder. The cortex is easily separated from the stele. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes slightly bitter and pungent.
Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-tumor effect; ②.anti-early pregnancy effect; ③.antibacterial effect; ④.leukogenic effect; ⑤.cardiovascular effect; ⑥.diastolic or contractile effect on intestinal smooth muscle; ⑦.hepatoprotective effect; ⑧.effect on acute renal failure; ⑨.inhibitory platelet aggregation and antithrombosis; ⑩.anti-inflammatory effect, etc.
Medicinal efficacy: Activate circulation of Qi and break blood stagnation, removing Qi stagnation and analgesic. It is indicated for abdominal mass and a lump in the abdomen, haemostasis (stasis of blood) and dysmenorrhea, chest stuffiness and pains, chest pain, food stagnation (dietary stagnation), dyspepsia and distention pain, abdominal distention and pain, distension and pain of heart and abdomen, the heartache of Qi and blood, blood stasis and abdominal pain, hepatolienomegaly (swelling enlarge of liver and spleen), amenorrhea with blood stasis, dysmenorrhea (abdominal pain after menstruation), pain from injury of falls, etc.
Administration of Rhizoma Curcumae (é Shù):
Administration Guide of Rhizoma Curcumae (é Shù)
①.Internally:6~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder;③.Internally:water decoction, 3~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction, or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick. Better use raw herb for activating Qi and relieve pain, better use prepared vinegar fried herb for breaking blood stasis and dispel stagnation.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Curcumae should avoid using during pregnancy, or should forbidden using in conditions hypermenorrhea or during pregnancy, should avoid using in conditions advanced menstruation, syndromes of blood heat. The herb should not be used for long period.
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1.Introduction of Jiang Huang,Pian Jiang Huang and E Shu:Turmeric or Rhizoma Curcumae Longae.