Introduction of San Qi:Sanchi or Radix Notoginseng.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Sanchi, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Panax notoginseng(Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Sanchi, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Notoginseng(Sanchi).

Radix Notoginseng:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Sān Qī.
 English Name: Sanchi.
 Latin Name: Radix Notoginseng.
 Property and flavor: warm, sweet, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Notoginseng is the dried root of Panax notoginseng(Burk.) F.H. Chen, used to resolve stasis, stop bleeding, activate the blood, and check pain for treating various kinds of external and internal hemorrhage, blood stasis, and pain in cases of traumatic injuries, and angina pectoris. The herb is commonly known as Radix Notoginseng, Sanchi, Sān Qī.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Panax notoginseng (San Qi) as the root of the Araliaceae family plant species (1).Panax notoginseng(Burk.) F.H. Chen ex C.Chow. The herb Panax notoginseng Leaf (San Qi Ye) and Panax notoginseng Flower (San Qi Hua) are the leaves or flowers of the same species. It is a plant of the Panax L. genus, the Araliaceae family (ginseng family) of the Apiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Panax notoginseng(Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow.

 Panax notoginseng.:drawing of whole plant Botanical description: The Panax notoginseng(Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow., is a plant of the Araliaceae family (ginseng family) and Panax genus, perennial herb, it grows up to 30~80 cm. Roots are short, with old stem residue marks; root is thick, inverted conical or shortly cylindrical, about 2~5 cm, the diameter is about 1~3 cm, there are several branches, the skin is yellow-green to brownish-yellow. Stems are upright, nearly cylindrical; smooth glabrous, green, or with many purple fine longitudinal stripes. Palmate leaf is compound, 3~4 leaves grow at stem end; petiole is slender, the surface is glabrous; 3~7 leaflets; leaf blade is elliptic to oblong-obovate, ca. 5~14 cm, width 2~5 cm, several central pieces are larger, the last two are the smallest, the tip is long, and the base is round or disproportionate on both sides. The edges are serrated, the teeth are even with small bristles, the surface has finely bristled along the veins, and sometimes both sides are close. It is glabrous; with the petiole.

 Panax notoginseng.:flowering plant The total pedicels are drawn from the middle of the petiole of the stem, upright, 20~30 cm long; umbels are terminal, ca. 3 cm in diameter; flowers are numerous, bisexual, sometimes unisexual flowers and bisexual flowers coexist; peduncles are short, base has scaly sepals; the calyx is green, apex is usually 5-toothed; 5 petals, oblong-ovate, apex, yellow-green; 5 stamens, anthers are elliptic, inflorescences are abaxially, introrse, filaments are linear-shaped; 1 pistil, ovary grows on lower position, 2 rooms, spent 2 pieces, combined at the base, flat or dimpled.

 Drupes are berrylike, nearly reniform, ca. 6~9 mm long; green when tender. Red when mature, 1~3 seeds, spherical, white seed coat. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Panax notoginseng.:Leaves Ecological Environment: The Panax notoginseng(Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow., grows under the hillside jungle. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in southwestern of Guangxi and southeastern of Yunnan, China, it is generally cultivated; also cultivated in other provinces Jiangxi, Hubei in recent years. The herb Panax notoginseng is mainly produced in counties of Yunnan provinces, counties of Guangxi province. The Wenshan county of Yunnan province has a long history of cultivation, large output, and good quality. It is commonly known as "Wensan Sanqi" and "Tianqi", is a famous authentic herb.

 Panax notoginseng.:flowering plant The growing environment: The plant Panax notoginseng(Burk.) F.H.Chen prefers a warm and shaded wet environment, fear of cold and heat, but also afraid of more water. The soil is loose red soil or brown soil, slightly acidic; the average annual temperature of 16.0~19.3 °C (Celsius, or 60.8~66.74 degrees Fahrenheit) is appropriate. If the temperature lasts for 3 to 5 days during growth and above 30 °C (Celsius, or 86 degrees Fahrenheit), the plants are susceptible to disease. This herb is sugar-containing, moisture-prone mildew, insects, but dry roots can withstand storage for up to 10 years. The growth of Panax notoginseng has extremely high demands on soil and climate. This is mainly reflected in the fact that Panax notoginseng cannot be planted continuously. The land planted on Panax notoginseng must be rested for at least 10 years before it can be planted again.

 Panax notoginseng.:flowering plant The herb is commonly known as Sanqi, also called Tianqi or Tien-chi, is the dried tuber of Panax Notoginseng. Native to East Asia, it is found in forests and shrubberies in China, Burma, and at the area with altitude up to 2,100~4,300 meters in Central Nepal and the Himalayas. The perennial plant grows to about 1.2 meters high at a slow rate. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It requires moist soil. The plant was native to China, Notoginseng is grown commercially in the southern and central regions of the country. The portion of the plant used in remedies is the root, it is dug up before the plant flowers or after the fruit has ripened. It is described warm in nature, sweet and slightly bitter, and non-toxic. The dose in decoction for clinical use is 5~10 grams. It can be ground to powder for swallowing directly or taking mixed with water: the dose, in that case, it is usually 1~3 grams, each time (a common preparation is tablets, 500 mg Sanqi powder per tablet). In the ancient book Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, 1596 A.D.) it is stated: "On account of the fact that Sanqi is a herb belonging to the Xue Fen (blood phase) of the Yangming and Jueyin meridians, it can treat all diseases of the blood." Sanqi is a herb that has been used in China quite extensively since the end of the 19th century. It has acquired a very favorable reputation for the treatment of blood disorders, including blood stasis, bleeding, and blood deficiency.

 Panax notoginseng.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows under a hillside jungle, cultivated or wild in the shade of a hillside forest. It is mainly distributed in southwest Guangxi, southeast Yunnan, generally cultivated; It is also cultivated in Jiangxi, Hubei, and other provinces in recent years. It is mainly cultivated in Yunnan and Guangxi.

 Growth characteristics: The Panax notoginseng is a shade-demanding plant of the subtropical alpine area with narrow ecological scope. It prefers a warm and slightly damp environment, avoids cold and heat.

 Sanchi:herb photo Characters of herbs: The main roots are conical, spindle-shaped, or irregular blocks, 1~6 cm long and 1~4 cm in diameter. The surface is grayish-yellow to brown-black, with wax-like luster, with root mark on the top, there is nodular protrusion around, intermittent longitudinal wrinkles, and broken root marks on the side. The herb is heavy, the texture of the herb is solid and firm, and the cortex and wood part is often separated after being smashed; The fracture surface is gray-green, yellow-green, or gray-white, with tiny brown grease spot on the cortex and slight radial texture in the center. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes bitter, slightly cool, and then sweet. The herb of better grade is heavy, the texture is firm, the surface is smooth, the fracture surface is gray-green or green.

 The strips are cylindrical or conical, 2~6 cm in length, 0.8 cm in diameter at the upper end, and 0.3 cm in diameter at the lower end.

 The shears are irregularly shrunk in blocks or strips, with several obvious stem marks and ring lines on the surface, gray-green or white at the center of the fracture surface, dark-green or gray at the edge.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.hemostasis effect; ②.anticoagulant effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate stasis, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), detumescence (reduce swelling), and analgesic (relieve pain). It is indicated for hemoptysis (cough up blood), hememesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), dysentery with bloody stool, uterine bleeding, abdominal mass, postpartum bruise, lochiostasis, traumatic bleeding, carbuncle swelling and pain, chest and abdominal pain, swelling and pain due to fall and trauma, blood stasis due to fall and trauma.

 Administration of Radix Notoginseng (Sān Qī): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Notoginseng (Sān Qī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;prepare to ground herb powder and swallow take,1~3 grams each time. Externally:proper amount; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams);prepare to finely ground herb powder,0.5~1 qian (about 1.5~3 grams). Externally:extract juice and smear apply, prepare to ground herb powder and sprinkle apply, or apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Radix Notoginseng should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or should forbidden using during pregnancy.

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