Introduction of San Qi:Sanchi or Radix Notoginseng.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Sanchi, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Sanchi, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Notoginseng(Sanchi).

Radix Notoginseng:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Sān Qī.
 English Name: Sanchi.
 Latin Name: Radix Notoginseng.
 Property and flavor: warm, sweet, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Notoginseng is the dried root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow., used to resolve stasis, stop bleeding, activate the blood, and check pain for treating various kinds of external and internal hemorrhage, blood stasis, and pain in cases of traumatic injuries, and angina pectoris. The herb is commonly known as Radix Notoginseng, Sanchi, Sān Qī.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Panax notoginseng (San Qi) as the root of the Araliaceae family plant species (1).Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow. The herb Panax notoginseng Leaf (San Qi Ye) and Panax notoginseng Flower (San Qi Hua) are the leaves or flowers of the same species. It is a plant of the Panax L. genus, the Araliaceae family (ginseng family) of the Apiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow.

 Panax notoginseng.:drawing of whole plant Botanical description: Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow is also known as Panax pseudo-ginseng Wall.var.notoginseng (Burk.) Hoo et Tseng., is a plant of the Araliaceae family (ginseng family) and Panax genus, a perennial upright herb, it grows up to 20~60 cm high, or 30~80 cm high. The taproot (main root) is stout, succulent, fusiform (spindle-shaped), turbination or cylindrical, and often has branches with verrucous protrusions. Stems are single, upright, and unbranched. Palmately compound leaves, 3~6 leaves grow in whorls (verticillate) on stem tip; petioles are 5~11.5 cm long; stipules (peraphyllums) are linear, tufty, less than 2 mm long; usually 5~17 lobules (folioles), rarely 3~9, membraneous, oblong (long circular) to obovate-oblong, 5~15 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, the pair of lobules on base are smaller, the apex is long and acuminate, the base is orbicular, mostly are asymmetric, leaf margin has fine and dense serrate, the apex of teeth has small bristles, bristles grow along leaf veins on both leaf surfaces.

 Panax notoginseng.:flowering plant Umbels are solitary, 3~4 cm long; have 80~100 flowers or more, pedicel (flower stalk) is puberulent (puberulose); peduncle is 13~30 cm long; the flowers are small, the base has scaly bracts; the calyx is 5-dentate lobed, 5 flower petals, yellowish green, oblong-ovate, the apex is pointed; 5 stamens, filaments are linear (filate); the ovary is inferior, 2-loculed; 2 styles, slightly recurved, lower part connate.

 The berry is drupes-like, nearly reniform, about 1 cm in diameter, and turns ruby-red (bright red) when it is mature. 1~3 seeds, oblate, white. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Panax notoginseng.:Leaves Ecological Environment: Panax notoginseng grows in underwood on hillsides or mountain slopes, today it is mostly cultivated on the incline at the foot of a mountain, the gradual slope on earth hummock, or in a cool canopy. This species is mainly distributed in southwestern Guangxi and southeastern Yunnan, China, it is generally cultivated; also cultivated in other provinces Jiangxi, Hubei in recent years. The herb Panax notoginseng is mainly produced in the counties of Yunnan province, counties of Guangxi province. The Wenshan county of Yunnan province has a long history of cultivation, large output, and good quality. It is commonly known as Wenshan Sanqi and Tianqi, is a famous authentic herb.

 Panax notoginseng.:flowering plant Growth characteristics: The plant Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen ex C.Chow. prefers a warm and slightly shady wet environment, fears of cold and summer heat, but is also afraid of much water, it is a shade-demanding plant of the subtropical alpine area with narrow ecological scope. The appropriate soil is loose red soil or brown soil, slightly acidic; the average annual temperature of 16.0~19.3 °C (Celsius, or 60.8~66.74 degrees Fahrenheit) is appropriate. If the temperature lasts for 3 to 5 days during growth and is above 30 °C (Celsius, or 86 degrees Fahrenheit), the plants are susceptible to disease. This herb is sugar-containing, and moisture-prone to mildew, and insects, but dry roots can withstand storage for up to 10 years. The growth of Panax notoginseng has extremely high demands on soil and climate. This is mainly reflected in the fact that Panax notoginseng cannot be planted continuously. The land planted on Panax notoginseng must be rested for at least 10 years before it can be planted again, and should avoid continuous cropping.

 Panax notoginseng.:flowering plant The herb is commonly known as Sanqi, also called Tianqi or Tien-chi, is the dried tuber of Panax Notoginseng. Native to East Asia, it is found in forests and shrubberies in China, Burma, and in the area at altitudes up to 2,100~4,300 meters in Central Nepal and the Himalayas. The perennial plant grows to about 1.2 meters high at a slow rate. The flowers are hermaphrodite. The plant can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It requires moist soil. The plant was native to China, Notoginseng is grown commercially in the southern and central regions of the country. The portion of the plant used in remedies is the root, it is dug up before the plant flowers or after the fruit is ripened. It is warm in nature, tastes sweet and slightly bitter, and is non-toxic. The dose in decoction for clinical use is 5~10 grams. It can be ground to powder for swallowing directly or taking mixed with water: the dose, in that case, is usually 1~3 grams, each time (a common preparation is tablets, 500 mg Sanqi powder per tablet). The ancient book Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, 1596 A.D.) recorded: "On account of the fact that Sanqi is a herb belonging to the Xue Fen (blood phase) of the Yangming and Jueyin meridians, it can treat all diseases of the blood." Sanqi is a herb that has been used in China quite extensively since the end of the 19th century. It has acquired a very favorable reputation for the treatment of blood disorders, including blood stasis, bleeding, and blood deficiency.

 Sanchi:herb photo Characters of herbs: The taproots (main roots) are cone-like (conical-like), fusiform (spindle-shaped), or irregular blocks, 1~6 cm long, and 1~4 cm in diameter. The surface is sallow (grayish yellow) to brownish black, and has a waxy luster, with root marks on the top, there is nodular protrusion around, intermittent longitudinal wrinkles, and broken rootlet marks on the sides. The herb is heavy, the texture of the herb is solid and firm, and the cortex and the xylem (wood part) are often separated after being broken; The cross section is celadon (grayish-green), yellowish green, or ash gray (grayish-white), with fine and tiny brown rosin specks on the cortex and slight radial texture in the center. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes bitter, slightly cool, and then sweet. The herb of better grade is heavy, the texture is firm, the surface is smooth, and the fracture surface is celadon (grayish-green) or yellowish-green.

 The strips are cylindrical or conical, 2~6 cm long, 0.8 cm in diameter at the upper end, and 0.3 cm in diameter at the lower end.

 The shears are irregularly shrunk in blocks or strips, with several obvious stem marks and ring lines on the surface, celadon (grayish-green) or white at the center of the fracture surface, and dark-green or gray at the edge.

 Panax notoginseng.:flowering plant Pharmacological actions: ①.hemostasis effect; ②.anticoagulant effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate stasis, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), detumescence (reduce swelling), and analgesic (relieve pain). It is indicated for hemoptysis (cough up blood), hememesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), dysentery with bloody stool, uterine bleeding, abdominal mass, postpartum bruise, lochiostasis, traumatic bleeding, carbuncle swelling and pain, chest and abdominal pain, swelling and pain due to fall and trauma, blood stasis due to fall and trauma.

 Administration of Radix Notoginseng (Sān Qī): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Notoginseng (Sān Qī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;prepare to ground herb powder and swallow take,1~3 grams each time. Externally:proper amount; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams);prepare to finely ground herb powder, 0.5~1 qian (about 1.5~3 grams). Externally:extract juice and smear apply, prepare to ground herb powder and sprinkle apply, or apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Radix Notoginseng should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or should forbidden using during pregnancy.

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