Introduction of Qian Cao:Rubia cordifolia root or Radix Rubiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Rubia cordifolia root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Rubia cordifolia L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Rubia cordifolia root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Rubiae(Qiàn Cǎo).

dried reddish brown herbs of Radix Rubiae are in a bundle Pin Yin Name: Qiàn Cǎo.
 English Name: Rubia cordifolia root.
 Latin Name: Radix Rubiae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Rubiae is the dried root and rhizome of Rubia cordifolia L., used to cool the blood, resolve stasis and stop bleeding for treating epistaxis, metrorrhagia, and traumatic bleeding. The herb is commonly known as Radix Rubiae, Qiàn Cǎo.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Rubiae (Qiàn Cǎo) as the dry rhizome and root of the species (1). Rubia cordifolia L. It is a plant of the Rubia Linn genus, the Rubiaceae family (madder family) of the Rubiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Rubia cordifolia L.

 plants of Rubia cordifolia L with green leaves grow in grass Botanical description: Rubia cordifolia L is a plant of the Rubiaceae family (madder family) and Rubia L. genus, also known as Rubia akane Nakai., it is commonly known as Rubia cordifolia, Common Madder, and Qian Cao. A perennial climbing herb or climbing vine, usually grows up to 1.5–3.5 meters long; Several to several dozen roots grow in a cluster, root cortex is prunus (violet-red) or salmon pink (orange-red). The stems are many, arising from the node of the rhizome, slender, quadrangular (prismatic), and 4-ribbed, with many anatropous spines on the edges and many branches above the middle part.

 flowering plant of Rubia cordifolia L with many green leaves and small spikes Leaves are usually 4 in a whorl, with long petiole, and chartaceous (papery); leaf blades vary in shape, oval (egg-shaped), triangular-ovate, broad-ovate to narrowly ovate, 2~6 cm long, 1~4 cm wide, apex is usually sharp-pointed, sometimes is obtuse, base is cordate, the upper surface is coarse, has anatropous spines along the middle vein and petiole on the under surface, entire, 5 basal veins.

 flowering plants of Rubia cordifolia L with small white flowers and green leaves Cymes are conical, axillary and apical; flowers are small, yellowish white, 5 flowers; the calyx is inconspicuous; the corolla is rotated, yellowish, light brown when dry, about 4 mm in diameter, 5-lobed, corolla lobes are ovate-triangular, or nearly ovate, about 1.5 mm long, outside is glabrous, the apex is sharp-pointed; 5 stamens, inserted on the corolla tube; ovary is inferior, 2-loculed, glabrous.

 Berries are globular (spheric shape), 4~5 mm, or 5~6 mm in diameter, red, and turn black later. Its flowering period is from June to September, and the fruiting period is from August to October.

 shrubs of Rubia cordifolia L with leaves grow in field Ecological Environment: Rubia cordifolia L grows in open forests, forest edges, thickets, roadsides, or meadows. This species is mainly distributed in most areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and moist climate; it is adaptable. It can be cultivated all over the northern and southern areas. It is appropriate to choose fertile sandy loam for cultivation.

 dried brownish herb segments of Rubia cordifolia root Characters of herbs: The root and rhizome of the herb are cylindrical or nodular, some of which are curved or slightly curved, clustered with roots of different thicknesses, and the complete old roots have root heads (root tips). The roots are 10~30 cm long, and 0.1~0.5 cm or 0.2~1 cm in diameter; The surface is reddish brown or dark brown, with fine longitudinal lines and a few fibrous root marks; The bark and xylem (wood part) are easy to separate and turn yellowish red when the cortex falls off. The texture of the herb is crisp, and easy to break, the fracture surface is flat, the cortex is narrow, reddish brown, or violet red, and the xylem (wood part) is wide, pink, or light yellow-red, with many fine pores. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter, benumbing tongue (tingling) after a long chewing.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.shorten the bleeding time of experimental animals and promote the three stages of the coagulation process; ②.inhibit platelet aggregation in rabbits; ③.mild anticoagulant effect; ④.elevating leukocytes and stimulating the uterus; ⑤.resisting experimental myocardial infarction; ⑥.resisting tumor; ⑦.inhibiting bacteria and dermatophytes, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cooling blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), invigorate blood circulation, removing blood stasis, stimulate the menstrual flow. It is indicated for hememesis (spitting blood), hemoptysis of blood heat (cough up blood due to blood heat), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria (blood in urine), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), uterine bleeding, amenorrhea (menostasis), traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea and stasis, postpartum obstruction and abdominal pain, jaundice, carbuncle and sores, hemorrhoids, arthralgia, traumatic injury, rheumatism and pain, swelling pain from fall and injury, etc.

 Administration of Radix Rubiae (Qiàn Cǎo): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Rubiae (Qiàn Cǎo)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~9 grams. To activate blood circulation, better use raw herb, to stanch bleeding, better used charred herb; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder, or infusing in wine.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Rubiae should not be prepare with ironware or copperware.




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