Introduction of Qian Cao:Rubia cordifolia root or Radix Rubiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Rubia cordifolia root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Rubia cordifolia L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Rubia cordifolia root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Rubiae(Qiàn Cǎo).

Radix Rubiae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Qiàn Cǎo.
 English Name: Rubia cordifolia root.
 Latin Name: Radix Rubiae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Rubiae is the dried root and rhizome of Rubia cordifolia L., used to cool the blood, resolve stasis and stop bleeding for treating epistaxis, metrorrhagia, and traumatic bleeding. The herb is commonly known as Radix Rubiae, Qiàn Cǎo.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Rubiae(Qiàn Cǎo) as the dry rhizome and root of the species (1). Rubia cordifolia L. It is a plant of the Rubia Linn genus, the Rubiaceae family of the Rubiales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Rubia cordifolia L.

 Rubia cordifolia L.:growing plant Botanical description: The Rubia cordifolia L., is a plant of the Rubiaceae family and Rubia L. genus, it is commonly known as "Rubia cordifolia", "Common Madder", "Qian Cao". Grass climbing vines, usually 1.5~3.5 meters long; The rhizomes and fibrous roots on their nodes are all red; Stems are numerous, arising from the node of the rhizome, slender, square, 4-ribbed, with obliquely barbed spines on the edges and many branches above the middle.

 Leaves are usually 4 whorled, papery, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 0.7~3.5 cm long, apical acuminate, sometimes obtuse, base cordate, margin dentate prickles, rough on both sides, minute prickles on veins; 3 basal veins, very few with 1 pair of small basal veins on the outside. The petiole is usually 1~2.5 cm long with inverted spines.

 Rubia cordifolia L.:flowering plant Inflorescences are axillary and terminal, often branched, with more than 10 to dozens of flowers, inflorescences and branches are thin, with tiny prickles; Corolla is yellowish, light brown when dry, corolla cornice in bloom about 3~3.5 mm in diameter, corolla lobes are nearly ovate, slightly extended, about 1.5 mm long, glabrous outside. The fruit is globose, usually 4~5 mm in diameter, orange when ripe. Its flowering period is from August to September, the fruiting period is from October to November.

 Rubia cordifolia L.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: The Rubia cordifolia L., grows in open forests, forest margins, thickets, or meadows. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in most areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers warm and humid climate, it is adaptable. It can be cultivated all over the north and south areas. Fertile sandy loam is suitable for cultivation.

 Rubia cordifolia, perennial climbing herbaceous. Roots a few to 10, purple or orange-red skin. Stem four-vector shape, small inverted thorns surfaced. The leaf has 4 crossings, leaf shape changes, oval, triangle-shaped oval, wide oval to narrow oval, 2~6 cm long, 1~4 cm wide, a sharp tip, heart-shaped, below and along the veins are spinibarbus petiole, the entire edge of a pulse 5. Poly cone-shaped umbrella inflorescence; spent small, yellow-white, 5; calyx not obvious; Corolla convergence with a diameter of about 4 mm, 5 Bifida; 5 stamens, the corolla tube; ovary-under, two rooms, no hair. Berries are spherical, 5~6 mm in diameter, red then turn to black. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting from August to October.

 Rubia cordifolia L.:growing plant This species widely distributes, the external morphology more variations, in the past scholars often distinguish species or some variant. Because we do not fully grasp it with our neighboring regions similar to some kinds of materials and are difficult to make a correct judgment and therefore still suspense from the majority of our plants and pharmaceutical literature, it will be handled as a generalized species.

 Rubia cordifolia root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The root and rhizome of the herb are cylindrical or nodular, some of which are curved or slightly curved, clustered with roots of different thicknesses, and the complete old roots have root heads. The root length is 10~30 cm, and the diameter is 0.1~0.5 cm or 0.2~1 cm; The surface is reddish-brown or dark brown, with fine longitudinal lines and a few fibrous root marks; The bark and wood parts are easy to separate, and the bark part is yellow-red after falling off. The texture of the herb is brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is flat, the cortex is narrow, reddish-brown or purplish-red, the wood part is wide, pink or light yellow-red, with many pores or duct holes. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter, pricking tongue(tingling) after long chewing.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.shorten the bleeding time of experimental animals and promote the three stages of the coagulation process; ②.inhibit platelet aggregation in rabbits; ③.mild anticoagulant effect; ④.elevating leukocytes and stimulating the uterus; ⑤.resisting experimental myocardial infarction; ⑥.resisting tumor; ⑦.inhibiting bacteria and dermatophytes, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cooling blood, hemostasis(stanch bleeding), invigorate blood circulation, removing blood stasis, stimulate the menstrual flow. It is indicated for hememesis(spitting blood), hemoptysis of blood heat(cough up blood due to blood heat), epistaxis(nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria(blood in urine), hemafecia(pass blood in stool), uterine bleeding, amenorrhea(menostasis), traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea and stasis, postpartum obstruction and abdominal pain, jaundice, carbuncle and sores, hemorrhoids, arthralgia, traumatic injury, rheumatism and pain, swelling pain from fall and injury, etc.

 Administration of Radix Rubiae(Qiàn Cǎo): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Rubiae(Qiàn Cǎo)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,3~9 grams. To activate blood circulation, better use raw herb, to stanch bleeding, better used charred herb; ③.Internally:water decoction,10~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder, or infusing in wine.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Radix Rubiae should not be prepare with ironware or copperware.

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