Introduction of Xie Bai:Longstamen Onion or Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni.
✵The article gives records of the herb Longstamen Onion, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its officially defined botanical source two plant species, ①.Allium macrostemon Bge., ②.Allium chinensis G. Don., and other usable two plant species, ③.Allium meriniflorum(Herb.) Baker., ④.Allium caeruleum Pall., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Longstamen Onion, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni(Longstamen Onion).
Pin Yin Name: Xiè Bái.
English Name: Longstamen Onion.
Latin Name: Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni is the dried bulb of Allium macrostemon Bge.(family Liliaceae), used to unblock and regulate Yang-Qi and remove stagnation in the treatment of angina pectoris with stuffiness sensation in the chest, and also for treating tenesmus in cases of dysentery. The herb is also known as Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni, Longstamen Onion, Longstamen Onion Bulb, Xiè Bái.
Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni(Longstamen Onion) as the dried bulb of the species (1). Allium macrostemon Bge., or (2). Allium chinensis G. Don. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni(Longstamen Onion) as the dried bulb of the species (1). Allium macrostemon Bge., or (2). Allium chinensis G. Don., or (3). Allium meriniflorum(Herb.) Baker., or (4). Allium caeruleum Pall. They are plants of the Alliaceae genus, the Liliaceae family of the Liliflorae order. These commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Allium macrostemon Bge.
Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Xiǎo Gēn Suàn(literally it means "garlic with small roots"). The perennial herb grows up to 30~60 cm tall. Bulbs subglobose, 0.7~1.5 cm in diameter, with 1~3 small bulbs attached to the side, white membranous scales on the outside, later turns black. Leaves are alternate; Leaves color pale green, semi-terete narrowly linear, hollow, 20~40 cm long, 2~4 mm wide, apex acuminate, base sheath clasped. The flower stem is simple, erect, 30~70 cm tall, inflorescences are terminal, globose, submembranous bracts, ovate, apex long; Pedicels 1~2 cm long, some inflorescence only a few florets, and with many succulent bead buds, even completely changed the size of plant bud; 6 tepals, pink or rose; 6 stamens, longer than perianth, filaments slender, lower part slightly enlarged; Ovary superior, globose. The capsule is obovate, apex concave. Its flowering period is from May to June, the fruiting period is from August to September.
Bulb terete, with stout root bulb coat white, membranous, undivided, or rarely ruptured into fibers. Leaves are striate, flattened, with distinct midrib, nearly as long as a scape, 4~10 mm wide. The scape is prismatic, with 2~3 longitudinal ribs or narrow wings, 20~50~60 cm high, middle thick 1.5~2~3.5 mm, lower leaf-sheathing involucre 2~3-lobed, caducous inflorescences sparsely flowered, loosely, pedicels nearly equal, 2~5 times longer than perianth, apex often pendulous, base without bracteoles. The flower is bell shape, red-purple, and purple flowers grow 8~12 mm, concave, apex truncation or wide ocean shipping oblong, navicular, inside round oval oblong, slightly longer than ocean shipping and narrow filaments isometric, slightly longer than or longer than perianth segment, such as cone, at the base connate with tepals stick raw ovary ovoid spherical, apex sometimes have six angle protrusion styles out of flowers. Its fruiting period is from August to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in cultivated land weeds and dry places in the mountains. It prefers a cool climate. It was dormant in the high-temperature period in summer. In spring and autumn, the plant is vigorous. It grows in the field, hillside, dry grassland, forest edge, wasteland, valley, grass below the altitude of 1,500 meters above sea level, often grow into pieces, forming a dominant group. The plant distributes in northwest, southwest, north, the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: The plant Allium macrostemon Bge prefers a warm and humid climate. It is advisable to cultivate in loam or sandy loam with loose and fertile, rich humus and good drainage.
Characters of herbs: The bulb is irregularly oval, 0.5~2.0 cm long, and 0.7~1.8 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-white or yellowish-brown, wrinkled, translucent, with grooves and wrinkles, or covered with white membranous scales, with residual stem marks at the top and protruding bulb disc at the base. The texture of the herb is hard, keratose, not easily broken, the fracture surface is yellow and white. The herb has a slight garlic odor, it tastes slightly spicy. The herb of better grade is big, full, the texture of the herb is firm, yellow and white, translucent.
Pharmacological actions: ①.promote fibrin to dissolve; ②.lower blood lipids and serum peroxidation lipids; ③.inhibit platelet aggregation and release; ④.inhibit arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation; ⑤.inhibitory effect on Shigella dysenteriae, staphylococcus aureus, and pneumococcus.
Medicinal efficacy: Activating Yang and eliminating stagnation, regulates Qi, relieving stuffiness of the chest, promoting the circulation of qi stagnation, and removing food stagnation. It is indicated for obstruction of Qi in the chest and pain, obstruction of Qi in the chest and chest pain radiating to the back, stuffiness and chest congestion, chest congestion and uncomfortable, epigastric pain, cough and asthma with much sputum, phlegm and fluid retention with cough and asthma, retching, severe diarrhea, leukorrhoea, sore and furuncle and carbuncle swelling.
Administration of Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni(Xiè Bái):
Administration Guide of Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni(Xiè Bái)
①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), fresh herb 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: mashed the herb and apply stick, or extract juice and smear; ③.Internally: water decoction,5~10 grams, fresh herb 30~60 grams, or prepared to pill, powder, or cook porridge. Externally: proper amount, mashed and apply stick, or extract juice and smear.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni should not combine with leek.
(2).Allium chinensis G. Don.
Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Xiè. It is similar to the previous one. The main differences are: many bulbs agglutinate, narrowly ovate, 1~1.5 cm in diameter; Bulb coat white or reddish, membranous, not ruptured. Leaves basal, 2~5; Terete with 3~5 rows, hollow, nearly as long as scape. Scape lateral, terete, 20~40 cm tall, involucre membranous, 2-lobed persistent, inflorescences semispherical, loosely, pedicels 2~4 times as long as perianth, bracteate; Flowers mauve to blue-violet, 6 tepals, 4~6 mm long, broadly elliptic to subcircular, obtuse; Filaments 2 times as long as perianth, only basal part united and adnate to perianth, the base of inner wheel enlarged, 1 tooth on each side, outer wheel toothless. Ovary broadly obovate, base with 3 covered recesses; Style extends perianth. Its flowering and fruiting period is from October to November.
Bulbs several united, narrowly ovate, thick 0.5~2 cm; Bulb coat white or reddish, membranous, not ruptured. 2~5 leaves, terete with 3-5 rows, hollow, nearly as long as a scape, 1~3 mm thick.
Scape is lateral, terete, 20~40 cm tall, lower part is covered by leaf sheath; Involucre 2-lobed, shorter than umbel; Inflorescences are subhemispherical, looser; Pedicel subequal, 1~4 times longer than tepals, base with bracteoles; Flowers are lavender to dark purple; Tepals are broadly elliptic to subcircular, apex obtuse, 4~6 mm long, 3~4 mm wide, slightly longer of the inner wheel; Filaments are equal in length, about 1.5 times the length of the perianth, only base connate and adnate with the perianth, the base of the inner wheel is enlarged, enlarged part with 1 tooth on each side, outer wheel is toothless, conical; Ovary obovate-ovoid, a recessed honey hole with curtain at base of the abdominal suture; Styles protrude from perianth. Its fruiting period is from October to November.
Ecological environment: Allium chinensis G. Don. has strong adaptability and can be grown in soil with a pH value of 6.0~8.0. This kind can adapt to weak light, good drainage, fertile soil loam or sandy soil is appropriate. Allium chinense growth is stagnant in the cold winter. The next April it began to grow again. The plant develops well in a cold climate, and the leaves grow in a cold climate. The growth temperature of the plant is 15~21 ℃, but it still grows slowly at 5~10 ℃. The bulb expansion is at 20 ℃, and the plant dormancy when the temperature is higher than 30 ℃. It is native to China and is widely cultivated and grows wild in the Yangtze river basin and the southern provinces and regions. It also grows in Cambodia, Laos, and the United States of America.
Characters of herbs: The bulb is a slightly flat oval, with a height of 1~3 cm and a diameter of 0.3~1.2 cm. The surface is yellowish-brown or chocolate-brown, with shallow longitudinal wrinkles. The texture of the herb is soft, with 2 ~ 3 layers of scales on the fracture surface. The herb is sticky to the teeth when it is chewed. The herb of better grade is big, full, the texture of the herb is firm, yellow and white, translucent.
Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Cháng Gěng Xiè Bái(literally it means "long stem allium herb"). The plant does not smell of onion and garlic. Bulbs are solitary, ovoid or subglobose, 1~2 cm in diameter; Bulb coat is grayish-black, membranous, not ruptured, endothelium white. Leaves terete or sub-semi-circular, hollow, longitudinally ribbed, finely striate along longitudinally ribbed, as long as or longer than scape, 1~3 mm wide. Umbellate inflorescence evacuated; Pedicel unequal, 7~11 cm long, base with bracteoles; Flowers are red to purplish-red; Perianth segments basal to each other synthetic tubular, perianth segments 7~10 mm long, ovary 6 ovules per compartment. Its flowering period is from July to September.
Ecological environment: The plant grows on slopes, grasslands, or sandy beaches below an elevation of 2,000 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the north area of China.
Characters of herbs: The bulb is an ovoid with a diameter of 1~2 cm. The herb of better grade is big, full, the texture of the herb is firm, yellow and white, translucent.
(4).Allium caeruleum Pall.
Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Tiān Lán Xiǎo Gēn Suàn(literally it means "sky blue garlic with small roots"), or Léng Yè Jiǔ(literally it means "leek with prism leaves"). Bulbs subglobose, 1~2 cm in diameter, base often with small purple outer bulb. Bulb coat is dark gray, papery, not ruptured, endothelium white, membranous. 3~5 leaves, striate, abaxially 1 longitudinal, sometimes 3-ribbed, often twisted when dry, shorter than scape, 2~5 mm wide, gradually dying at flowering; Leaf blade and leaf sheath smooth or finely coarsely dentate along longitudinal veins. The scapes are 25~85 cm high; Inflorescence globose or hemispherical, with many and densely flowered, sometimes beaded; Pedicel subequal, 2~6 times longer than perianth. Flowers are sky blue, when the flower is dried it often turns bluish purple. Its flowering and fruiting period is from June to August.
Ecological environment: The plant grows on drier slopes or grasslands with altitude between 1,100 and 2,300 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in North of Tianshan mountain, Xinjiang of China.
Characters of herbs: The bulb is nearly spherical, with a diameter of 1~2 cm. The herb of better grade is big, full, the texture of the herb is firm, yellow and white, translucent.
Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.
Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.
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1.Introduction of Xie Bai:Longstamen Onion or Bulbus Allii Macrostemoni.