Introduction of Chen Pi:Dried Tangerine Peel or Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Dried Tangerine Peel, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Citrus reticulata Blanco., ②.Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Dried Tangerine Peel, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Pin Yin Name: Chén Pí.
English Name: Dried Tangerine Peel.
Latin Name: Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae is the dried ripe pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties (family Rutaceae), used to regulate Qi, invigorate the spleen, dry dampness, and resolve phlegm in the treatment of Qi stagnation in the spleen and stomach, and cough with profuse phlegm. The herb is commonly known as Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Dried Tangerine Peel, Chén Pí.
Botanical source: The herb Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Dried Tangerine Peel) is the dried ripe pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family) of the Sapindales order. The species Citrus sinensis(L.) Osbeck. is the cultivated varieties. These two commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Citrus reticulata Blanco.
Botanical description: Citrus reticulata Blanco is a tree of the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family) and Citrus genus, it is commonly known as the Orange tree, or Jú, and its cultivated species. An evergreen small tree or shrub, grows up to about 3~4 meters. Branches are thin, most have thorns. Leaves are alternate; petioles are 0.5~1.5 cm long, have narrow wings, there are apical nodes; leaf blades are lanceolate or elliptic, 4~11 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, the apex is acuminate and emarginate (slightly concave), the base is cuneate, entire or undulated, has inconspicuous crenature, has translucent oil spots.
Flowers are solitary or 2~3 flowers cluster on branch tip or leaf axil; the calyx is cyathiform (cotyloid), 5-lobed; 5 flower petals, white or faint red (rose color), reflexed upward in flowering, petals are usually less than 1.5 cm long, 15~30 stamens, different lengths, 3~5 filaments often connate in a group; 1 pistil, ovary is circular (rounded), slender style, stigma is capitate.
Fruit shape is usually orbicular or oblate spheroid to nearly spherical, 4~7 cm in transverse diameter, the pericarp is thin and wide, easily peelable, 7~12 fruit segments, and the juicy sac is soft and succose. Seeds are ovoid, and white, one tip is pointed, several grains to tens of grains, or absent. Its flowering period is from March to April, the fruiting period is from October to December.
Ecological environment: The small tree grows in hilly areas, and lower mountain regions, banks of rivers and lakes, or is cultivated. The small tree is distributed and cultivated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest areas, Hainan, Taiwan, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: The small tree Citrus reticulata Blanco prefers a high temperature and higher humidity subtropical climate, is not tolerant to cold, slightly tolerant to shade, effective temperature for seedling is 12.5 °C (Celsius, or 54.5 degrees Fahrenheit), preferential temperature for growth is 23~27 °C (Celsius, or 73.4~80.6 degrees Fahrenheit), growth stops when temperature increase to 37 °C (Celsius, or 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit), freezing damage occurs when the temperature is below -5 °C (Celsius, or 23 degrees Fahrenheit). The mean annual temperature in producing area is over 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit), yearly precipitation mostly is between 1,000~2,000 mm, soil moisture content should keep its maximum water holding capacity 60%~80%, relative humidity (RH) 75% is appropriate. Its necessary illumination intensity for normal growth is 8,500~12,000 lx and could be 35,000 lx in summer. It is appropriate to choose a sunny field, high in altitude and dry, deep soil layers, neutral to slightly acidic sandy loam with good ventilation properties for cultivation.
Characters of herbs: Dried Tangerine Peel: It is the peel of tangerine, Zhu tangerine, citrus reticulata, etc. It is often peeled into several segments, connected at the base, and some of them are irregular flakes, 1~4 mm thick. The out surface is salmon color (orange red) or reddish brown, and has fine wrinkles and concave punctate oil spots; The inner surface is light yellowish-white, coarse and rough, with yellowish-white or yellowish-brown fascicular vascular bundles. The texture of the herb is slightly hard and crisp. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, it tastes pungent and bitter.
Guang tangerine peel: It is the peel of Citrus chachiensis Hort, Sihui orange, etc. Three segments are often connected, with regular shape and uniform thickness, about 1 mm thick. The outer surface is orange-yellow to brown, and the oil spots are large, transparent, and clear to the light. The texture of the herb is soft.
The herb of better grade has big flakes and a strong aromatic fragrance.
Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on rabbit, mouse, and dog intestines and isolated uterus in vitro; ②.enhance the contractility of the heart; ③.dilating trachea and expectorant; ④.anti-ulcer effect; ⑤.choleretic effect; ⑥.hesperidin has the same effect as vitamin P; ⑦.reduce serum cholesterol and relieve atherosclerosis of the aorta; ⑧.antibacterial, antiviral, anti-oxidation, and anti-mutation effect.
Medicinal efficacy: Regulating Qi-flowing for strengthening the spleen, regulating Qi-flowing to calm the adverse-rising energy, regulate the middle energizer and stimulate one's appetite, removing dampness to reduce phlegm. It is indicated for chest distention fullness, full and tightness in the chest and diaphragm, poor appetite with vomiting and diarrhea, no appetite, retention of dampness due to stagnation of Qi in the spleen and stomach, vomiting, difficulty in urination and defecation, obstruction and block of lung Qi, cough with much phlegm. It is also indicated for the onset of acute mastitis.
Administration of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chén Pí):
Administration Guide of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chén Pí)
Botanical description: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck is a plant of the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family) and Citrus genus, it is commonly known as Fragrant Citrus, or Tián Chéng. An evergreen small tree, it grows up to 3~8 meters high. The tree crown is round, many-branched, glabrous, spinose or anacanthous (stingless), and the young branches (twigs) have edges and corners. Leaves are alternate, unifoliate compound leaf; petioles are 0.6~2 cm long, leaf wings are narrow, 2~3 mm wide, top end has nodes; leaf blade is thicker, elliptic or oval (egg-shaped), 6~12 cm long, 2.3~5.5 cm wide, apex is mucronate or acuminate, emarginate, base is broadly cuneate or rounded, undulated and entire, or has inconspicuous undulated serrate, translucent oily glandular points.
One flower to several flowers grow and cluster in leaf axils, white, petiolate; calyx is 3~5-lobed, lobes are triangular; 5 flower petals, ligulate (liguliform), about 1.5 cm long, about 7 mm wide, revolute (reflexed outward); 19~28 stamens, filaments connate at lower part and connect to 5~12 bundles, 1 pistil, ovary is subsphaeroidal, 10~13 cells, stigma is capitate, styles are thin, nondeciduous (not fall off).
Citrus fruits are oblate or subsphaeroidal (subglobular), 6~9 cm in diameter, orange yellow or salmon color (orange red), the pericarp is thick, not easy to peel off, 8~13 pulp segments, fruit juice is yellow, sweet taste. The seed is cuneate ovate, the surface is smooth. Its flowering period is in April, and fructescence (fruit ripening period) is from November to December.
Ecological environment: The small tree grows in hills, lower mountain regions, banks of rivers and lakes, or is cultivated. The small tree is distributed and cultivated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest, and southeast areas, Taiwan, and other areas of China.
Collection: The fruit is collected when it is mature, mainly from November to December, used freshly or dried in the sun.
Brief Introduction: The Herb Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride is the dried green unripe exocarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties (family Rutaceae), used to regulate Qi, soothe the liver, and remove stagnation for the treatment of liver Qi stagnation and food retention.
The herb Green Tangerine Peel is the dried green unripe exocarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family) of the Sapindales order. And the plants are introduced in the section titled "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)".
Pharmacological actions: The water decoction of the herb Green Tangerine Peel can inhibit the smooth muscle of the intestine and gallbladder, and has a choleretic effect. The water decocting and alcohol deposition saps of Green Tangerine Peel have a significant effect of increasing blood pressure and could excite the respiratory center. The injection of the green tangerine peel has an obvious positive effect on myocardial excitability, contractility, conductivity, and automatism. The volatile oil of green tangerine peel has a mild stimulating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, and can promote the secretion of digestive juice and eliminate intestinal gas accumulation. The limonene in the volatile oil has an expectorant and antiasthmatic effect. Besides, the herb also has certain protective and therapeutic effects on experimental shock caused by blood loss, trauma, blood transfusion, and other different reasons.
Medicinal efficacy: Soothing the liver and relieving stagnant Qi, promote digestion and remove stagnated food, resolving stasis, and eliminate phlegm. It is indicated for fullness and pain in the chest and hypochondrium, distending pain in the hypochondrium due to liver stagnation and Qi stagnation, epigastric pain due to food retention and Qi stagnation, abdominal pain due to food retention, hernia, hernia and pain, food retention, breast distending pain, mammary swelling, mammillary nucleus, acute mastitis, abdominal mass and accumulation due to Qi stagnation and blood stasis, chronic malaria and mass.
Administration of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride (Qīng Pí):
Administration Guide of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride (Qīng Pí)
①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), or prepared to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~10 grams, or prepare to pill,powder.
Semen Citri Reticulatae(Tangerine Seed).
Brief Introduction: The Herb Semen Citri Reticulatae is the dried ripe seed of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties (family Rutaceae), used to regulate Qi, dissipate nodulation, and alleviate pain for the treatment of hernial pain, nodules in the breast, and swelling and pain of the testis.
The herb Tangerine Seed is the dried ripe seed of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family (family Rutaceae) of the Sapindales order. And the plants are introduced in the section titled "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)".
Exocarpium Citri Rubrum(Red Tangerine Peel).
Brief Introduction: The Herb Exocarpium Citri Rubrum is the dried exocarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties (family Rutaceae), used in the same way as dried tangerine peel, with stronger action.
The herb Red Tangerine Peel is the dried exocarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family (family Rutaceae) of the Sapindales order. And the plants are introduced in the section titled "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Dried Tangerine Peel)".
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1.Introduction of Chen Pi:Dried Tangerine Peel or Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae.