Introduction of Zhi Shi:Immature Orange Fruit or Fructus Aurantii Immaturus.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Immature Orange Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its officially defined botanical source two plant species, ①.Citrus aurantium L., ②.Citrus sinensis Osbeck., and other two usable plant species, ③.Poncirus trifoliata, ④.Citrus medica Linn. with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Immature Orange Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Immature Orange Fruit).

Fructus Aurantii Immaturus:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zhǐ Shí.
 English Name: Immature Orange Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Aurantii Immaturus.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, sour, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Aurantii Immaturus is the dried small immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. and its cultivated varieties or Citrus sinensis Osbeck with a diameter under 2.5 cm(family Rutaceae), used for treating dyspepsia, constipation, and abdominal distension due to food stagnation, and served in large doses for treating visceroptosis. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Immature Orange Fruit, Zhǐ Shí.

 Botanical source: The herb Immature Orange Fruit is the dried small immature fruit of (1). Citrus aurantium L. and its cultivated varieties or (2). Citrus sinensis Osbeck with a diameter under 2.5 cm, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family of the Sapindales order. Actually, the small immature fruit of other species is also in use:(3). Poncirus trifoliata, and (4). Citrus medica Linn. The 2nd species is introduced in the above section titled "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)". The other 3 species are introduced as:

(1).Citrus aurantium L.


 Citrus aurantium L.:fruiting tree Botanical description: The Citrus aurantium L. is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Citrus L. genus, it is commonly known as "Citrus aurantium L", "Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange", or "Suan Cheng", or "Suan Cheng Zhi Shi". Small trees, dense branches, and leaves, thorns, long branches of thorns grow up to 8 cm. Leaves are dark green, rather thick, obovate, base narrowly pointed, 1~3 cm long, 0.6~1.5 cm wide, or few winged leaves of individual species.

 Racemes with few flowers, sometimes accompanied by axillary solitary flowers, with an unisexual tendency, namely stamen development, pistil degeneration; Flower buds are elliptic or suborbicular; Calyx is 5 or 4 lobed, sometimes thickened after anthesis, glabrous or individual species covered; Flower size is different, flower diameter is 2~3.5 cm; 20~25 stamens, usually with multiple strands at the base.

 Citrus aurantium L.:fruiting tree The fruit is round or oblate, slightly thick to very thick, hard to peel, orange-yellow to vermilion, uneven size, uneven, solid or half full, gourd 10~13, the fruit is sour, sometimes bitter or both specific smell; Seeds are numerous and large, often ribbed, the cotyledon is milky white, single or multiple embryones. Flowering period: April to May; fruiting period: September to December.

 Ecological environment: The Citrus aurantium L., grows and is cultivated along hills, low mountains and rivers and lakes. It was native to tropical Asia, this tree now grows throughout the tropics and subtropics. Orchards of bitter orange are found along the Mediterranean coast.

 Herb Character identification: the lime weight fruit was semispherical, spherical or ovoid, with a diameter of 0.5~2.5 cm. The outer surface is dark green or dark brown-green, with granular protuberances and wrinkles. There were distinct stylopodium impressions on the top, disk residues, or fruiting pedicle scars on the base. The cut surface is smooth and slightly convex, gray-white, 3~7 mm thick, with 1-2 row sag oil spots scattered around the edges, 7~12 flaps of flesh capsule, and a tan bursa in the center, showing a wheel-pattern. Qualitative hard. Smells fresh and aromatic, taste bitter, and slightly sour.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Citrus aurantium prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to shade. The annual average temperature is required to be above 15 ℃, the effective temperature for germination is above 10 ℃, the suitable temperature for growth is 20~25 ℃, and it can grow safely above -5 ℃, the lowest temperature is -9℃, and the highest temperature is 40 ℃. Yearly precipitation 1000~2000 mm, relative humidity is 75%. It is advisable to select the slightly acid alluvial soil or acid yellow and red soil with sufficient sunshine, deep soil layer, loose and fertile, rich in humus, and good drainage for cultivation.

 Immature Orange Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is hemispherical, a few of which are spherical, with a diameter of 0.5~2.5 cm. The exocarp is dark green or brown, with granular protrusions and wrinkles, and obvious style remnants or fruit stalk marks. The mesocarp on the surface of the cross-section is slightly raised, 0.3~1.2 cm thick, yellow-white or yellow-brown, with 1~2 rows of oil chambers on the edge, the pulp is brown. The texture of the herb is hard. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, it tastes bitter and slightly sour.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-ulcer; ②.analgesia; ③.sedative; ④.anti-allergy; ⑤.anti-shock; ⑥.anti-thrombosis.

 Medicinal efficacy: Relieving stagnant Qi, resolving stasis and mass, reduce phlegm, removing food retention or Qi stagnation. It is indicated for indigestion and internal stagnation, distention and fullness swelling pain, chest and abdominal distension, thoracic obstruction, pain of mass, diarrhea and dysentery after tneesmus, constipation, thoracic obstruction due to phlegm stagnation and qi obstruction, phlegmatic mass, accumulation of pathogens in chest, edema, dyspepsia(indigestion), gastroptosis(stomach sagging), rectocele, uterine prolapse, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Zhǐ Shí): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Zhǐ Shí)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;②.Internally:water decoction,1~2 qian(about 3~6 grams),or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder and smear apply,or fried hot and iron;③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams,prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder and smear apply,or fried hot and iron.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Fructus Aurantii Immaturus should be used cautiously during pregnancy.

(3).Poncirus trifoliata.


 Poncirus trifoliata.:growing trees Botanical description: The Poncirus trifoliata., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Citrus L. genus, it is commonly known as "Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf", "Zhi Ke", "Gou Ju, Chou Ju". Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Stems are glabrous; Branches are numerous, and the branchlets are flattened. Stem branches with large axillary thorns, 1~5 cm long, with a flattened base. Leaves are alternate, three compound leaves; Petiole length is 1~3 cm, width 2~5 mm; Terminal lobule is obovate or elliptic, 1.5~6 cm long, 0.7~3 cm wide, apex slightly concave or rounded, base cuneate, margin not clearly serrate. Lateral lobules are small, elliptic-ovate, base slightly oblique, pubescent on main veins, with translucent oil gland dots when young.

 Poncirus trifoliata.:tree with green fruits Flowers are white, with short stalks, solitary or in pairs biennial branches axils, often flowering before leaves grow out, aromatic; 5 sepals, ovate-triangular, 5~6 mm long; 5 petals, obovate-spatulate, 1.5~3 cm long and 0.5~1.5 cm wide; 8~20 stamens or more, of varying length; 1 pistil, ovary subglobose, densely pubescent, 6-8 locules, each with several ovules, style is stout short, stigma capitate.

  Citrus globose, 2~5 cm in diameter, orange when ripe, densely pubescent, with many oil glands, aromatic, short stalks, persistent on branches. The seeds are many. Its flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is from July to October.

 Poncirus trifoliata.:tree with ripe fruits Ecological environment: The Poncirus trifoliata., grows and cultivated along the road and in gardens, as grass hedgerows. It prefers bright light, like a warm and humid climate, bear 20~28 Deg C low temperature, can flourish. They prefer slightly acidic soil and are not resistant to alkali. The growth rate is moderate. Strong branching, resistant to pruning. The main root is shallow, many fibrous roots.

 Characters of herbs: The fruit is hemispherical with a diameter of 3~5.5 cm. The skin is green-brown or brown, slightly coarse and rough, scattered with many small oil spots, and there is an obvious mark on the base of the style or round stalk in the center. The mesocarp on the cross-section surface is 0.6~1.2 cm thick, yellow and white, smooth, slightly turned out, with vascular bundles scattered, and there are l~2 rows of brown-yellow oil spots on the edge. The texture of the herb is hard, not easy to break, with 7~12 valves, a few to 15 valves, juice cells dried in the capsule, brown or dark brown, the texture is soft, there are seeds inside. The central axis is firm, 5~9 mm wide, yellow and white, with a circle of intermittent circular vascular bundle points. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, it tastes bitter and slightly sour. The herb of better grade has a green-brown peel, thick pulp, hard texture, and a strong aroma.

(4).Citrus medica Linn.


 Citrus medica L.:fruiting tree Botanical description: The Citrus medica L., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Citrus L. genus, it is commonly known as "Citron Fruit", "Xiang Yuan, Gou Yuan". Evergreen trees, grow up to 9~11 meters tall. The whole plant is glabrous, with short spines. Leaves are alternate; Petiole with obcordate broad wing, about 1/3-l/4 long leaf; Leaf blade is leathery, elliptic or oblong, 5~12 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, the apex is short and obtuse or acuminate, slightly concave, base obtuse, entire or undulate serrate, both surfaces are glabrous, with translucent oil gland dots.

 Citrus medica L.:fruiting tree Flowers are solitary or clustered, also having racemes, white flowers; 25~36 stamens; Ovary 10~11. Citrus are oblong, round or oblong, transverse diameter 5~9 cm, apex papillae, often rough and wrinkled or smooth, ripe orange is yellow, aromatic; The seeds are many. Flowering period: from April to May, fruit maturity: from October to November.

 Citrus medica L.:fruiting tree Characters of herbs: Gou Yuan: a round or oblong piece with a diameter of 3~10 cm and a thickness of about 2~5 mm. The edge of the cross-section is slightly wavy, the exocarp is yellow-green or light orange-yellow, with concave oil spots scattered. The mesocarp is 1.5~3.5 cm thick, yellow and white, coarse and rough, with irregular reticular processes(vascular bundles). The capsule has 11-16 valves, and sometimes brown-red shriveled juice cells remain. 1~2 seeds. The central axis is obvious, as wide as 1.2 cm. The texture of the herb is pliable and tough. The herb has a fragrant odor, it tastes slightly sweet and bitter. The herb of better grade has yellow and white slices and strong fragrance.

 Xiang Yuan: Spherical or round flake, 4~7 cm in diameter. The surface is gray-green or yellowish-brown, coarse and rough, densely covered with small sunken oil spots, with style remnants and circular ring patterns at the top, which is commonly called "golden calf ring" and fruit stalk marks at the base. The texture of the herb is hard, with obvious oil spots on the edge of the cross-section, the mesocarp is about 0.5 cm thick, the capsule has 9~12 valves, brown or light brown, with yellow and white seeds. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, it tastes sour and bitter. The herb of better grade is big, thick-skinned, dark green, and fragrant.

 According to ancient herbal classics, the fruit of the Citrus medica L was used as the botanical origin of the herb Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Zhǐ Shí) in the ancient epoch Tang and Song dynasties, but until the Ming dynasty, it was classified as an adulterant.
 
Fructus Aurantii(Orange Fruit).

 Fructus Aurantii:herb photo Brief Introduction: The Herb Fructus Aurantii is the dried immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. and its cultivated varieties with a diameter between 3~5 cm(family Rutaceae), used in the same way as immature orange fruit, with a milder effect. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Aurantii, Orange Fruit, Bitter Orange, Zhǐ Ké.

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Aurantii(Orange Fruit) as the dried immature fruit of the species (1).Citrus aurantium L. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Aurantii(Orange Fruit) as the dried immature fruit of the species (2).Citrus sinensis (L.)Osbeck. They are plants of the Citrus L. genus, the Rutaceae family of the Sapindales order. These 2 commonly used species were introduced in the above entries "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)" and "Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Immature Orange Fruit)".
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Fructus Aurantii should be used cautiously during pregnancy.
 
Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.

 Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.
 
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  • 1.Introduction of Zhi Shi:Immature Orange Fruit or Fructus Aurantii Immaturus.

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