Introduction of Ling Zhi:Lucid Ganoderma or Ganoderma Lucidium.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Lucid Ganoderma, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source two fungus species, ①.Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst., ②.Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang., and another commonly used fungus species, ③. Ganoderma tsugae Murr., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three fungus species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three fungus species, the features of the herb Lucid Ganoderma, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Ganoderma Lucidium(Lucid Ganoderma).

Ganoderma Lucidium:photo of herb slices Pin Yin Name: Línɡ Zhī.
 English Name: Lucid Ganoderma, or Fairy Grass.
 Latin Name: Ganoderma Lucidium.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, mild or tasteless,or warm, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Ganoderma Lucidium is the dried fructifications of the fungus, Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst., used (1).as a tranquilizer for treating dizziness and insomnia, and (2).as a tonic for treating weakness or debility. The herb is commonly known as Ganoderma Lucidium, Lucid Ganoderma, Ganoderma, Fairy Grass, Línɡ Zhī.

 Ganoderma Lucidium:growing mushroom Botanical source: The Lingzhi mushroom or Reishi mushroom defined today is a species complex that encompasses several fungal species of the genus Ganoderma and other genera, most commonly the closely related species special veneration in China, where it has been used as a medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known to have been used medicinally. In China, today, the mushrooms which could be classified as the Lingzhi mushroom are commonly known covered 4 genera, they are genus (1). Ganoderma Karst, (2). Amauroderma, (3). Haddowia, and (4). Humphreya.

 Ganoderma Lucidium:herb with spore powder The herbal values of the Ganoderma fungus are recorded in herbal classics, and there are three species among the Ganoderma genus that are suggested by official herbal classics with values for the therapeutical purpose, they are known as the species: (1). Ganoderma lucidum, it is also known as LingZhi (Línɡ Zhī) or Chi Zhi (Chì Zhī), literally, Chì Zhī means "Red Lingzhi Mushroom", (2). Ganoderma sinense, it is also known as Zǐ Zhī, literally Zǐ Zhī means "Purple Lingzhi Mushroom", and (3). Ganoderma tsugae, it is also known as Sōng Zhī, literally Sōng Zhī means "Pine Tree Lingzhi Mushroom".

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Ganoderma Lucidum (Ling Zhi) as the sporocarp (fruiting body) of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family fungus species (1). Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst., or (2). Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang.. They are fungus of the Ganoderma Karst.genus, the Polyporaceae family of the Polyporales order. These 3 commonly used species including (3). Ganoderma tsugae, are introduced:

(1).Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst.


 Ganoderma lucidum Leyss.ex Fr. Karst.:growing mushroom Pin Yin Name: Chì Zhī, or Chì Líng Zhī.
 English Name: Red Ganoderma.
 Latin Name: Ganoderma lucidum.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes bitter.
 Botanical description: Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst is a fungus of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family and Ganoderma genus, it is commonly known as Ganoderma Lucidum, Red Ganoderma, or Chì Zhī (means Red Lingzhi Mushroom). Basidiocarp (fruiting body) is annual, petiolate, suberinite. The pileus (cap) is semicircle (semicircular) or reniform, 10–20 cm in diameter, the context of the pileus is 1.5–2 cm thick, the surface of pileus is brown yellow or russet (reddish-brown), the edges of pileus gradually turns faint yellow (pale yellow), has concentric ring patterns, slightly wrinkled or smooth, has a lacquer-like glossy, edges are slightly blunt. The context is creamy white (milky white), and the part near the fungus tube is hazel (pale brown). The fungus tube grows up to 1 cm long, 4~5 per 1 mm. The tube orifice is orbicular (subrotund), white at the initial stage, and later turns pale yellow or brown. The prosthecae (stipe) is cylindrical, pleurogenous, or slanting sideways, occasionally mesic. 10–19 cm long, 1.5–4 cm in diameter, and its color is similar to the color of pileus.

 The hyphae of the husk are rod-shaped, and the tip is swollen. The mycelial system is a three-body type: generative hypha is transparent, leptodermous (thin wall); skeletal hyphae are tawny (yellow brown), pachypleurous (thick wall), nearly farctate; binding hypha is colorless, pachypleurous (thick wall) and curved, all ramificate.

 The basidiospores are oval (egg-shaped), the tip is truncated, double wall, the outer wall is transparent, the inner wall is hazel (pale brown), has spinules, the size is (9–11) μm × (6–7) μm, the basidiocarp (fruiting body) matures in autumn, or matures in winter in the southern and southwest areas of China.

 Ganoderma lucidum Leyss.ex Fr. Karst.:cultivated mushrooms Ecological Environment: Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst grows in the sunny rhizosphere or dead tree stumps of plants in the Fagaceae family and Pinus genus of the Pinaceae family. This fungus species is distributed and widespread in China, but mainly in the southern region of the Yangtze River.

 Growth characteristics: Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst is a saprophyte fungus, as it can parasitize and grow on living trees, thus it is also known as a facultative fungus. Its growth temperature is 3~40 °C (Celsius, or 37.4~104 degrees Fahrenheit), and the optimal temperature for its growth is 26~28 °C (Celsius, or 78.8~82.4 degrees Fahrenheit). In the condition that the water content of the substrate approaches 200%, relative air humidity is 90%, and the pH value (potential of hydrogen) is 5~6, it grows well. Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst is an aerobic organism (aerobic fungus), the cultivation of encarpium (fruiting body) needs sufficient oxygen and scattered sunlight (diffused sunlight).

 Ganoderma lucidum is a mushroom, a higher-order organism in the world of fungi. It belongs to the Polypore group. Umbelliform (umbellated), with a semicircular, reniform, or suborbicular (subrotund) pileus is 10~18 cm wide, and 1~2 cm thick. The outer husk is hard, dull yellowish-brown to dull reddish-brown, lustrous, marked with annular (ring-like) ridges and radial wrinkles; the edge is thin and truncate (squared as if cut off), often slightly involute (rolling inwards). Gills on the underside of the pileus (cap) are white to light brown, consisting of innumerable tubules. The prosthecae (stipe) is lateral (grows on or at the side); 7~15 cm long, 1~3.5 cm in diameter; dull reddish-brown to dull purplish-brown; lustrous. Numerous spores, dull yellowish-brown spores in tubules. The mushroom is slightly fragrant and has a bitter and puckery taste.

 Lingzhi Mushroom Ganoderma Lucidum Fairy Grass Lingzhi is a hard, polypore, and mildly bitter mushroom. Polypores are conspicuous mushrooms that grow off the sides of trees. The actual mushroom organism, or mycelium, is a network of filiform (threadlike) filaments that originates from spores. The mycelium spreads throughout the nutrient base or substrate, amassing nutrients as it grows. They live in soil, logs, and other organic trash. As long as nutrients are available, the mycelium is perennial and will live for many years. At least once a year, mushrooms emerge from the mycelial network. As the reproductive organ of the fungus, mushrooms are the means by which spores are created and spread.

 Unlike green plants, which produce many of their nutrients through photosynthesis, mushrooms primarily get their nutrients from dead organic matter or soil. Mushrooms and their mycelium are nature's original recyclers. Without them, the planet's surface would be piled high with dead, decaying material.

 Mushrooms rise out of the mycelium when the right nutrients are amassed and the right environmental conditions are present. Mushrooms release spores at maturity. The wind spreads them, and when they land in the right spot, the cycle starts over again.

 Red Glossy Ganoderma:cultivated lingzhi mushrooms Polypores, commonly known as bracket or shelf fungi, are conspicuous mushrooms that grow off the sides of trees. On a walk through the forest, one can commonly see many such bracket mushrooms.

 What is not readily visible to us, however, is the actual mushroom organism, or mycelium. Just as an apple is the fruit of an apple tree, a mushroom is the fruiting body of a mycelial "tree". Mycelium is a network of filiform (threadlike) filaments that originates from spores. The mycelium spreads throughout the nutrient base or substrate, amassing nutrients as it grows. As long as environmental conditions are right, the mycelium will continue to grow and propagate until it exhausts the available nutrients.

 Red Ganoderma:photo of herb slices Characters of herbs: The encarpium (fruiting body) is umbelliform (umbellated), the pileus (cap) is firm and hard, suberinite, semicircular (semicircular) or reniform, 12–20 cm wide, and about 2 cm thick, the husk is hard and firm, yellow at the initial stage, gradually turns reddish-brown, glossy, with annular ridge lines and radial wrinkles, and the edges are thin and truncated, often slightly involute (rolled inward). The context is nearly white to hazel (pale brown); the context on the undersurface of the pileus (cap) is white to light brown, and consists of numerous fine tubular holes (fungus tube), the fungus tube has basidiopycnidium and basidiospores inside. The prosthecae (stipe) are pleurogenous, 19 cm long, and about 4 cm in diameter, its surface is russet (reddish-brown) to puce (purple-brown), with lacquer luster. The herb has a slight odor, and it has a mild taste.

(2).Ganoderma sinense Zhao,Xu et Zhang.


 Ganoderma sinense Zhao,Xu et Zhang.:Purple Ganoderma Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Zhī, or Zǐ Líng Zhī.
 English Name: Purple Ganoderma.
 Latin Name: Ganoderma sinense Zhao.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature or warm in nature, tastes sweet.
 Botanical description: Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang is a fungus of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family and Ganoderma genus, it is commonly known as Ganoderma sinense, or Purple Ganoderma, Purple Lingzhi Mushroom, or Zǐ Zhī (means Purple Lingzhi Mushroom), and is different from Ganoderma lucidum: the pileus (cap) of the Ganoderma sinense Zhao is mostly atropurpureus (purple-black) to near brown-black; the context is well-proportioned brown, bistre (seal brown) to chestnut brown; the spore tip is umbilical protuberant, protuberant spinules on the inner wall are conspicuous, spores are bigger; the size is (9.5–13.8) μm × (6.9–8.5) μm.

 The pileus (cap) is suberinite, mostly semicircle (semicircular) to reniform, a few are orbicular (subrotund), large mushroom is up to 20 cm in length and width, the size of general mushroom is 4.7 × 4 cm, the size of smaller mushroom are 2 × 1.4 cm, the surface is black, with laccate luster, with annular concentric rib lines and radial rib patterns. The context is rusty brown. The tube orifice of the fungus tube is the same color as the context, tube orifice is round, 5 per mm. The prosthecae (stipe) is pleurogenous, grows up to 15 cm long, is about 2 cm in diameter, black, and glossy. Spores are broadly ovoid, 10–12.5 × 7–8.5 um, and the inner wall is conspicuous verruculose.

 Ganoderma sinense Zhao,Xu et Zhang.:Purple Ganoderma Ecological Environment: Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang grows in tree stumps of broad-leaved trees, or tree stumps of Pinaceae family and Pinus genus, and causes white decay of wood, is a special species of China. This species is mainly distributed in high-temperature and rainy areas of the southern region of the Yangtze River, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River between the north of the Nanling mountains and the south of the Qinling mountains, the south area of the Nanling mountain, Hainan, Hong Kong, and the southern area of Taiwan. It is also distributed in the area of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan and the southeastern part of Xizang. It is also distributed to the area north of the Qinling Mountains to the Hinggan Mountains.

 Purple Ganoderma:photo of herb slices Characters of herbs: The encarpium (fruiting body) of Ganoderma sinense Zhao is similar to the encarpium of Ganoderma lucidum, the main differences are that the husk of the pileus (cap) and prosthecae (stipe) is atropurpureus (purple-black) or brown-black; the context and fungus tube below the pileus (cap) are rusty brown.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.sedative and analgesic effects on mice; ②.improve the cold tolerance and hypoxia tolerance of mice; ③.improve the survival rate of animals and help them to get through the extreme stage of radiation sickness and make the leucocytes recover earlier; ④.increase appetite and improve the mental state of irradiated animals; ⑤.reduce heart rate.

 Medicinal efficacy: Tonifying Qi and calm the nerves (relieve uneasiness of mind and body tranquilization), invigorating Qi and blood, invigorating spleen and stomach, relieving cough, and relieving asthma. It is indicated for restlessness (feel ill at ease, unsettled), insomnia and palpitation (lose sleep and heart-throb), insomnia (lose sleep, agrypnia), spiritlessness and  fatigue, dizziness, consumptive disease (consumptive syndromes), coronary disease (coronary heart disease), dyspepsia (indigestion), poor appetite (do not feel like eating), lung deficiency and cough and dyspnea (cough and dyspnea due to lung deficiency), cough, consumptive disease and shortness of breath, chronic cough and asthma, asthma, pneumosilicosis (silicosis, grinders' disease, blacklung), tumors (phymatosis), etc.

 Administration of Ganoderma Lucidium (Línɡ Zhī): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Ganoderma Lucidium (Línɡ Zhī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.Internally:prepare to finely ground herb powder,0.5~1 qian (about 1.5~3 gramns);or infusing in wine and take; ③.Internally:water decoction,10~15 grams;prepare to finely ground herb powder,2~6 grams;or infusing in wine.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Ganoderna Lucidium should better be combined with Linseed, Cinnamomum loureirii Nees, should not be combined with Antifeverile Dichroa Root, Azurite, Capillary Wormwood Herb.

(3).Ganoderma tsugae Murr.


 Ganoderma tsugae.:Woody Ganoderma Pin Yin Name: Sōng Zhī, or Sōng Shān Líng Zhī.
 English Name: Woody Ganoderma, or Pine Tree Lingzhi Mushroom
 Latin Name: Ganoderma tsugae Murr.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes bitter.
 Botanical description: Ganoderma tsugae Murr is a fungus of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family and Ganoderma genus, it is commonly known as Woody Ganoderma, Mu LingZhi, Sōng Zhī, Song Shan LingZhi, or Pine Tree Reishi (Sōng Zhī means Pine Tree Lingzhi Mushroom).

 The encarpium (fruiting body) is annual, petiolate, soft suberinite when it is fresh, and turns suberinite when it is dried, and weight obviously turns light. Its pileus (cap) is reniform, semicircle (semicircular) or nearly fan (fan-shaped), 3-25 cm in diameter, thickness is 0.8~3 cm, or up to 4 cm, the surface is russet (reddish-brown) or stained russet (stained reddish brown), has a lacquer-like luster, no annular zone or has an inconspicuous annular zone. The context is white or pale whitish, the part near the fungus tube is often hazel (pale brown). The fungus tube is 0.5-1.5 cm long, fawn colour (flavotestaceous) or darker, the pore surface is whitish at the initial stage, later gradually turns the same color as the fungus tube, tube orifice is slightly rounded, 4–5 fungus tubes per mm. The prosthecae is usually thick and short, in general, 4–5 cm long, 2–3 cm in diameter, atropurpureus (purple black), and has a stronger lustre.

 The husk structure is sporiferous layer type, generative hypha (generative hyphae) are colorless and transparent, leptodermous (thin wall), 3–5 μm in diameter; skeletal hyphae are hazel (pale brown), pachypleurous (thick wall) to farctate, arborizations (dendritic branching), the skeletal part is 4–7 μm in dry diameter, flagelliform colorless binding hypha is formed at the end tip of branches; binding hypha is pachypleurous (thick wall), ramificate, 1.5–2 μm in diameter.

 The basidiospores are elliptic, sometimes the tip is truncated, double wall, the outer wall is colorless and transparent, smooth, the inner wall is hazel (pale brown), has spinules, 7.5–11 × 6–7 μm.

 Ecological Environment: Ganoderma tsugae Murr mainly grows in the area at altitudes of 700~1,400 meters above sea level, in red pine broad-leaved mixed forest, coniferous mixed forest of fir, larch, red pine, spruce's cutting root, rotten wood, and larch tree stump, is an extremely rare and precious herb, it is mainly distributed in the cold temperate area of China. This species is mainly distributed in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, east northern areas, and other areas.

 Characters of herbs: The encarpium (fruiting body) is medium to large, and corky. The diameter of the pileus (cap) is 6.5~21 cm, semicircle (semicircular), is flat, and reniform, the surface is red, dark red, and brown-red, and the husk is bright and lacquer-like, has no ring lines or is inconspicuous, after aging, there are no conspicuous bands and irregular wrinkles, and the edges are ribbed and blunt. The context is wood color, 0.5~1.5 cm thick, the surface of the fungus tube is stained white (dirty white), gradually turns to tawny (cinnamomeous) and light brown, 4~5 tubules per ml (millimeter). The prosthecae (stipe) is 3~6 cm long, and 3~4 cm in diameter, short, and thick, the same color as the pileus (cap), glossy, pleurogenous, or oblique. The endosporium (endospore) is marked with small spines, brown, one end of some fungus is half truncated, and the exospore is colorless and transparent, oval (egg-shaped).

 Ganoderma tsugae.:Woody Ganoderma This species has functions to enhance immunity, inhibit tumors, promote liver detoxification, protect the cardiovascular system, soothe the nerves and brain, regulate the digestive system's function, moisten the lungs, and relieve asthma, anti-aging, and beauty effects.

 Modern studies have shown that Ganoderma tsugae or Pine Tree Reishi is rich in nutrients, containing essential amino acids, nucleosides, trace elements, vitamins, bioactive polysaccharides, triterpenoids, alkaloids, and is also a good source of essential fibers for maintaining health. Studies have shown that it has effects on hepatitis, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, neurasthenia, and other diseases, and has a significant effect on the three major lethal human diseases of coronary heart disease, cancer, and stroke.

 The polysaccharides are mainly composed of monosaccharide polymers and beta-D-glucan and other components with physiological activity, with effects such as antitumor, enhance immunity, antivirus, scavenging free radicals, anti-aging, anti-thrombosis, and anti-clotting.

 The triterpenoids are another active constituent isolated, experiments confirmed that Ganoderma triterpenoids could increase immunity rapidly, manifested in the promotion of lymphocyte proliferation, increased the phagocytic capacity of macrophages, NK cells, and T cells, and directly and indirectly kill tumor cells. Triterpenoids also have other effects on liver detoxification, anti-oxidation, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and herpes virus, inhibition of liver tumor cells, etc., it is the main basic substance of detoxification efficacy.

 The alkaloids show effects to improve coronary blood flow, reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, enhance myocardial and anti-hypoxia capacity, and lower cholesterol levels, which have a significant effect on coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatitis, and muscle weakness.

 The nucleosides are indispensable and important substances that make up DNA and RNA. They are extremely important materials for biological inheritance and information transmission. The nucleotide composition of adenosine, uridine, adenine, uracil, and other active constituents is the main basic substance of the anti-mutation function.

 Ganoderma tsugae.:Woody Ganoderma The amino acids constitute the basic unit of protein, an essential nutrient component of organisms, especially essential amino acids, that cannot be synthesized in the human body from in vitro intake, Ganoderma tsugae or Pine Tree Reishi fruiting body contains 18 kinds of amino acids, including essential amino acids, especially the low levels of methionine in edible fungi, whose average content is much higher than other edible fungi.

 Studies have shown that the Ganoderma tsugae fruiting body contains Mn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Se, Ge, and other trace elements, selenium, germanium, zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and other trace elements have a high content, it is reported that Ganoderma tsugae also contains boron, so Ganoderma tsugae is a treasure house of trace elements. Trace elements and other active substances have synergies, of which organic germanium is an anti-cancer substance, and Ganoderma tsugae polysaccharides' synergy in the inhibition of tumors can significantly increase the antitumor effect of the polysaccharide.

 Ganoderma tsugae also contains a lot of vitamins, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and its carotene content is high, with significant anti-oxidation, and anti-aging activity.
 
Other Species of Lingzhi mushroom.

 There are about 250 kinds of Fungus of the Ganoderma genus, in China, there are almost 98~100 species of fungus found to belong to the 4 genera, and Ganodermataceae family, they grow and spread from south to north.

 Mountain Field Other Cultivated Species of Lingzhi mushroom: Except for the species which defined and recommended by Common herbal classics, (1).Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss.ex Fr.)Karst., or (2).Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang. There are several other species of Ganoderma cultivated in China nowadays, they are known including species: (3).Ganoderma tsugae, (4).Ganoderma hainanense, (5).Ganoderma multiplicatum, (6).Ganoderma tenue, (7).Ganoderma atrum., (8).Ganoderma shandongense. These commonly cultivated species are introduced at:Lingzhi mushroom:Other Cultivated Species.more

 Other Identified Common Species of Lingzhi mushroom: Except the species which defined by Common herbal classics,(1).Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss.ex Fr.)Karst.,or (2).Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang. And those cultivated species of Ganoderma, (3).Ganoderma tsugae, (4).Ganoderma hainanense, (5).Ganoderma multiplicatum, (6).Ganoderma tenue, (7).Ganoderma atrum. There are some other identified wild species of the Lingzhi Mushrooms could be used, they are known commonly including species: (9).Ganoderma boninense, (10).Ganoderma calidophilum, (11).Ganoderma monglicum, (12).Ganoderma resinaceum, (13).Ganoderma valesiacum, (14).Ganoderma ahmadii, (15).Ganoderma capense, (16).Ganoderma tropicum, (17).Ganoderma duropora, (18).Ganoderma applanatum, (19).Ganoderma gibbosum, (20).Ganoderma lobatum, etc. These usable wild field species are introduced at:Lingzhi mushroom:Other Identified Common Species.more

 Other Identified Special Species of Lingzhi mushroom:Except for the species which defined by Common herbal classics, and those cultivated species of Ganoderma, and other identified wild species of the Lingzhi Mushrooms commonly species. There are other identified special species not commonly used. These special wild species are introduced as: (21).Ganoderma curtisii.(22).Ganoderma daiqingshanense,(23).Ganoderma flexipes,(24).Ganoderma kunmingense,(25).Ganoderma ramosissimum,(26).Ganoderma rotundatum,(27).Ganoderma sichuanense,(28).Ganoderma submubraculum,(29).Ganoderma theaecolum,(30).Ganoderma amboineuse,(31).Ganoderma austro fujianense,(32).Ganoderma cochlear,(33).Ganoderma crebrostriatum,(34).Ganoderma dahlia,(35).Ganoderma fornicatum,(36).Ganoderma fulvellum,(37).Ganoderma guinanense,(38).Ganoderma luteomarginatum,(39).Ganoderma magniporum,(40).Ganoderma mastoporum,(41).Ganoderma mediosinense,(42).Ganoderma mirivelutinum,(43).Ganoderma ochrolaccatum,(44).Ganoderma parviungulatum,(45).Ganoderma simaoense,(46).Ganoderma tibetanum,(47).Ganoderma chenghaiense,(48).Ganoderma tsunodae,(49).Ganoderma formosanum,(50).Ganoderma multplea,(51).Ganoderma australe,(52).Ganoderma sanmingense,(53).Ganoderma annulate,(54).Ganoderma bawanglingense,(55).Ganoderma brownie,(56).Ganoderma aensiionatum,(57).Ganoderma diaoluoshanense,(58).Ganoderma limushanense,(59).Ganoderma meijjaganse,(60).Ganoderma philipii,(61).Ganoderma shangsiense,(62).Ganoderma trianglatum,(63).Ganoderma nugntum,(64).Ganoderma koningsbergii. These special wild species are introduced at:Lingzhi mushroom:Other Identified Special Species.more
 

 
  

 

 QR codeURL QR code:
 URL QR-code 

 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Ling Zhi:Lucid Ganoderma or Ganoderma Lucidium.
  • 2.Lingzhi mushroom:Other Cultivated Species.
  • 3.Lingzhi mushroom:Other Identified Common Species.
  • 4.Lingzhi mushroom:Other Identified Special Species.

 Last edit and latest revision date:
   cool hit counter